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The Papers of 





Volume III: papers 80 to 116 

Published by 

The Heritage Lodge No. 730, 

A.F.&A.M., G.R.C., 


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Table of Contents 


0. Hon. Edward Cornwallis, Founder of Freemasonry in Halifax. 

(R. V. Harris), 1949 1 

1. The Masonic Stone of Port Royal, 1606. (R. V. Harris), 1949 13 

2. Freemasonry at the Siege of Quebec, 1759-60. (A. J.B. Milborne), 1950 31 

3. Thomas Douglas Harington, Citizen and Freemason. (L. F. Riggs), 1950. ... 49 

4. Early Freemasonry in the Canadian West. (W. Douglas), 1951 61 

5. Freemasonry in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. 

(E. Brakefield-Moore), 1951 76 

6. Chinese Freemasonry. (Rt. Rev. W.C. White), 1951 89 

7. Col. William James Bury MacLeod Moore. (R. V. Harris), 1951 96 

9. The Masonic Lodge in the 78th Regiment, Fraser's Highlanders. 

(A. J. B. Milborne), 1952 115 

11. Freemasonry in the Bay of Quinte District, Ontario. (O.G. Alyea), 1952. . . . 168 

12. The Hugh de Payens Preceptory No. 1, Kingston, Ontario. 

(R. V. Harris), 1952 189 

14. The Mural Paintings in the Montreal Masonic Memorial Temple. 

(A. J.B. Milborne), 1953 251 

15. The Life and Masonic Career of Joseph Brant. (Dr. G. Brett), 1953 273 

16. The Story of Royal Arch Masonry in Upper Canada, 1792-1858, Part 1. 

(R. V. Conover), 1953 281 

17. Sir William Campbell, Chief Justice of Upper Canada, 1826-29. 

( W. C. Coulter), 1953 301 

18. H.R.H. Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent. (R.V.Harris), 1953 308 

19. The Masonic Career of Sir John A. MacDonald. (Dr. L. F. Riggs), 1953. . . . 333 

20. Erasmus James Philipps, Founder of Freemasonry in Canada. 

(Hon. J. Doull), 1954 337 

21. Hon. Alexander Keith, Ruler of the Craft in Nova Scotia, 1839-73. 

(R. V. Harris), 1954 352 

22. Early Freemasonry in Ontario. (J.J. Talman Ph.D.), 1954 369 

23. A Hundred Years Under the Grand Lodge of Canada in Ontario, 

1855-1955. (R. S. Foley), 1954 381 

24. A Brief History of Geoffrey de St. AJdemar Preceptory, Sovereign Great 
Priory of Canada, 1854-1954. (C.E. Wells), 1954 395 

25. Thomas Gibbs Ridout, Freemason, 1792-1861. (J.E. Taylor), 1955 417 

26. History of Capitular Masonry in Quebec. (A. J.B. Milborne), 1955 429 

27. The History of the Sovereign Great Priory of Canada, Knights Templar, 
1855-1905. (R.V. Harris), 1955 .' 449 

28. Bow River Lodge No. 1, Calgary, Alberta. (F.J. Hand), 1955 505 

29. A Brief History of the Grand Lodge of Alberta, 1905-55. (S. Harris), 1955. 515 

30. Royal Arch Masonry in Upper Canada Before 1858, Part II. 

(R. V. Conover), 1955 521 

31. Freemasonry in Canada Before 1750. (R. V. Harris), 1955 549 

32. Rev. John Beardsley, Founder of Freemasonry in New Brunswick, 
1732-1809. (R. V. Harris), 1956 574 

33. Early Masonry in New Brunswick. (A. S. Robinson), 1956 585 

34. Sir William Johnson, Bart, 1715-74. (Col. J. R. Case), 1956 595 

35. Sir John Johnson, Bart, 1742-1830. (A. J. B. Milborne), 1956 600 

36. Historical Sketch of Freemasonry in Saskatchewan. (R. A. Tate), 1957. . . . 609 

37. A History of the Early Days of Freemasonry in British Columbia. 

(W. G. Gamble), 1957 625 

38. Sir Allan Napier MacNab, Bart, Grand Master, Provincial Grand Lodge, 

A. F. & A. M. of Canada, under England, 1845-57 (W. J. Shaw), 1957 665 


39. The History of the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish 

Rite in Canada, Part I, 1868-1924. (R. V. Harris), 1957 683 

40. The Correspondence between the Supreme Grand Chapter of England and 

the Grand Chapter of Canada, 1857-62. (R. V. Conover), 1957 747 

42. Hon. Jonathan Belcher, Chief Justice of Nova Scotia 1754-76, Provincial 

Grand Master of Nova Scotia, 1760-76. (Hon. J. Doull), 1958 769 

44. Freemasonry in Old Canada and the War of 18 12-1 5. (J. E.Taylor), 1958. . 781 

45. The Great William Morgan Mystery. (R. V. Harris), 1958 799 

46. Freemasonry at the Two Sieges of Louisbourg, 1745 and 1758. 

(R. V. Harris, Col. J. R. Case and A. J. B. Milborne), 1958 811 

47. The Story of the Elgin Lodge and other Scottish Lodges in the Province 

of Quebec. (F. M. Driscoll), 1959 869 

48. The Irish Civilian Lodges in Canada, 1820-88. (R. V. Harris), 1959 881 

49. History of (Sion) Zion Lodge No. 21, F. & A.M. at Kingston and Sussex, 
N.B., 1792-1959. (R.T. Pearson), 1959 915 

50. The Story of Hiram Lodge No. 17, St. John, N.B., 1784-98. 

(R. V. Harris), 1959 927 

51. Captain Thompson Wilson and Early Freemasonry in London, Ontario. 

(J.J. Talman), 1959 945 

52. Canadian Influence on Early Michigan Masonry. 

( J. F. Smith and C. Fey), 1959 957 

53. William Mercer Wilson. (C.J. L. Lawer), 1960 973 

54. George Canning Longley and his 300 Degrees. (R. V. Harris), 1960 983 

55. An Outline History of Freemasonry in Prince Edward Island, 1758-1958. 

(R. A. Gordon), 1960 993 

57. William Jarvis, First Provincial Grand Master of Upper Canada. 

(J.L. Runnalls), 1961 1023 

58. The Merchants' Lodges, Quebec. (A. J. B. Milborne), 1961 1037 

59. John Ross Robertson, Freemason. (J.E. Taylor), 1961 1065 

61. The Beginnings of Freemasonry in the City of St. Catharines, Ontario. 

(M.J. McComb), 1961 1073 

62. Niagara Lodge No. 2, G.R.C.O., Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario's Pioneer 
Lodge. (J. L. Runnalls), 1961 1097 

63. Daniel Spry, 1835-97. (R.A. W. Stewart), 1962 1131 

64. Sir John Morison Gibson, K.C.M.G., LL.D., K.C. 1842-1929. 

(J. L. Runnalls), 1962 1151 

65. Augustus Toplady Freed, Grand Master, 1835-1924. (E.F. Greer), 1962. . . 1161 

66. John Graves Simcoe: Freemason, Soldier, Statesman. (R. V. Harris), 1962. 1 167 

67. Immortality and Freemasonry. (Archbishop W.L. Wright), 1962 1 177 

68. The Founding Fathers of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba. (W. Douglas), 1963. 1 183 

69. The History of Kinistino Lodge No. 1,G.R.S. (R. Mayson), 1963 1195 

70. John Walter Murton, Architect of the Scottish Rite in Canada. 

(M. J. McComb), 1963 1221 

71. Fables, Fallacies and Fictions Respecting Freemasonry. (R.V. Harris), 1963. 1229 

72. The First Fifty Years of Perfection Lodge No. 9, Calgary, Alberta, 1 895-1945. 

(F. Parker), 1963 1243 

73. Loyalist Masons of the Mohawk Valley. (E.F. Dougherty), 1963 1251 

74. Kipling and Freemasonry. (R.A. Gordon), 1963 1263 

75. Godfrey de Bouillon Preceptory No. 3, Hamilton, Ontario. 

(R. V. Harris), 1964 1275 

76. Colonel John Butler: Soldier, Loyalist, Freemason, 1725-96. 

(W. W. MacDonald), 1964 1303 

77. The Coloured Man in Freemasonry. (J. L. Runnalls), 1964 1329 

78. Select Surveyors' Lodge and the Prevost Lodges, Quebec. 

(A. J. B. Milborne), 1965 1345 

79. American Masonic Roots in British Military Lodges. (Col. J. R. Case), 1965. 1393 


80. William James Dunlop, First President, CM. R.A. (R.S. Foley), 1965. . . . 1403 

81. Making a Mason at Sight. (G.R. Sterling and J. L. Runnalls), 1966 1457 

82. Thomas Bird Harris, First Grand Secretary, Grand Lodge of Canada, 
1819-74. (J.E. Taylor), 1966 1473 

83. Simon McGillivray, Canadian Merchant and Fur Trader, Second Provincial 
Grand Master of Upper Canada, 1783-1840. (J.E. Taylor), 1966 1481 

84. Plantagenet Preceptory No. 8, St. Catharines, 1866-1966. (E. F. Greer), 1966. 1497 

85. Sussex Preceptory No. 9, Sherbrooke, Quebec, 1867-1967. 

(J. R. Beattie), 1966 1523 

86. The Story of Lodge "Glittering Star" No. 322 (Irish), 1759-1966, and The 
Beginning of Knight Templary in Canada. (R. V. Harris), 1966 1545 

87. The Grand Lodges of Canada, an Overview of Their Formation. 

(C.C. Martin), 1967 1557 

88. Cariboo Gold: the Story of Cariboo Lodge No. 469, S.R., and Cariboo 
Lodge No. 4, B.C.R. (J.T. Marshall), 1967 1577 

89. Masonry in the Centennial Setting. (Hon. D. M. Fleming), 1967 1627 

90. Rev. Silas Huntington, The Apostle to the North, 1829-1905. 

(J. L. Runnalls and J. W. Pilgrim), 1967 1643 

92. Prophets and Builders. (Rev. W.G. Martin D.D.), 1967 1661 

93. The First Masonic Lodges in Newfoundland. (R. V. Harris), 1967 1669 

94. Joseph Richard Seymour, Founder of Scottish Rite Masonry and Royal 
Order of Scotland in British Columbia. (E. F. Greer), 1967 1685 

95. Clarence MacLeod Pitts, Freemason. (E. F. Greer), 1968 1693 

96. The Schism of 1878 in the Grand Lodge of Manitoba. 

(D. M. Silverberg), 1969 1707 

97. (a) Reginald Vanderbilt Harris, a Tribute (R.E. Emmett), 1969. 
(b) A brief History of the Canadian Masonic Research Association. 

(J. L. Runnalls), 1969 1721 

98. The Masonic Premiers of Manitoba. (R. E. Emmett), 1970 1733 

99. Rituals in Canadian Masonic Jurisdictions. (J.E. Taylor), 1970 1743 

100. The Development of the Ritual. (J. Morosnick), 1971 1757 

101. Edward Ainslie Braithwaite, M.D., L.M., C.C., Pioneer Physician and 
Freemason of the West. (O. P. Thomas), 1971 1769 

102. The Masonic Premiers of Ontario, 1867-1971. (J. L. Runnalls), 1971 1781 

103. History of Golden Rule Lodge No. 4, Stanstead, Quebec, 1813-69. 

(E. Gustin), 1972 1797 

104. Freemasonry at Kingston, Upper Canada, 1781-1850. (J.E. Taylor), 1972. 1817 

105. The Cryptic Rite of Freemasonry in Canada; Hon. Robert Marshall; James 
Bower Nixon. (C. E. Rich), 1972 1837 

106. James Fitzgibbon, Deputy Grand Master, Provincial Grand Lodge of 

Upper Canada, 1822-26. (C. E. Rich), 1973 1861 

107. Dr. Peter Martin, M.D., Oronhyatekha. (C. E. Rich), 1973 1874 

108. Freemasonry on the Miramichi. (J.D.S. Ullock), 1973 1885 

109. (a) The Mark Degree. (R.J. Meekren), 1973. 

(b) Robert J. Meekren - In Memoriam, (A.J.B. Milborne), 1973. 

(c) A Mark Mason's Lodge in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, 

1828-49. (R. A. Gordon), 1973 1901 

110. Lt. Col. Israel Wood Powell, M.D., CM., Physician, Statesman, 
Freemason, 1836-1915. (J. L. Runnalls), 1974 1915 

111. A Short History of Royal Arch Masonry in Nova Scotia. (R. V. Harris, ed. 

E. L. Eaton), 1974 1929 

1 12. Loyalist Masons in the Maritimes. (A. J. B. Milborne), 1974 1955 

113. The University Lodge. (C. W. Booth), 1974 1997 

1 14. A Hundred Years of Freemasonry in Manitoba. (R. E. Emmett), 1975 2017 

115. Reminiscences in Research. (J. E. Taylor), 1975 2023 

1 16. Masonic Publications in Canada. (G. Robinson and J. L. Runnalls), 1976. 2031 

•$•> — ■» — •« — ■■ — >• — ■• — ■< — ■• — •• — «■ — «■ — ■■ — ■■ — ■■ — »■ — ■■ — •■ — •■ — •• — •■ — ■« — ■• — ■■ — •■ — » •{• 

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No. 80 








Read at the 42nd. meeting of the Association, held at J 

Toronto, May 12, 1965 

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I§»1 ■■ M ■■ ■■ ■ ■■ ■ ■ M W— W ■» M ■■■■■■■ W ■■ — W M M H j 

— 1403— 


"Let us now p raise famous men" 

A Brief Biography 

Roy S. Foley 

— 1404- 

William James Dunlop 
1881 - 1961 

— 1405— 


In the preparation of this brief biography of William James 
Dunlop, I have had access to what our Toronto Reference Library, 
the University of Toronto Library, the Reference Library at the 
Education Centre of the Board of Education on College St., the 
Legislative Library, the Reference Library of the College of Education, 
the Library of the Canadian Association of Adult Education, and the 
Grand Lodge Library at the Yonge St. Temple have had to offer. I 
have consulted the Reports of the Presidents of the University of 
Toronto during the years 1920-1951; the Reports of the Minister of 
Education during the years 1950-1963; and the Debates in the Legis- 
lature on Educational policy during 1950-1960. I have consulted all 
the newspaper clippings on William James Dunlop in the files of the 
Toronto Globe and Mail, the Toronto Daily Star, the Kingston Whig- 
Standard, and the St. Catharines' Standard. Mrs. W. J. Dunlop has 
supplied me with much very useful material, especially the history of 
the Dunlop and Freel families. In addition to many interviews 
graciously granted me by Mrs. Dunlop and Dr. Dunlop's sister, Miss 
Marion Dunlop, I have communicated with all members of the 
Dunlop family and have had interviews with many in Church, in 
Masonry, in Government, and in Education. 

Both Mrs. Dunlop and Miss Marion Dunlop have read the com 
plete manuscript. Miss Dorothy Milner, Dr. Dunlop's secretary in 
the University Extension office, has read and checked the accuracy 
of the portion bearing on Extension work; and Miss Nora Hodgins, 
Secretary of the Ontario Teachers' Federation, has checked the portion 
dealing with Dr. Dunlop as Minister of Education. Dr. James Talman, 
Librarian at the University of Western Ontario, has read the com- 
pletely revised manuscript and I am grateful for his comments and 

Toronto, Ontario n.S.F. 

April 15, 1965. 

Copyright, Canada, 1966 by The Author 

— 1406— 


The Formative Years 

On the 24th of June, 1881, the home of Rev. James Cochrane 
Dunlop and his wife, Agnes Freel Dunlop, in the village of Durham, 
Ontario, was gladdened by the arrival of a first born child. To this 
new arrival they gave the name of William James. Unwittingly this 
little lad was to be the pathfinder, pioneering the way for eight other 
children, two boys and six girls. The lad, William, after he had 
emerged from his swaddling clothes, had divested himself of rompers, 
and had assumed a boy's and man's estate, came to have many desig- 
nations: in the home has was called Will; at school, his school mates 
dubbed him Bill, and Bill he remained through life for his cronies 
and intimate friends; later in life in more formal circles he was 
addressed as Mr. or Dr. Dunlop; among those who practise the mystic 
art, he was Most Worshipful Brother Dunlop; during the last ten years 
of his life he was officially Honourable Dr. Dunlop. But to thousands 
in Ontario and beyond he was referred to simply as W.J.; and these 
two letters always carried with them an unmistakable connotation 
of friendship, of warm affection, and of admiration. In the course 
of this narrative, we shall be referring to him in one or more of these 
various ways. 

Although W. J. Dunlop's speech would never betray his racial 
origin, he was a Scot through and through. As far back as the family 
historian has been able to trace his lineage, and the line goes back a 
long way, all his forebears were of good industrious Scottish stock. 

The paternal grandparents, James Dunlop, from the rich farm 
lands about Haddington on the Tyne in East Lothian, Scotland, and 
the wife, Cochrane Richardson Dunlop, originally from Newblyth, 
had come to Canada in 1833 during the great Scottish migration and 
had settled on a farm in the primeval forest on the banks of the Rideau 
near Manotick, a few miles from the emerging City of Ottawa. Here 

— 1407— 

in a humble log cabin on the 26th of February, 1846, the father of 
William James was born, James Cochrane Dunlop. The mother of 
William James or W.J. was a Freel and the Freels were settled at 
Stewarton in Ayrshire not far from the Burns country. The Freels, 
too, joined in the Scottish exodus, the father preceding the mother 
and her two daughters by a year or so, settled for a couple of years 
in Montreal and then proceeded westward up the Ottawa and settled 
at Fitzroy Harbour on the Ottawa River not far from Arnprior, where 
the father pursued his trade as stone mason and his hobby as expert 
gardener and won for himself a reputation as "a good honest man". 1 

Meantime James Cochrane Dunlop had been attending the local 
rural school on the Rideau, working on the home farm, attending a 
grammar school in Ottawa, and coming to manhood. He did not 
remain on the farm, but tried banking for a time, and then finally 
turned his thoughts to the ministry. Curiously he forsook the faith 
of his fathers and of Calvin and John Knox and became a student at 
the Woodstock Baptist College. It was while serving his probation 
as a student minister that he somehow met for the first time Agnes 
Freel, the eldest of the Freel children, at Fitzroy Harbour. Their 
paths kept crossing and re-crossing; and then there were canoe trips 
on the river at Fitzrov Harbour. There was mutual attraction: he was 
thirty-four, a thick-set man, with a strong face, a broad bewhiskered 
chin, keen merry eyes, and a mouth straight but not hard or close- 
lipped; she was twenty-six, of medium height, lithe and erect, trimly 
dressed, and with dark penetrating eyes. Years later this James Coch- 
rane used to tell the children with a twinkle in his eye and in the 
hearing of Agnes that when he used to take her canoeing and watched 
her intently in the bow of the canoe so straight and quiet he was sure 
that she would make a good manager and a fine wife for a minister. 
And later still, their son, W.J., corroborated this discerning judgment 
of the father with these words: "She was an ideal wife for a minister." 
The two were married on the 8th of September, 1880, at Fitzroy 

Following the marriage, the two moved to Durham where the 
student minister was ordained and he began his active ministry in 
Durham on a yearly stipend of $600, one-third of which was provender 

— 1408— 

for the horse, food for the family, and firewood for the stove. They 
remained seven years in Durham, and during that time occupied three 
different houses, moves made necessary probably by the increasing 
family, for during that time three children were born. Then in the 
latter part of 1886 or early 1887, the family moved to a rented farm 
in the township of Bentinck, near the village of Aberdeen, and some 
four or five miles from Durham. For the first year of this farm life, 
the husband took a pastoral charge down east at Almonte, but the 
wife and children remained behind on the farm. This was probably 
a wise venture, for the $75 annual rent was more than recovered by the 
sale of crops taken off by the neighbours; and furthermore the children 
now had a range over which to play and exercise and soak in the fresh 
air and sunshine, and the rare privilege and joy of attending a one- 
roomed rural school, a privilege now to be denied all Ontario school 
children. During this three-year stay on the rented farm, two more 
children were born; now there was a family of five young children 
and two adults. 

W.J. made his acquaintance with the Bentinck little one-roomed 
rural school when he was seven and after moving to the farm. It was 
not the typical red brick, but stone; and either then or at a later date 
it was rough coated with cement and painted white. In this little 
school he was to be taught by none other than the elder brother of Dr. 
Sam Beatty, who is now Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at the 
University of Toronto and Ex-Chancellor of the University. 

In 1891, when the lad was ten, the family moved to Stayner, a 
village with a population of 900 or 1000, and there occupied a house 
on Montreal St., a white frame house that is still standing. It was in 
this house that the remaining four children were born, and it was in 
Stayner that W.J. completed his elementary education. 

Those early years had a profound influence on the boy. The three 
important factors affecting him were the home and its associations, 
the church and religious instruction, and the rural and village school. 
The home had ever been a joyous and exciting experience, a place in 
which the bond between parents and children and among the children 
was very close and precious. It was during these early years especially 
that the mother's rare gifts of Scottish thrift and careful management 

— 1409— 

were put to the test. Despite the meagre $600 stipend of the father, 
there somehow was always enough and to spare; nothing was ever 
bought on credit; no bills ever went unpaid; and the children were 
always clothed and fed. It was a home of plain living and high think- 
ing; the children were ever reminded of the proud and independent 
spirit of the Ayrshire bard: 

"What though on namely fare we dine, 
Wear hoddin grey an* a' that? 
Gie fools their silks and knaves their wine, 
A Man's a man for a' that." 2 

And yet although the fare may have been "namely", the home of the 
Dunlop family was always open house; never did they sit down to a 
meal without the extra plate or two and extra food for the unexpected 
visitor. This was the transplanted Scottish hospitality. W.J. has drawn 
back the curtain and given us a peep into this domestic scene in two 
long poems which he composed, the one commemorating his mother's 
seventieth birthday on the 8th of October, 1924; and the other, his 
father's seventy-eighth birthday on the twenty-sixth of February, 

"There were six girls and only three boys, 
And her poor head ached with their awful noise. 
But she counted this only as one of her joys 
As she cooked and washed and toiled. 

Our Mother. 

"The boys were fine for moving stoves 
And going downtown to buy Paw cloves; 
And she had to bake for them many loaves 
And keep all the clothes mended. 

Our Mother." 

And while the mother was washing and baking, darning and mending, 
and supervising the numerous brood, where was poor Paw and what 
was he doing? 

"All morning long in his study he sat, 

While the boys had a shot at the old man's hat; 

But our poor Paw only laughed at that. 

Our Father. 

— 1410— 

"He saved his money with scrupulous care; 

He put on Luby to save his hair; 

He never used whip on horse or mare. 

Our Father." 3 

Such was the Victorian home of W.J. 

The influence of the church and religious instruction was lasting 

too. Although the Dunlops were now Baptists, they were still at 

heart adherents of the Auld Scottish Kirk with its strict observance 

of the Sabbath and its severe sense of right and wrong. "The Cotter's 

Saturday Night" presents the picture truly: 

"Their master's and their mistress's command 

The jonkers a' are warned to obey; 

And mind their labors with an eyedent hand, 

And ne'er tho' out of sight to jauk or play; 

And O! be sure to fear the Lord alway, 

And mind your duty, duly morn and night; 

Lest in temptation's path ye gang astray. 

Implore His counsel and assisting might; 

They never sought in vain that sought the Lord aright." 4 

W.J. tells us that his mother never became implicated in church 
squabbles, never spoke ill of her neighbours, and carefully impressed 
upon the children the evil of idle gossip. In brief moments of leisure, 
particularly Sunday evenings, when the husband and the older children 
were away at church, she gathered the rest about her and told them 
Bible stories and recited or sang to them the old familiar hymns. And 
what of poor Paw? 

"He preached in country, he preached in town, 
With sturdy voice and mighty frown. 
The good he sent up and the bad he sent down. 

Our Father. 

"He told them all of the fine sheep farm, 
Where they could go if they did no harm; 
And there they'd be safe from all alarm. 

Our Father." 5 

In this home where there were so many evidences of prudence 
and mutual understanding, ol love and wisdom, it would appear that 
the influence of the mother was predominant. It was her first and chief 
desire that the children should be educated and become teachers. 

— 1411 — 

The dream was almost realized, for eight of them entered the noble 
profession and quitted themselves with distinction. But one, true to 
a Scottish tradition of safeguarding other people's money, entered the 
banking business and at nineteen became a bank manager. 

What of this third influence upon the lad W.J., that of the little 
one-roomed rural school and the small rural village school? What 
was there about them that made the mature W.J. look back to them 
with nostalgic longing and which distressed him when he witnessed 
their disappearance? It is true that there were not in them any star 
spangled ceilings, no brightly tinted walls, no green disappearing 
blackboards, no indirect lighting, no thermostatically controlled 
temperatures, no air conditioning, no mobile desks. But there was 
a common water pail and from it everyone drank with the common 
dipper. This Bentinck school was a model of egalitarian and demo- 
cratic principles. There were certainly no escalators taking the good, 
bad, and indifferent non-stop and effortlessly up from the lowest grade 
to the topmost grade and out into the busy world, each bearing his or 
her little O.U.S. identification card. At the Bentinck school and the 
Stayner school the pupils worked; they competed and proved their 
mettle; and strange to say there were no resulting complexes. It is 
likewise true that these two schools had no organized sports; never 
were there half holidays with bleachers full of bellowing on-lookers 
watching a score of uniformed players. At Bentinck and Stayner they 
were all in the games, such as they were: hide and seek, two old cat, 
kick the stick, pomp-pomp-pull-away, shinney on the pond, snow 
balling, bull in the barnyard, and sliding downhill on a shingle. Those 
were the sports that made the blood of boys and girls tingle and 
whetted their appetites. 

And what of the fare within the school? Today we are told by 
those whose only knowledge of the rural school has been gained in an 
eight-cylinder car speeding by at seventy-five miles an hour that the 
fare was nothing but "readin', 'ritin', and 'rithmetic, taught to the 
tune of a hickory stick." It was nothing of the kind; it was a banquet 
full of vitamins. That is not to say that the fare offered by the rural 
school at the turn of the century should be the fare for the schools 
in the highly complex industrialized society of 1965 with its radios 


and television, its automobiles and aeroplanes, its intercontinental 
missiles and its automation. But it was a fare that prepared the 
students for the kind of society into which they were to enter; and 
there were in that fare basically good elements which W.J. rightly 
insisted must not be denied to the students entering our bewilderingly 
complex society. 

In 1894 at the age of 13, W.J. wrote and passed his Entrance 
Examination and that marked the end of six years of schooling and 
the end of his elementary education. 


Years of Testing and Apprenticeship 

The next three years, 1894-1897, he spent in the Continuation 
School in Stayner, where he was successful in obtaining his Junior 
Leaving Part 1 Certificate. That would have qualified him for the 
short three months' course in a Model School. But it would appear 
that the Dunlops had their sights set higher, thinking probably that 
the boy might by-pass public school teaching and succeed at Univer- 
sity; for during the next three years, 1897-1900, we find him enrolled 
as a student at the Collingwood Collegiate Institute, some ten miles 
away from Stayner. At that time ten miles was not a ten or fifteen 
minute jaunt but rather an hour and a half or two hours journey. 
There were few bicycles, no motor cars, motor cycles, or buses. Ten 
miles was too far to walk and too far to drive every day. So on Monday 
mornings, bright and early, rain or shine, warm or cold, the father 
took the boy by buggy or cutter to a little half-way junction point of 
the railway and the highway and there the lad mounted a hand car 
or jigger and helped pump his way into Collingwood where he roomed 
and boarded for the remainder of the school week. Then on Friday 
after school he made the same trip in reverse. It was a tough price to 
pay for an education; but to the Dunlops, education was a precious 
commodity and they did not begrudge the price. 

Collingwood was a good school and Bill Dunlop was a good 
student. In 1900 he got his Honour Matriculation Part II standing. 
The parents must have been well satisfied with his ability and his 


industry, for the next year he was down in Toronto, registered at the 
University of Toronto in the Honour Modern Languages Course. He 
did exceedingly well in the spring examinations, sufficiently well to 
warrant a near brilliant or a least a highly creditable career at the 
university. But unfortunately the father's stipend of $600 could not 
stretch sufficiently to keep him at university and at the same time 
clothe, feed, and educate eight other children. Anyway at this time, 
in 1901, the family moved to Clinton, and now we find Bill enrolled 
in the Clinton Model School for the three months' course in the autumn, 
a course which would qualify him as teacher in a rural one-roomed 
school with a third class certificate. 

So in January of 1902, we find him beginning his first professional 
duties as teacher in the Hullett Township School, School Section No. 
7, not very far from Clinton. The contract with the Board was dated 
the 23rd of November, 1901, and was signed by the teacher, W. J. 
Dunlop, and the three trustees, J. Brigham, N. Saundercock, and 
William Brown. By this contract the trustees agreed to "employ 
W. J. Dunlop as the teacher of our school at the yearly rate of $325" 
and "to pay such salary half-yearly." The teacher agreed among other 
important duties "to sweep the school and light the fires." 1 W.J. was 
quite proud of his little school and equally proud of his boarding house 
and landlady, Mrs. Eliot, for one day he brought his little six-year old 
sister, Marjorie, on the handle bars of his bicycle to spend a whole day 
with her. But although he spent a happy year at the Hullett School, 
teaching in a rural school at $325 a year was not altogether to his 
liking. He dreamed of better things. In January of 1903, he enrolled 
in the Clinton High School, one of the great schools of the Province 
in those days, and in six short months he was able to take successfully 
his Senior Leaving Parts 1 and 2 in the five required subjects: English, 
Latin, mathematics, science, and history. That was no easy hurdle to 
clear in six months. The only information that we have of this brief 
schooling in the Clinton High School is from one of the six students in 
that Senior Leaving Class with W.J. He recalled him as not a particu- 
larly robust lad, but rather tall and fairly slight; a good student, well 
liked by teachers and students, a whiz at physics, for whenever any of 
the other students had unsolved problems, W.J. always had the 

— 1414— 

answer. He recalled, too, one particular extra-curricular activity, a 
mock parliament, in which W.J. participated as leader of the opposi- 
tion; but whether he uncovered any pipe line scandals or mafia infiltra- 
tions into the government we have no knowledge. Anyway that was 
his one and only experience in politics for many a long day. 

Getting his full Senior Leaving standing was for W.J. a high step 
up. In September of 1903 he registered in the Ontario Normal College 
in Hamilton for the one-year teacher's training course. We have no 
record of his having found it the barren and dismal year that C. B. 
Sissons had experienced; 2 but we do know that at the Annual Oratorical 
Contest held in the Assembly Hall of the Hamilton Collegiate Insti- 
tute on the 28th of April, 1904, W. J. Dunlop delivered an oration on 
"The Place of Canada in the British Empire." 3 That training and good 
teaching gained him his Interim First Class Certificate, dated the 6th 
of July, 1904, and signed by the Registrar, W. H. Jenkins, B.A., and 
by the Minister of Education, R. Harcourt, a certificate made perman- 
ent two years later. 4 It was at this juncture that W.J. told his father 
that mindful of the others yet to be educated he would henceforth 
paddle his own canoe. That was good evidence of thoughtfulness, 
self-reliance, and courage. Not only did he do that, but once he was 
a full fledged teacher, he also assumed much of the responsibility for 
the education of the younger members of the family, taking them into 
his home at his own expense, after he was married, so that they might 
attend Normal, or the Faculty of Education, or McMaster University. 
And what is more, he sent money to his mother every month, as 
regular as clock work, until her death in 1932. Nor was his interest 
restricted to his mother and sisters, for he continued to be interested 
in the education of his nieces and nephews, paying for their school 
fees and their music lessons. 

This First Class Certificate brought him the principalship of the 
Tavistock Public and Continuation School, where he presided accept- 
ably for three years, 1904 to 1907. Very soon he made up his mind that 
he could not win the battle of life alone. Consequently on the 18th of 
July, 1905, at the age of twenty-four, he married the sweetheart of his 
boyhood days, Mary Gillespie, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Duncan 


Gillespie of Stayner. She and Will had found their mutual attraction 
during the Stayner days and in the church where James Cochrane 
Dunlop preached and where Mr. Gillespie was a deacon. 

W.J., now a married man, began casting about for a school with 
better financial rewards than those at Tavistock. To Peterborough 
King Edward Public School he went in September of 1907 where he 
served for one year as Principal; and evidently he served with striking 
success, for he caught the attention of the Department of Education of 
the Provincial Government. He was now given the Principalship of 
the Queen Alexandra Normal-Model School in Peterborough in Sep- 
tember of 1908 and this position he held until December of 1910. Three 
things of significance in these three years at Peterborough are to be 
noted: he was initiated into Peterborough Masonic Lodge on the 30th 
of October, 1908, at the age of twenty-seven; he began the first of the 
three years of extra-mural work with Queen's University, attending 
the summer sessions during the last two years; he allied himself along 
with his wife with the Murray St. Baptist Church and was made Super- 
intendent of the Sunday School. When he left Peterborough and the 
Church at the end of 1910, this is the testimonial that was given him 
by the Sunday School : 

"As teachers, officers, and scholars of Murray St. Baptist Sunday School, 
we wish to express to you our very hearty appreciation of your services. 
Since your appointment on Oct. 1, 1907, we have enjoyed your unremitted 
attention to our interests. Under your direction our sessions have been 
characterized by promptness, system and order. You have gathered 
about you new and valuable workers, as teachers and officers, and have 
won by your strong brotherly manner, the fullest confidence and co- 
operation of our whole School. Your ability as a professional man has 
been recognized, as evidenced by the Board of Education of our city, 
and now the Department of Education has appointed you to a respons- 
ible position in the principal city of our Province. We congratulate you 
upon your success, and are thankful that we have had the benefit of your 
guidance in the spiritual work of leading the youth to devote their lives 
to Christ. We have no doubt that your talent will still be exercised in 
larger spheres for Him who is our Lord and Master. We are thankful 
for the co-operation of Mrs. Dunlop in the Sunday School and shall never 
know how much we owe to her for the work accomplished. And now 
we ask you to accept this Hall Clock, which bears our inscription." 5 


And to this day in the hall of the Dunlop home at No. 1 Elmsthorpe 
Ave., this same grandfather's clock keeps accurately ticking off the 
minutes and the hours. 

On December 1st, 1910, W.J. received an appointment as a 
teacher at the University of Toronto Schools on the recommendation 
of Dean Pakenham, a shrewd "picker of men"; and he began his 
duties at the beginning of the New Year. The nine years spent at 
U.T.S. were for W.J. most important years. They were years in which 
his teaching powers ripened and his teaching techniques became 
more sharply and clearly defined. They were years in which he became 
engaged in a variety of activities and undertakings which brought 
him into contact with a wide range of people and which tested his 
powers of judgment, of organizing and managing. They were years 
which quite unsuspectingly prepared him for far richer and more 
extensive services in the near future. As a teacher in the elementary 
school at U.T.S. , we have the observations of at least one of his 
colleagues and one of his ex-students. To this colleague, W.J. was a 
"teacher of the old school", firm in his discipline and thorough in his 
teaching; he liked young people and he loved teaching, for to him 
teaching was not just a job but a kind of mission. The former student, 
looking back through the mist of the years had this memory of him: 
"one of the kindest men that it has been my privilege to know"; "un- 
doubtedly a great teacher, but on the top of all this, he was a great 
gentleman." A few years later in the early twenties after he had left 
U.T.S., he contributed to The School, an educational journal for 
teachers, a series of articles on teaching techniques for inexperienced 
teachers. Here are some of the sage sayings of this young man: 

'Techniques I take to mean that careful attention to detail, that skill 
in manipulation, that tactful diplomacy, that unobtrusive, carefully con- 
cealed punctiliousness in little matters which make the school, the class- 
room, and the lesson, go smoothly and effectively about their business." 
"It is tremendously more easy to be a genial, confident, easy-going 
'boss' than to be a harassed, indignant, scolding, tyrannical puppet, 
helpless in the hands of a mischievous class." 

'To begin on time, not two minutes or a minute late, but on time is 

— 1417— 

"Hurry is a bad technique." 

"The teacher who would excel in technique must be able to use fault- 
less English." 8 

We have heard many hard things said about the Victorian and the 
early post-Victorian teacher; but if the image that has come down 
to us of W.J. as a teacher is tolerably true of the profession as a whole 
at that time, then by all means let us have more of that sort of teacher 
and not less. 

In 1912 after three years of extra-mural study and two summer 
sessions at Queen's, he graduated with his B.A. degree. In that same 
year, the Dean appointed him business manager and slightly later 
business manager and editor of The School, to replace O. J. Steven- 
son who had become head of the English Department at the Ontario 
Agricultural College at Guelph. During the next eight years the 
journal thrived: the articles were varied, informative, and stimulat- 
ing; and the subscriptions climbed. Writing to the journal some twenty 
years later when the journal was celebrating its twenty-fifth anniver- 
sary, he recalled the years of his editorship in this way: These (busi- 
ness manager and editor) I carried from 1913 to 1920, eight joyous 
and well-filled years; teaching and lecturing went hand in hand with 
editing, writing, and managing. The journal prospered, and all was 
well." 7 

In 1912, too, he affiliated with University Masonic Lodge and 
then began his memorable work in Masonry. In 1914 war erupted in 
Europe, and Canada was involved from the start. Very early W.J. 
secured his lieutenant's commission and during 1915 and 1916 he was 
an infantry instructor in the Canadian Officers' Training Corps. In 
December of 1915, he was appointed Director of the Schools' Section 
of the National War Savings Committee of Canada. In this capacity 
he initiated the special campaign among public and secondary school 
students to buy thrift stamps and war saving stamps. He put out the 
Canada War Thrift Book explanatory of Canada's role in the war and 
the urgent need of thrift. Before the decade had ended he was 
authorized to prepare a history course for elementary schools; and 
along with all that he was manager of the Canadian Historical Review 
for a time. 

— 1418— 


Pioneering in Adult Education 

W.J.'s nine years at U.T.S. with all his varied activities, teaching, 
lecturing, managing and editing, instructing in the army, his handling 
of the Government Thrift Campaign, and his management of the 
Canadian Historical Review must have attracted and impressed a wider 
public than the school. Indeed he caught the attention of the Univer- 
sity authorities, for they, on the recommendation of Dean Pakenham, 
invited him to undertake the duties of Director of Extension and 
Publicity for the University; and on July 2, 1920, Mr. Dunlop entered 
upon his new duties. He came to an office for which the University 
had as yet no clearly defined policy and with accommodation and staff 
that were exceedingly meagre. The new Director was really a trail 
blazer. When he made his first report, a report incorporated in '!:e 
President's Report to the Board of Governors for the year ending June 
30, 1921, he had hardly had more than enough time to get fitted into 
his new position. However in that short while he was able to make 
a remarkably impressive assessment of the new situation and its prob- 
lems. 1 In his report, two things were significant: he had devised a 
well defined plan both for publicity and for extension; and he had 
achieved sufficiently during the year in both of them to form a precise 
estimate of future prospects. His first observation was this: "It is 
almost impossible to distinguish between publicity and Extension 
work. The Extension courses bring the University the very best pub- 
licity." The problem, therefore, appeared to resolve itself into an 
answer to two questions : ( 1 ) What type of courses, quite apart from 
the present University-approved degree-conferring courses might the 
University offer to meet a public need that was not already being 
served by other institutions? (2) What could be the best way in which 
to publicize not only these special services of the University but also 
the little known contributions of the University to human knowledge? 

All this really meant a re-interpretation of the generally accepted 
role of the University as an institution of higher learning. The generally 
accepted conception had been that of an institution of higher learning 
with barriers sufficiently high to keep out the unfit and with standards 


sufficiently rigorous to retain only the able and the industrious; its 
courses were all degree-conferring courses. The new conception would 
not alter or disturb this long established and long accepted role of the 
university; it would supplement it and widen it; the University, instead 
of waiting passively for the able, the industrious, and the ambitious to 
knock at its dors, would go out to meet the public or as Dr. Cody, ten 
years later, admirably put it, "to carry the treasures of knowledge and 
mental stimulation beyond the bounds of her immediate family"; 2 and 
in this new development of adult education, "the universities must in 
all this effort bear a heavy responsibility and service/' 3 The plan, there- 
fore, which the Director of Extension devised and adopted with rare 
promptitude, vision, and wisdom was to be the plan which he followed 
for the next thirty years with such modifications and amplifications as 
circumstances in the future warranted or necessitated. 

Dunlop adopted the following means to publicize the University 
and the Department of Extension: (1) the issuing of descriptive 
bulletins on a wide range of topics. In that first year, 38,500 brochures 
and bulletins on nine different topics were distributed. (2) the meet- 
ing in person with Alumni Association groups throughout the Province, 
of which there were some thirty-five. In this first year, the President of 
the University, many University professors, and the Director of 
Extension himself made many such visitations. (3) the publishing in 
the daily and weekly press and in the University of Toronto Monthly 
news items, articles, and letters pertaining to the University. In this 
first year, items of interest appeared each week regularly in some 200 
papers throughout the Province. (4) the advertising of Extension 
courses of study, lectures, and classes in the daily press. (5) the setting 
up of displays at the Canadian National Exhibition. At the 1921 
Exhibition, displays were allotted to the Departments of Physics, 
Astronomy, Hygiene, and Extension, and the Alumni Federation. By 
the end of the twenties other media were to be developed and used 
most effectively. 

The new programme of Extension courses fell into two main 
groupings: (1) Courses that were approved by the University, that 
met University requirements and standards, and that led to a univer- 
sity degree; (2) Courses that did not lead to a degree and for which 

— 1420— 

no diploma or certificate was issued; these courses were designed 
merely to satisfy a public demand for intellectual enlightenment on 
a host of special topics. Of the degree-conferring courses there were 
three or possibly four types: (1) a six weeks' summer course in Arts 
and Pedagogy mainly for teachers; (2) courses for teachers, especially 
for those in the profession who were desirous of raising their academic 
and professional standing; these classes were held at 4:30 on certain 
afternoons and on Saturday mornings; (3) Correspondence Courses 
for those not within easy reach of the University, courses in the main 
preparatory for the work of the Summer Session; (4) Extra-mural 
classes chiefly in Upper School and Commercial Subjects. 

In devising the special degree-conferring courses, especially for 
those in the teaching profession, Mr. Dunlop planned more wisely and 
providentially than he may have himself been aware of; for the value 
was to be seen some thirty years later. Those courses which were not 
degree-conferring but which were designed solely to meet a public 
demand for information and enlightenment were of various kinds: 
(1) There was a variety of Extension lectures, consisting sometimes 
of a single lecture and sometimes of as many as five or six lectures, 
given throughout the Province generally by members of the University 
staff. In this first year, 53 such lectures were given in 27 different 
centres. (2) Evening Tutorial Classes held at the University and 
covering a wide range of topics; (3) Tutorial Classes in rural areas 
usually held in the evening and conducted in co-operation with 
Farmers' Institutes and Junior Women's Institutes; (4) There were 
courses planned in co-operation with the Workers' Educational Associ- 
ation, a voluntary organization of working men and women, dependent 
upon the University for most of its tutors and for most of its funds. In 
this first year such classes were held at Toronto, Hamilton, and Ottawa. 
(5) There was held in this first year a two-weeks' course for farmers, 
a course prepared in conjunction with the Canadian News' Weekly 
and the Newspaper Association. This was a pioneering venture for any 
university and drew an enrolment of 279 farmer students; (6) There 
were likewise courses organized in co-operation with the Household 
Science Department of the University and likewise a course in journal- 
ism for those in newspaper work. This first year's period of probation 


and experiment gave ample evidence that W. J. Dunlop was a skilled 
planner and organizer and a genius for enlisting co-operation from 
among the University staff and groups and organizations outside and 
far beyond the University. He himself drew one important deduction 
from the first year's activity: "Everywhere throughout the Province 
there appears to be a remarkable demand for adult education." 4 

The first decade under this new regime was to witness quite 
remarkable developments, enough to convince doubting Thomases and 
to win the support and even the enthusiasm of skeptical University 
authorities. Publicity grew immensely. The 38,500 copies of publiciz- 
ing material in the first year had increased to 57,500 copies on fifteen 
different topics in the second year. This publicity grew with the 
acquirement of an up-to-date addressing machine and with the prepar- 
ation of complete and accurate lists of graduates and their addresses. 
The Director himself circulated more and more about the Province, 
visiting high schools, collegiate institutes, normal schools, and service 
clubs, bringing first hand information about the University and the 
courses which it had to offer. As publicity increased and public interest 
was more and more awakened, the Extension Department became 
more and more a sort of clearing house for information for parents, 
students and teachers in the city and throughout the Province. Every 
year witnessed some new development in the courses offered; and 
these courses were organized always in response to public demand and 
were continued as long as numbers made the classes self-sustaining. 
From the beginning, the Teachers' Courses proved immensely popular 
with the teachers and principals in the public school system. In the 
first ten years 200 graduated with B.A. standing; and in 1930 there 
were 3,998 registered in the continuous courses; and 29,121 attended 
extension lectures. Extension lectures throughout the Province reached 
an increasingly large public. In 1921 there were 53 such lectures in 
27 different centres; in 1926, there were 267 lectures in 146 centres; 
and in 1927, 338 lectures by 62 professors and 36 of them by the 
Director himself. The evening Tutorial Classes likewise showed 
marked increases: in 1922 there were 1676 registered; in 1927, 2746; 
and in 1930, as already stated, 3998. In 1928 the President of the 

— 1422— 

University reported as follows : "The Extension work of the University 
has grown with great rapidity in all its branches and under this depart- 
ment the effort is made to test out emerging educational needs/' 6 

The second decade comprised the seering years of the depression 
when returned men of the first World War and youths fresh out of 
school were treading the pavements looking for jobs they would never 
find. One might have expected a blasting of the high hopes, amply 
justified at the close of the twenties, and a marked decline in the 
Department's work. As a matter of fact, despite the depression, the 
work of the Department expanded immensely and new and promising 
fields were explored and developed. This surprising and urgent 
demand for adult education during these years of the depression were 
due to many factors: (1) the unemployment and the shorter working 
hours in industry; (2) the increase in the number of public libraries; 
( 3 ) the more generous provision of classroom facilities made available 
by the University; (4) the growing awareness among adults of a need 
for a better understanding of national and international affairs; (5) 
the assumption of the presidency of the University by Dr. H. J. Cody 
gave this whole movement of adult education immense impetus. In 
his first presidential report, Dr. Cody stated: "The possibilities of 
future service here are boundless; and the University, maintaining her 
high standards and her peculiar 'genius' is ready to serve wherever 
and whenever the opportunity knocks." 6 And again in 1934 he said: 
"The field for adult education through the University is exceedingly 
wide." And in 1936 it was this: "No department of the University 
has made greater or more permanent advance than this Department 
of Extension under the progressive and far-seeing direction of Mr. 
Dunlop." 7 

Even in 1933 the darkest year of the depression, the Department 
was reaching an ever-widening constituency of workmen, farmers, 
secretaries, business men, and teachers. In that black year, some 4,915 
were taking continuous Extension courses at the University; some 
15,440 were attending Extension lectures throughout the Province; 
and with the advent of the radio, broadcasting was reaching an 
audience difficult to estimate. In 1934 with the approval of the Presi- 
dent of the University, an invitation was sent out to all universities 

— 1423— 

and to all interested to attend a symposium on Adult Education in 
Convocation Hall on May 22 and 23 for the purpose of pooling ideas 
and discovering what precisely was being done throughout all the 
Provinces. At this meeting all universities and Departments of Exten- 
sion in Canada were represented, together with representatives from 
the World Association of Adult Education and the American Associ- 
ation of Adult Education. The committee, formed at this meeting, 
convened at Montreal on June 30th with W.J. as Chairman and drew 
up the constitution for the Canadian Association of Adult Education. 
In 1935 the Canadian Association for Adult Education was incorpo- 
rated with a charter membership of 48 organizations and eleven indi- 
viduals not connected with any organization and W. J. Dunlop was 
elected President. The following year, 1936, he was made Chairman 
of the Executive Committee, an office he retained until 1941, at which 
time he resigned the Chairmanship; but he continued to serve as a 
member of the Executive Committee until 1953, when he was made 
an Honorary Vice-President. Thus it was that W. J. Dunlop, recognized 
Founder of the Canadian Association of Adult Education, was instru- 
mental through his office as Director of Extension for the University 
in having the University of Toronto become one of the pioneers in 
what has now become an important world-wide movement. 

Returning now to purely Extension matters, we find the Director 
reporting to the President in 1937 that 633 were enrolled in the classes 
conducted by the members of the staff on late afternoons and Saturday 
mornings; and 542 attended the summer session. These classes were 
mainly for teachers. The total number who took continuous courses, 
whether leading to a degree or not, was 7622. In 1937 and during the 
next few years the Director circulated more than ever before about 
the Province, visiting the high schools, collegiate institutes, normal 
schools, bringing to prospective students first-hand infonnation about 
courses, fees, scholarships, bursaries, and loan funds. And 1938, the 
eighteenth year in the history of the Department, was probably the 
best year of all thus far; for in that year there was a marked awakening 
of interest in business courses with the co-operation of the Canadian 
Credit Men's Trust Association, the Chartered Life Underwriters' 
Association, and the Certified Public Accountants' Association. But 


before the decade closed, another world war had erupted and it had 
its immediate and marked impact upon the Department and its work. 

The war immediately disturbed the even tenor of things and 
brought' new and urgent responsibilities. In 1940 the Canadian Legion 
War Services Incorporated undertook to make available to enlisted 
men facilities for their education which they had neglected prior to 
the war. For assistance it turned to the Canadian Association of Adult 
Education of which W. J. Dunlop was the Chairman. He acted with 
his customary promptitude and effectiveness. He convened repre- 
sentatives of four universities in Ontario and they agreed upon a 
modified junior matriculation course for members in the army, navy, 
and air force. The Department of Extension of the University of 
Toronto took charge of Military District No. 2; the Director selected 
an educational organizer, a veteran of the first war, to visit military 
camps and explain to the men the ways and means of improving their 
education by correspondence courses. Some 5000 applications were 
received. At Exhibition Camp members of the University staff and 
Secondary School teachers in the city gave instruction, gratis, to large 
classes in mathematics to qualify men as pilots and observers. Classes, 
too, in aerial navigation were organized. Although the war did 
adversely and sharply affect classes once popular in peace time both 
in the number of classes and in the numbers attending classes, there 
came new demands related to the war effort. Courses in industrial 
chemistry, physics, French, and psychology were sponsored by Lever 
Bros., Swifts Canadian Co., and Canada Packers; courses were like- 
wise organized for the teaching of Russian, for Industrial Accident 
Prevention, and in marketing. Wherever there was sufficient public 
interest and demand, classes were formed. 

At this time, when the anxieties of war and the pressure of work 
and responsibilities were accumulating, W. J. Dunlop was bereaved 
on the 21st of July by the death of his wife, Mary Gillespie. This was 
a severe shock to one who prized above all else the sustaining influence 
of the home. He was now garnering the honours and rewards of his 
life's work; and to tread alone the road to the setting sun with no one 
to share those honours and rewards was for him a forbidding thought. 


But sooner and more unexpectedly than he might have imagined 
winter burst into spring; and the one whose contralto voice he had 
long loved and admired in the services at St. Paul's Anglican Church, 
was again to bring song and sunshine into his life. On the 1st of May, 
1943, he and Evaleen Kilby were married and W. J. Dunlop again 
faced the future with his customary assurance and elan. 

For the work of the Department of Extension, the turn of the tide 
came in 1944. In that year the Director reported 753 had graduated 
with a B.A. degree in the past 20 years; the evening tutorial classes 
were again flourishing; in 1944, there were 5,185 enrolled; in 1946, 
8,002 in no fewer than 81 classes; in 1947, 13,199. Then in the last half 
of the forties plans were made for the rehabilitation of returned and 
discharged men and women. Special clases in Grade XIII subjects 
were opened for those plannnig to enter university; and in co-operation 
with the Canadian Legion Services, the Extension Department pro- 
vided courses of study and books free of charge to all prisoners of war; 
94 took advantage of this. Then on the suggestion of Dr. J. G. Althouse, 
Chief Director of Education for the Province, a Universities' Education 
Board for Ontario was organized to find a way for all institutions of 
higher learning to supply the educational needs and wishes of the 
people in the Province. On this Board was one representative each 
from the University of Toronto, Queen's University, the University of 
Western Ontario, McM aster University, the Ontario Agricultural 
College, the University of Ottawa, Carleton College, and the Canadian 
Association of Adult Education. W. J. Dunlop was made President, 
one more evidence of the high esteem which institutions of learning 
had of Dr. Dunlop and of the well founded confidence which they 
placed in him. 

Dr. Sidney Smith, President of the University, in his report to the 
Board of Governors for the year ending June 30, 1950, very truly and 
°ttingly appraised Dr. Dunlop's work in the Department of Extension 
over the past thirty years in these words : 

"A perusal of the Director's reports of the past shows that its vitality 
could never have been increased or even maintained by merely repeat- 
ing year after year the same courses. Its success has been due to Dr. 
Dunlop's sensitivity to the changing needs of the constituency." 8 


June 30, 1951, would mark the end of his association with the Univer- 
sity and the Extension Department, not because it was the wish of 
the administration, but because it was in accord with the constitution 
of the University; for on the 24th of June, 1951, he would reach the 
retiring age of three score years and ten. Dr. Dunlop in his last report 
generously saluted, in these words, his co-workers and the host of men 
and women who had co-operated with him and served him in this 
impressive effort: 

"My grateful thanks are due and are hereby tendered to the members 
of the staff of the University who have co-operated so magnificently in 
providing instruction; to members of my own staff who have laboured 
loyally, faithfully, and enthusiastically to make the work a success; to 
the business organizations mentioned earlier in the report; and also to 
the Advertising and Sales Club of Toronto, the Industrial Accidents 
Prevention Association, the Public Relations Association of Ontario, the 
Purchasing Agents Association, the Investment Dealers' Association of 
Canada, the Toronto Paint Club, and the Toronto Quality Control 
Society. The link between the University and the world of business has 
been remarkably strengthened during the session now closing." 9 

On November 30, 1950, seven months prior to the date of his 
enforced retirement, he sent to the President of the University his 
resignation. As stated in this letter to Dr. Sidney Smith, he gave three 
reasons for this seven months' prior notice and these reasons bring out 
the canniness of the Scot: '"( 1) to anticipate any notice of termination 
of appointment which might come any time now; (2) to ensure that 
there will be no agitation from the Ontario Safety League or the 
Canadian Automobile Chamber of Commerce to have me stay, as some 
have suggested, for another two years, and (3) to enquire whether I 
mav have three months' leave of absence (or at least two and a half 
months') with full pay, to make a trip to Britain, going in April and 
returning early in July." 10 

On the 3rd of April, 1951, Mr. C. E. Higginbottom, bursar of the 
University and secretary of the Board of Governors, conveyed to Dr. 
Dunlop the Board's reply in this resolution, a resolution which must 
have caused him to draw a ^ep breath of satisfaction: 

"Whereas Dr. W. J. Dunlop will retire from the staff of the University 
on June 30, 1951; 


"And Whereas leave of absence with salary has been granted to him by 
the Board of Governors from April 1st to June 30th, 1951^ 
"BE IT RESOLVED that the Board of Governors formally record its 
appreciation of, and gratitude for, the outstanding contribution that 
Dr. Dunlop has made to the welfare and progress of the University. 
Appointed in 1910 to the staff of the University of Toronto Schools, he 
has served the University of Toronto with distinction and acclaim for four 
decades. When he assumed in 1920 the new position of Director of 
University Extension, extra-mural programmes existed only as a vague 
concept in a few minds. It was his task to sharpen and delineate that 
concept and to translate it into a programme of action. This task he 
accomplished with signal success, by imaginative and bold, yet wise, 
planning and by powers always genially exercised for dissuasion or 
persuasion as the occasion demanded. He has been, and he is today, a 
pioneer on the frontiers of adult education. In thus clearing new ground 
for the University of Toronto, he exemplified for other institutions of 
higher learning new ways of serving their respective constituences. 
Never content to rest on past attainments, he scaled new heights of 
achievement by reason of a unique sensitiveness to the ever-changing 
needs of the people. Always receptive to the new, he was never dazzled 
by the novel. Throughout Ontario and indeed across the nation, ho 
has been in very truth for the University an ambassador extraordinary 
and plenipotentiary. 

"BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Board express to Dr. Dunlop 
their warmest wishes for many years of happiness which he will find, 
as in the past, in creative labours for his fellow-men/' 11 

Prior to the receipt of this comforting and even exhilarating mes- 
sage from the Board of Governors, he was signally honoured on the 
evening of March the second at a banquet in the Great Hall at Hart 
House, filled to capacity with representatives from universities, the 
Department of Education, the Provincial Government, various business 
firms, and a host of friends, come to pay tribute to him for having 
achieved so much in pioneering the work of adult education. Dr. 
H. J. Cody presided. Dr. Sidney Smith, President of the University, 
expressed the University's regret at his retirement, but assured Dr. 
Dunlop that the regret was in a measure alleviated by the universal 
esteem in which he was held and that the University would acknowl- 
edge its indebtedness to him for having brought the University out of 
its exclusiveness and into the reach of all the people of the Province 
without in anyway sacrificing University standards. Dr. J. G. Althouse, 


chief Director of Education for the Province, was the chief speaker 
and he appraised in some detail the guest of honour as a man, adminis- 
trator, educator, and diplomat: 

"We all have marvelled at the skill with which Dr. Dunlop has adminis- 
tered one difficult situation after another. We have wondered at his 
capacity for assuming and discharging vexing responsibilities. We have 
admired his courage as a pioneer, his acumen as an arbiter, his adroit- 
ness as a diplomat/' 12 

Dr. Samuel Beatty, University Chancellor, capped the banquet of 
praise with the presentation of a pair of sterling silver Candelabra 
which now reside in the Dunlop home as Dr. Dunlop's memorial. 
Both prior to and following this felicitous event, letters and telegrams 
from near and far flowed into the Extension office, bearing greetings 
and good wishes. Then a little later, on the 27th of March, at the 
General Meeting of the Canadian Educational Association, his nomin- 
ation for life membership was confirmed. Following all this, W.J. 
wrote to a friend in Washington in characteristically Dunlopian 
humility to say that he had as yet not found it necessary to procure 
a larger hat. 

Early in April, Dr. and Mrs. Dunlop, accompanied by a niece, 
Miss Helen Gillespie Denne of Stayner, set sail from Montreal on a 
two and a half months' visit to the British Isles, Paris and Switzerland. 
This was Dr. Dunlop's second trip overseas. The first time was in 
1924 when he was commissioned to set up and supervise the exhibits 
of six Canadian universities at the British Empire Exhibition at 
Wembley. On this second occasion, the sea breezes, both going and 
coming, sight-seeing in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and on the 
continent, and attendance at the Grand Lodge of Ireland and of 
Scotland and of the United Grand Lodge of England did much to 
clear away any accumulation of weariness after some fifty years of 
unremitting hard work. 

On his arrival back in the city in mid-July, there was awaiting 
him this telegram from Bracebridge, dated June 28, 1951 : 

"Whereas Dr. William J. Dunlop Director of University Extension 
University of Toronto retires after 31 years of service on June 30, 1951. 


"And whereas Dr. Dunlop founded the Canadian Association for Adult 
Education in 1934. 

"And whereas thousands of school teachers as a result of Dr. Dunlop's 
work were able to improve their educational standards to the benefit of 
both Boards of Education and their own careers." 

"Therefore be it resolved that the Ontario Urban and Rural School 
Trustees Association at this their 32nd Annual Convention does com- 
mend William J. Dunlop, B.A., B.Paed., F.C.I., LL.D., for his services 
to education in Canada and express our best wishes to him on his 
retirement." 13 

Little wonder is it, therefore, that in mid-July he was again young in 

spirit, alert in mind, vigorous in body, and in no mood to take to the 

rocking chair. Indeed something of the spirit of old Ulysses seemed 

to have taken hold of him, and we can imagine him saying to himself: 

"but something ere the end, 
Some work of noble note may yet be done, 
Not unbecoming men that strove with gods." 14 

That was all true, but there was probably another equally compelling 
reason that would not let him stay idle, and that was financial. Dr. 
Dunlop had done his life's work when salaries in the teaching profes- 
sion, in public and secondary schools and in Universities, were low; 
and a University pension was now inadequate. There had been two 
world wars followed by marked inflations. If he were to maintain 
himself and his wife in dignity and comfort, there had to be other 
means to supplement his pensions and his own reserves. Hence he 
began surveying opportunities for work. There unexpectedly came 
one at the Community Programmes Branch of the Department of 
Education. There he worked until late in September when a real 
surprise awaited him. 


The Church 

It amazes one how Dr. Dunlop carried on so many varied and 
major activities at one and the same time. And yet not one of them 
was ever neglected or slighted; all he did with consummate thorough- 
ness. Two of these activities especially which paralleled his profes- 


sional and administrative duties were his work in the church and his 
work in Masonry. To take the Church and Masonry out of his life 
would have been to rob his life of all meaning and purpose. The 
church was as vital to him as the breath of life. This only bears 
witness to the powerful impact of the early home life. For when 
he left the Stayner and the Clinton home, he still remained attached 
to the church. At Peterborough, he promptly identified himself with 
the Murray St. Baptist Church and for three years was Superintendent 
of its Sunday School. 

On coming to Toronto, he at once joined the Walmer Road Baptist 
Church and there for many years he was likewise Superintendent of 
the Sunday School. In 1928 he threw in his lot with St. Paul's Anglican 
Church on Bloor St., and here too he became not merely a pillar or a 
flying buttress but one of the most faithful, generous, and dedicated 
workers in the Church. He served on committees and for many years 
was Superintendent of the Sunday School, one of the very large and 
flourishing Sunday Schools in the city. Dr. Cody once commented on 
the uplift that he received every Sunday morning to look down and 
see seated in the aisle seat of the second row W. J. Dunlop. Attend- 
ance at church was for him no mere formality; it was a spiritual neces- 
sity. His church work was by no means limited to St. Paul's; he did 
yeoman service in many other areas of the Anglican Church. He was 
appointed by the General Synod of the Anglican Church Vice-Chair- 
man of the Committee on The Churchman for 1948-50 and in 1951 
he was made Chairman. He was a member of the Board of Governors 
of Havergal College from June 1940 to June 1957. He was a member 
of the General Committee on the Leonard Foundation. In 1941 he 
was elected a member of the Board of Trustees of Wycliffe College 
and during 1951-9 he served as Chairman of the Board. He was like- 
wise a member of the Sunday School Association of the Deanery of 
Toronto. Many or most men would have rejected these duties on the 
grounds that they were too busy. W. J. Dunlop had little or no patience 
with men who were always too busy to serve where service was needed. 

Dr. Ramsay Armitage, for many years Principal of Wycliffe 
College and at present Rector of St. Stephen's Anglican Church at 
Maple, Ontario, had a close and intimate acquaintance with Dr. 


Dunlop and a sure knowledge of his work and influence in the 
Christian Church. As to his work at St. Paul's, Dr. Armitage has told 
us that "Dr. Cody and he were as hand and glove in the Educational 
Program at St. Paul's" and that to that program he made "a distinctive 
contribution" as "an educationalist with fresh and dynamic ideas." 
As Superintendent of the Sunday School, by virtue of "his strong manly 
practical Christianity, he shaped the pattern which distinguished the 
program of youth during Dr. Cody's Rectorship." Of Dr. Dunlop's 
services to Wycliffe, he likewise had very high praise: "As an 
educationalist and a vigorous Christian layman, he became trustee of 
Wycliffe College and a member of Council where his clear headed and 
discerning counsel, his awareness of the true principles of education 
made him invaluable." Later as Chairman of Council he "combined 
wisdom, rich common sense, wide experience, inclusive knowledge, 
courtesy, a firm hand, friendship, and always understanding of the 
contrary point of view." Dr. Armitage has likewise observed that 
everyone — teaching staff, students, and graduates, "with good reason 
had thorough confidence in Dr. Dunlop as Chairman of Council" and 
that "everything to which Dr. Dunlop put his hand was strengthened 
and enriched." 1 


We have already made a brief reference to W.J.'s association with 
Masonry. He joined Peterborough Lodge No. 155 on the 30th of 
October, 1908, at the age of twenty-seven, being sponsored by the 
Chief of Police and a local merchant. The Worshipful Master, E. E. 
Lord, presided; and on him W.J. conferred the rank of Grand Steward 
when he became Grand Master in 1937. Before he had left Peter- 
borough for permanent residence in Toronto, he had already made 
two steps up the ladder to the office of Senior Steward. He always 
maintained his membership in this Lodge and fifty years later on the 
30th of October, 1958, at the joint meeting of the Peterborough Lodge 
and the William James Dunlop Lodge, he was presented with his 50- 
year Jubilee Medal and on that occasion he occupied the chair of 
Worshipful Master for the conferring of a first degree by a team of 
50-year old veterans of the Craft from the city and district. 

— 1432— 

Four years after beginning his work at the University of Toronto 
Schools, he affiliated on the 21st of October, 1914, with University 
Lodge, No. 496, a youthful lodge which at that time had many Uni- 
versity connections. Seven years later, on the 14th of December, 1921, 
he was installed as Worshipful Master. Meantime on the 16th of 
October, 1916, he joined Toronto Chapter, No. 185, R.A.M. In no 
time he was moving along from office to office and by 1922 he was 
Third Principal, Second Principal in 1923, and in 1924 First Principal. 
The years of 1922-1924 must have been years of crowded busyness; 
for not only was he holding two onerous positions in Lodge and 
Chapter, he was also during 1922-3 Secretary to the D.D.G.M. of 
Toronto West District No. 11. Only one with an enormous liking for 
hard work and perhaps a goodly portion of endurance could have 
borne up under the load. 

At his installation as Worshipful Master of University Lodge, he 
expressed two opinions which showed that he was just about nine 
years in advance of his times. Evidently perturbed by the inordinate 
influx into Masonry, the difficulty of preserving dignity and impressive- 
ness in ritual, the nightly rounds of banquetings and visitations which 
had little Masonic relevance or significance, he issued his character- 
istic clarion call: good work, closer fraternal fellowship, more time 
for the contemplative side of Masonry, more practical charity, less 
thoughtless expenditure. In all that we can perceive the germ of the 
Masonic education idea which was soon to burst forth into life and 
the treasury belt-tightening which was to come with the depression. 

His year as Secretary to the D.D.G.M. had a dual significance. 
The visiting of 36 lodges in the Toronto West District gave him the 
opportunity he liked of meeting people and it gave people the oppor- 
tunity to come to know him; and it is probable that the two qualities 
which attracted R. W. Bro. J. A. Slade to him likewise attracted hosts 
of others to him: his "genial personality" and his "buoyant disposi- 
tion." The effect of these numerous visitations were to be seen some 
four years later. 

In July 1927 he was elected D.D.G.M.; and he selected for 
his Secretary a member of University Lodge, W.Bro. Peter Munro, 
a Public School Inspector in the city. Before W.J. set out on his lodge 


visitations, he sent out to the Masters of all lodges to be visited some 
six suggestions, of which we may mention two or three because they 
offer an index to the character of the man. To encourage punctuality 
and promptitude, he reminded the Worshipful Master that "a watch 
is an instrument placed in the hands of a master to enable him to 
conduct the programme with accuracy, precision, and celerity. A loss 
of time is evidence of a lack of preparation." 3 Then he graciously 
reminded them that he came as a friend "not as a carping critic, nor 
as a lion seeking whom he may devour." It was a lively and enjoyable 
year for the District Deputy and his Secretary for they had much in 
common. The lodges, too, thoroughly enjoyed their visitations, for 
W.J. invariably brought words of wisdom and good humour, and the 
Secretary provided the entertainment with his Jew's-harp. 

In 1929 M.W. Bro. John S. Martin, in his farewell message as 
Grand Master, drew back the curtain and revealed something of what 
was in store for Masonry in this Grand jurisdiction: 

"I am firmly convinced that the time has come when something more 
definite and constructive should be accomplished in every jurisdiction, 
where Masonry is alive, a growing demand from the younger generation 
of the Craft for some substantial food to satisfy the craving for knowledge 
about Masonic matters/' 4 

The following year, 1930, M.W. Bro. R. B. Dargavel appointed a 
Special Committee on Masonic Education, a committee consisting of 
R.W. Bro. W. J. Dunlop (Chairman), M.W. Bro. John S. Martin, M.W. 
Bro. John A. Rowland, R.W. Bro. W. S. Herrington, R.W. Bro. W. M. 
Logan, R.W. Bro. John D. Spence, a committee of teachers and lawyers. 
W.J. continued as Chairman of this Committee up to and including 
1935. From 1936-1942, excepting the two years when he was Grand 
Master, he remained a member of the Committee. There is no doubt 
that Masonic education initiated by M.W. Bro. Martin and pioneered 
by R.W. Bro. Dunlop was the boldest and wisest piece of work under- 
taken by Grand Lodge in one hundred years. Nearly three years were 
spent in study, in planning, and in experimenting or as W.J. put it 
"tilling, sowing, and cultivating." In 1931 the Committee presented to 
Grand Lodge an 11-point programme, most or all of which is still 
effective in this Grand Jurisdiction. During 1931 three experiments 

— 1434— 

were carried out. In Toronto three lodges, University, Tuscan, and 
Wellington, held classes in each of the three degrees under the super- 
vision of R.W. Bro. J. E. Macdonald, R.W. Bro. H. J. Alexander, and 
R.W. Bro. W. E. Hopkins. This was followed by a similar experiment 
in Kingston for the Frontenac District; and later in the year in Hamil- 
ton. From these experimentations W.J. drew this conclusion: "a great 
and growing demand for education throughout the Grand Jurisdic- 
tion. " 

In 1931 he was elected to the Board of General Purposes. This 
was not a difficult feat for him, for during the past ten years he had 
been moving about the Province in connection with his work in the 
Department of University Extension and he was well and favourably 
known. From this position and as Chairman of the Grand Lodge Com- 
mittee on Masonic Education he was able to give direction and impetus 
to the movement. He was the right man for this new venture in 
Masonry; ten years' experience in adult education were invaluable; 
he was a master organizer; he could enlist co-operation; he had 
enthusiasm; and he believed firmly in his mission, for to him an 
intelligent and educated membership was essential to Masonry. By 
the end of 1932 sufficient progress had been made to enable him to 
formulate a definite scheme of Masonic education to be put into effect 
in all Districts in the Grand Jurisdiction. In 1933 the "Manual for 
Instructors" was prepared and issued with detailed suggestions for 
procedure. Then the reins were placed in the hands of the D.D.G.M/s 
who were encouraged to set up Committees in individual lodges under 
the chairmanship of good live men. All this was done in the blackest 
year of the depression. The fact that what was formulated in that year 
is still functioning smoothly and effectively attests to the wisdom and 
the soundness of W. J. Dunlop's planning. 

It was in this black year of the depression that he entered the 
Scottish Rite. On March 22, he received the 14°; on June 18, 1934, 
the 18°; and on November 29, 1935, the 32°. He never held office in 
the Scottish Rite; but in 1940 the Rite conferred on him the honorary 
33° in recognition of his distinguished services to Masonry. In 1935 he 
was elected Deputy Grand Master in which office he served for two 
years. Then in 1937 he reached the top and for two years graced the 


office of Grand Master. During these two years he was able to dove- 
tail the work of the Extension Department and the office of Grand 
Master nicely and effectively; for both required journeyings far and 
near throughout the Province; in the local lodges he would carry his 
message of Masonic education and then in the local schools and service 
clubs he would carry the message of adult education. At the time of 
his relinquishing the office of Grand Master he suggested or initiated 
the office of a custodian of the work to ensure uniformity in ritual and 
to safeguard against vagaries. He was the first to undertake the duties 
of that office and these duties he carried out effectively until his death. 

In July of 1942 he was elected Grand Treasurer following the 
death of M.W. Bro. John A. Rowland; and this office he held until ill 
health in September of 1959 necessitated his resignation. As Grand 
Treasurer, he witnessed the greatly improved financial strength of 
Grand Lodge following the depression. He was likewise a strong and 
generous supporter of the erecting of the present memorial building 
in Hamilton. 

It would not be unfair or invidious to say that few Grand Masters 
in our Ontario Grand Jurisdiction have exercised an influence com- 
parable to the profound and enduring influence which W. J. Dunlop 
exercised in his time. He was known among Grand Lodge officials as 
"the workhorse" of Grand Lodge. This had no derogatory connota- 
tion. It simply meant that he had the perceptive mind to see the 
things that needed doing; he had the willingness to do them and the 
genius to enlist the co-operation of others in doing them; he was 
prompt and thorough in all things. No doubt the impact of Masonry 
upon him was very great; but at the same time his impact upon 
Masonry was immense. 

Minister of Education 

Dr. Dunlop had been working at the office of the Community 
Programmes Branch of the Department of Education for a little more 
than a month. Then one bright morning in late September he travelled 
down to his office at the corner of Huron and College in his usual 

— 1436— 

composed state of mind; but no sooner had he ensconced himself in 
his office chair than the Secretary to the Minister of Education who 
had discovered his whereabouts from Mrs. Dunlop came to convey him 
up to the Parliament Buildings and into the office of the Minister of 
Education, Honourable Dana Porter, a former pupil of W.J. at U.T.S. 
There he was confronted by three men: Dr. J. G. Althouse, Chief 
Director of Education, Mr. Porter, and Mr. Frost, the Prime Minister. 
They put to him one question to which he was told there was only an 
affirmative answer: "Will you undertake the office of Minister of 
Education replacing Mr. Porter who is to assume the office of Attorney 
General?" A little flustered, W.J. asked: "How do you go about that?" 
He was told that providing he accepted the offer he would be 
appointed as of the 2nd of October, 1951; and then he would have to 
make a choice of two ridings: High Park or Tor onto-E glint on; and 
then in November fight his first political battle. He accepted the offer, 
selected the Toronto-Eglinton riding, campaigned in an off-hand way, 
and on election day had a signal triumph: a victory in every polling 
subdivision and a plurality of 14,783 out of a total of 33,554 votes cast. 
That was a clear indication of the esteem which he had won for him- 
self over the years. 

Dr. Dunlop came to this unsought-for office after many years of 
very solid achievements and with clearly defined philosophies of life 
and of education. He had already established a most harmonious 
relationship with the teachers of the Province, both elementary and 
secondary, among whom he was known as the great white father. We 
have seen him at seventy still a man of open mind, keenly alert to 
public needs and swift in implementing new ideas; he could compro- 
mise, but there was no equivocating, pussy-footing, or straddling of 
the fence; he was quite decisive. 

He undertook his new duties at a very critical time, a time that 
demanded very sound judgment and prompt and effective action. 
His general attitude can be gleaned somewhat from the Departmental 
Report for 1951 after he had been in office but three months: 

"The school system in Ontario is an exceedingly complex struc- 
ture. In any system so large ard complicated it becomes increasingly 
important to make sure that fundamental purposes and values are not 


lost sight of. It is more than ever necessary, in these circumstances, to 
scrutinize expenditures carefully to see that they are necessary and that 
full value will be obtained in return. Similarly before drastic changes are 
made, one must be sure that the primary purposes of the school will be 
fully served by the proposed changes." 1 

This expression of opinion reveals the man's clear awareness of prob- 
lems, his wariness in effecting changes unless sure that the primary 
purpose of the school is preserved, and his keen sense of responsibility 
for careful guardianship of the Province's moneys. He saw the prob- 
lems and there were many of them, all interrelated and inter-locked: 

1. There was the alarming explosion in school population as a result 
of the highly increased birth rate in the mid- and late forties, an 
explosion which was already having its effect upon the elementary 
schools at the beginning of the fifties; and which would have its 
effect upon the secondary schools in the mid-fifties, and upon the 
universities in the late fifties. 

2. There was the unprecedented need for new school buildings and 
for alterations and additions to old, inadequate, and deteriorating 
buildings to meet the increased enrolment. 

3. There was the urgent need of new and qualified recruits to the 
teaching profession to man the additional classrooms. 

4. Salaries for teachers in elementary and secondary schools and uni- 
versities had long been totally inadequate, so inadequate that 
good teachers could not be attracted to the profession or retained 
in the profession. This was a prime factor in the teacher shortage. 

5. There was the clamour everywhere about increasing taxes to meet 
these pressing demands, demands which could not be shelved or 
neglected. There was, therefore, the consequent pressures upon 
the government from all directions for more generous grants. 

6. There was the problem of finding the money and of judiciously 
apportioning it out to all the open and clamorous mouths. 

7. There was the disturbing bourgeoning of new educational ideas, 
ideas which had been trundled custom free across the border from 
the neighbour to the south. It was not enough to have our indus- 
tries made subsidiaries of American industries; and our labour 
unions made subservient to American bosses; our educational 


system must be a replica of the American brand. The most vocal 
and strident of these trundlers of American educational ideas 
were the Progressivists, intolerant of anything old, hyper-sensitive 
to criticism, cynical and violent in abuse. Of course, Progres- 
sivism, like the word moderation when employed by the brewer, 
just does not mean what it says or supposedly implies. It was 
Dr. Hilda Neatby who exposed their "so little for the mind" and 
it was she who bore unscathed the brunt of their crude and vulgar 
abuse. That was the element that was riding fairly high when Dr. 
Dunlop assumed office. 

In his 1951 Report after being in office but three months, Dr. 
Dunlop reported that the increase in the elementary school enrolment 
over that of 1950 was 38,675. Department officials knew that and 
had already estimated the probable increase for all the years of the 
fifties. Even in 1949 before Dr. Dunlop ever dreamed of assuming the 
office of Minister, Dr. J. G. Althouse, Chief Director of Education, had 
taken two preliminary steps to meet the teacher shortage : ( 1 ) "Per- 
mits" to approved persons for one year at a time were granted and 
summer courses were held so that these "permit" teachers might get 
their interim teaching certificate. (2) Entrance standards to Normal 
Schools (now Teachers' Colleges) were lowered. The Teachers' 
Federation had accepted the "permit" idea as a necessity, but it had 
recoiled at the lowering of teaching standards. Likewise in 1951 letters 
of permission had been granted to 469 who had no teacher-training 
experience, of which number there were some seven different classi- 
fications; and likewise 521 letters of standing were granted to teachers 
who had had at some time some professional training in another pro- 
vince or in the British Isles, of which number there were some four 
different classifications. In this Dr. Dunlop had had no part. Nor is 
it likely that he interfered with the far more radical plans devised and 
implemented in 1952 to meet the growing emergency. It would appear, 
therefore, that Dr. Althouse was the architect of the emergency plan 
and that Dr. Dunlop, as Minister of Education, put it into effect and 
defended it in the Legislature. It would likewise appear to be true 
that the Department officials considered as of first importance in these 


emergency measures the fact that no school should be closed for lack 
of a teacher. They were sensitive to public repercussions. 

It would be well at this point to examine the teacher qualifications 
for elementary teachers prior to 1951 so that we may grasp fully the 
significance of the emergency regulations promulgated in 1952 and 
which brought the Department and the Teachers' Federation into con- 
flict. Before the war two basic certificates were required for elementary 
school teachers: a Second Class Certificate and a First Class Certificate. 
For the First Class Certificate, the academic qualifications were nine 
Upper School subjects, of which two must be English. This with one 
year at Normal School would yield an interim certificate which would 
be made permanent after two years of successful teaching, providing 
the teacher had taken an additional number of university courses or 
a certain number of special summer courses. During the war, because 
of a lack of competent teachers, the nine Upper School subjects were 
reduced to five. 

In 1952, finding the present emergency measures, letters of per- 
mission and letters of standing and the reduction of nine Upper School 
subjects to five, completely inadequate in meeting the emergency, the 
Department devised and put into effect these far more radical 

1. They abolished the Second Class Certificate entirely. 

2. They changed the entrance requirements to Normal for obtaining 
a First Class Certificate and approved these three ways: 

(a) The student might be admitted to Normal with Grade XIII 
standing in only eight papers, of which only one in English 
was required. The student would spend one year at Normal, 
get his interim certificate, and then after two years' successful 
teaching his certificate would be made permanent. 

(b) The student might enter Normal with Grade XII standing, 
attend Normal for two years and get his interim certificate, 
followed by two years' successful teaching for his permanent. 

(c) The student might enter Normal with either Grade XIII or 
Grade XII standing, attend a six weeks' summer course at 
Normal, teach for one year, return for another six weeks' 

— 1440— 

course, teach one more year, and then return for a full year 
at Normal. This would yield an interim certificate. Two years 
more of successful teaching would yield a permanent certifi- 
3. Letters of Permission and Letters of Standing continued to be 
granted to Boards who after advertising could not get qualified 

The Ontario Teachers' Federation was fully aware of the necessity 
of immediate and daring measures to cope with the teacher shortage; 
nevertheless they felt that the measures being adopted would inevit- 
ably lead to a lowering of educational standards and would bring into 
disrepute the old First Class Certificate. The Federation, therefore, 
recommended that a student with Grade XIII standing should have 
two papers in English, not just one; that the Department should differ- 
entiate the certificates granted on Grade XII and Grade XIII standing; 
that summer school students should be specially supervised by com- 
petent teachers during the first two years of their teaching. The 
Department, however, refused to yield on the one English paper re- 
quired for Upper School standing; argued that a Grade XII student 
with two years at Normal was professionally as competent as a Grade 
XIII student with one year at Normal; declined to concede the differen- 
tiation in the types of First Class Certificate. It did, however, yield 
one point: it indicated on the back of the First Class Certificate the 
precise academic and professional qualifications of the student. The 
matter of supervision of those who had taken summer courses was 
denied on the grounds of excessive cost. 

That was the situation that prevailed up to the end of 1954. We 
would note, however, that in 1953, there were issued to teachers in 
elementary schools 269 Letters of Standing, that is permits to teachers 
with some professional training received in other provinces or in the 
British Isles, and also 692 letters of permission for qualified teachers. 
In 1954, there were 800 teachers in Ontario with no professional train- 
ing at all and also 1,372 student teachers from the six weeks' summer 
course. That fact alone would justify the contention of the Teachers' 
Federation that educational standards were being lowered. But on 
the other hand, we must remember that there were no schools without 

— 1441 — 

teachers. We must remember, too, that there were other problems as 
pressing as teacher shortage. There was the problem of inducing 
secondary school students to enter the teaching profession and having 
induced them, there was the problem of training them, for they could 
not be trained in a day; and there was likewise the problem of getting 
accommodation in whioh to train them. There was the problem of new 
buildings, both for elementary and for secondary school students, and 
buildings could not be erected over night. Added to all that there were 
the ever spiralling demands for increased grants. Lastly where was the 
money to come from? A Minister of Education in the fifties had an 
unenviable task. 

On the 28th of December, 1954, the Department announced the 
new measures, effective in 1955, to overcome the shortage of Secondary 
School teachers. To get an Interim High School Assistants' Type B 
Certificate, a university graduate, who had obtained a position with a 
School Board which had advertised but failed to get a teacher, could 
take a ten weeks' summer course at the College of Education, teach 
one year and then return for a second summer course of five weeks. 
The Teachers' Federation strenuously opposed this measure; and they 
did so on the grounds that inadequately trained teaohers would be 
getting no proper supervision in schools where such supervision could 
be given. 2 However the 1955 Provincial election followed on the heels 
of this measure and the government was returned to power; and Dr. 
Dunlop's plurality, although reduced as was in proportionate degree 
the total vote, was nevertheless very substantial. In the 1959 election, 
the Toronto-Eglinton riding increased his plurality by 1000 votes and 
he won in almost every polling subdivision. It would appear, there- 
fore, that public confidence in Dr. Dunlop was not shaken and that 
he was still strongly entrenched in public favour. 

But lest anyone should assume that Dr. Dunlop during these eight 
years was but the mouthpiece or the henchman of his advisers in the 
Department, there were at least two occasions when he over-ruled the 
Department. He swept away that anamolous combination of history 
and geography known as Social Studies, for whatever social content 
the studies may have had they were neither history nor geography. In 
this he had the general support of the teachers in the Province. He 


vetoed the precipitate scrapping of all rural schools, and he supported 
his decision in this way: "Experience shows that local interest in school 
affairs or even local pride in schools of a community is so important 
in the progress of education and in the development of democratic 
self-government, that it must be retained even if it means sacrificing 
some of the advantages of a single all-powerful area-wide Board of 

Education The quickest and surest way of killing local interest 

in the schools is to set up such a large unit of administration that the 
parents and other ratepayers will know little and care less about the 
school board, the teachers and the schools/' 3 

These eight years in which Dr. Dunlop was Minister of Education 
have been described sometimes as contentious, sometimes as stormy, 
and even sometimes as furious. Whatever foundation these terms may 
have in fact, it is certain that never in the history of the Province, unless 
we go back to the Egerton Ryerson era, were people quite so education 
conscious; it was a period of criticism, frank, searching, sharp, and all 
too often violently vindictive, abusive, and even stupid. One writer 
said of Dr. Dunlop that he was the "champion of the status quo/'* 
But ten years before that pithy statement was made, Dr. Dunlop had 
himself said: "Education must never become a static thing. Change 
is its very essence/' 5 And Dr. Sidney Smith, when acknowledging Dr. 
Dunlop's resignation as Director of University Extension said this: 
"Since I joined the staff of the University of Toronto I have learned 
what I could never have guessed before — the boundless extent of your 
activities and influence, always so generously given for the advance- 
ment of the cause of education, particularly within the institution/'* 
There are two points to be noted in that statement by Dr. Smith: first, 
the implication that one can judge in ignorance; and second, the 
gracious tribute to Dr. Dunlop's vigorous advancement of the cause of 
education. Advancement is not a maintaining of the status quo. 

Another writer has said that he was "reactionary and near- 
sighted." 7 Let us put against the king cobra venom of that utterly 
untrue characterization the resounding truth of this sentence from a 
letter by C. F. Fraser of Dalhousie University to Dr. A. E. Corbett, the 
Director of the Canadian Association of Adult Education : "His inspira- 
tion and leadership have contributed enormously to the development 


of adult education throughout the whole of Canada." 8 Or take this 
from Hon. Dana Porter: "You will be regarded as the one who laid the 
foundation for this important branch of higher education. You have 
not only laid the foundation, but have built an enduring structure 
which will continue to serve the people of Ontario for many years to 
come." 9 

An editorial writer summed up what he took to be Dr. Dunlop's 
essential aim in education and did so in this phrase: "The old ways are 
the best ways." 10 This vague statement with its derogatory undertone 
evidently referred to Dr. Dunlop's insistent emphasis on the funda- 
mentals in education. 

What were these fundamentals, as Dr. Dunlop saw them? First, 
a comprehension by the student of the printed page, a love of reading 
broad and deep; second, the study of mathematics, for mathematics 
impinges on every facet of human life; third, the ability and the power 
of communicating ideas in speech and in writing. These were the 
three fundamentals, which Dr. Dunlop's malign critics reduced to 
"readin', 'riting', and 'rithmetic." In an article, entitled "More stress 
on 3 R's Urged," Mr. O. A. Tate said: "When Hon. W. J. Dunlop, 
Minister of Education, advocates a return to a greater emphasis on 
the three R's in Ontario education, he is urging a course advocated last 
year by a 58-man committee which spent four years studying educa- 
tion in Canada from coast to coast." 11 

An eastern Ontario unsigned newspaper appraisal of Dr. Dunlop's 
work had this to say: "During the eight years he held one of Ontario's 
heaviest, most important, and fastest-growing portfolios; Mr. Dunlop 
found himself engaged in an almost constant series of feuds with 
educators, politicians, and the general public." 12 That statement is 
worth examining. We should expect a cabinet minister to come under 
fire from the opposition; but the debates in the Legislature would 
indicate that the fire of the opposition in the fifties was quite ineffec- 
tive. It would appear, too, that the general public, if we take the 
riding of Toronto-Eglinton as an example, had no particular quarrel 
with Dr. Dunlop; there was no feuding there. Then there is left only 
the educators; and of these only two need be mentioned: the Progres- 
sivists and the Teachers' Federation. As for the Progressivists, their 

— 1444— 

spurious doctrine of "exposure" without too much effort, their over- 
emphasis on freedom and self-expression and a corresponding silence 
with respect to order and discipline, duty and responsibility, their 
deleting from history of all the facts and making it a meaningless 
mumbo-jumbo of anecdotes and stories have all but brought the term 
"progressivism" into complete disrepute. Consequently we are left 
with the Teachers' Federation. 

The correspondence back and forth between the Federation office 
and the Minister of Education during the eight years, 1951 to 1959, 
is voluminous. But in all that correspondence you will look in vain for 
any evidence of feuding, of rancour, of reproach; you will find an 
abundance of candour, of forceful argument, of mutual understanding, 
and not infrequently of cordiality. It is a correspondence that stands 
highly to the credit of two parties who were in disagreement as to the 
ways and means to achieve certain ends. In 1955 when the emergency 
measures taken by the Department to meet the teacher shortage were 
being challenged, Dr. Dunlop wrote to the Federation Secretary 
in these words: "May I tell you again that it was most gratifying to 
me that we could discuss our various suggestions, ideas, and objec- 
tions, in a friendly manner on the occasion of our recent meeting which 
was no exception to the many meetings we have held during the past 
three and a half years and I am most anxious that there should be the 
most friendly relations between the Ontario Teachers' Federation and 
the Department of Education. " J3 

On the 23rd of December, 1959, when illness forced Dr. Dunlop's 
retirement, the Ontario Teachers' Federation sent to Dr. Dunlop this 
gracious note: "The Executive of the Ontario Teachers' Federation 
learns with regret of your resignation as Minister of Education. The 
Executive appreciates the very great contribution you have made to 
education in the Province during your term of office and is happy that 
you are continuing as a Member of the Cabinet, where you will be 
able to act in an advisory capacity in matters affecting education/' 14 
Then in the January 1960 issue of The Bulletin, official publication 
of the Ontario Secondary School Teachers' Federation, Miss Norah 
Hodgins, Secretary of the Ontario Teachers' Federation, set forth some 
of Dr. Dunlop's worthy contributions to education in this province: 


"A school man and teacher himself, Dr. Dunlop's emphasis on the import- 
ance of the teacher and of the importance and value of the teachers' 
organizations contributed considerably to improving the status of the 
teacher and the professional standing of teachers' federations in the 

"The recognition of the Federation contributed to even greater co-opera- 
tion between the members of the Department of Education and the 
federation officials at all levels. 

"Local in-service training and local curriculum improvement were en- 
couraged with emphasis on the essentials in education. 

'^School grants were increased although there was a check on elaborate 
school buildings in a period of greatly increased expenditures on schools. 

"His concern in the improvement and maintaining of the professional 
quality of the teachers of the Province, as far as it was compatible with 
keeping the classrooms open, was shown in the recent ruling that 
teachers who are not recommended within five years for a permanent 
certificate will have their interim certificate cancelled. Further steps are 
being taken to eliminate from the profession older teachers who have 
shown themselves to be extremely inefficient, but at the request of the 
federation, before definite action is taken in these cases, the teacher is 
warned of the situation and the federation is informed and given an 
opportunity to assist the older teacher concerned. These actions with 
regard to the removal of the inefficient teacher have been taken with the 
full approval and co-operation of the federation. 

"Major improvements were made in the Teachers' Superannuation Act. 

"The foundation of the Ontario School Trustees' Council was assisted by 
Dr. Dunlop. 

"The serious teacher shortage was met, although there was considerable 
disagreement as to the method used. 

"Three new Teachers' Colleges were built, and a fourth is being planned 
for the Lakehead." 15 

With those facts before one, one has good reason to wonder whether 
the progessivist don who said that Dr. Dunlop "always runs fastest 
when he is running backward" has since read this fair appraisal of 
Dr. Dunlop as a Minister of Education by Miss Nora Hodgins or has 
since read the reports of the Presidents of the University during the 
years of 1920 to 1951 and having read them did he awaken to the fact 
that his quip was not funny but only stupid. 


We might supplement briefly what Miss Hodgins has written. In 
1951, shortly after assuming the office of Minister, Dr. Dunlop initiated 
the policy in the Department of paying one-half of the cost of supply- 
ing milk to children in the elementary schools. In 1957, he initiated 
the awarding of scholarships to the value of $400 to everyone who had 
at least 80 per cent average on eight Grade XIII examination papers. 
Then, too, all during the fifties, the Department continued the policy 
of granting bursaries to needy students entering Ryerson or a Teachers' 
College who had an average of 60 per cent on Grade XII or Grade XIII 
examinations. The table below will show the number of awards and 
the total amount of the bursaries awarded in each of the ten financial 































These scholarships and bursaries were intended to draw into the teach- 
ing profession students who might otherwise be barred by financial 
stringency. But lest anyone may still think that the teacher shortage 
and the meeting of that shortage were the only perplexing problems 
that confronted a Minister of Education and his officials, he needs 
only to be reminded of the unprecedented demands for new buildings 
and additions to buildings, elementary, secondary, and university, 
buildings which had to be built and which could be built only if 
additional government grants were forthcoming. Mr. Frost expressed 
the Department's dilemma, the dilemma of being fully cognizant of 
a desperate need and the problem of finding the money to meet that 
need and he did so in the legislature in 1952 in these words: 


"Let me point out, as I have said many times before, money does not 
grow on trees. It is one thing to talk about building buildings all over 
the Province at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars, but where is 
the money coming from?" 

This was not altogether the cry of despair, for the Department did in 
two ways seek to lighten the burden of taxation in municipalities: It 
took steps to equalize taxation so that the rural and less highly indus- 
trialized municipalities would not be unfairly penalized and each year 
throughout the fifties there were very marked increases in the moneys 
spent on education. The table below tells the story for the ten-year 
period from 1951 to 1960, in each case, the year ending on the 31st 
of March: 


$ 50,996,160.75 


$ 67,553,128.06 


$ 75,702,632.66 


$ 81,866,107.96 


$ 91,478,889.49 











One last point about Dr. Dunlop as an administrator which must not 
be overlooked. The teachers in the Province found in him an unfailing 
defender of the individual teacher against injustice of whatever sort. 

The year 1959 had been particularly arduous; consequently the 
78-year-old veteran rejoiced to accept an invitation for himself and 
Mrs. Dunlop to be the guests of their old friends, Mr. and Mrs. J. P. 
Maher, in a brief two-week trip to Ireland. The privacy of first class 
passage going and coming and the leisurely motor tour around Ireland 
gave opportunity for perfect relaxation, story telling, laughing, and 
sight-seeing. The trip should have been a wonderful restorative. But 
upon returning to Toronto, especially in the last few months of the 
year, Dr. Dunlop found that he was not a well man. In November he 
entered hospital. In three weeks he was able to leave, but he was 

— 1448— 

advised by his doctors that he must be relieved of all pressure of work 
and seek rest. He, therefore, submitted his resignation to Premier 
Frost, dated the 16th of December. On that same day, Mr. Frost 
appointed him Minister without portfolio so that he would be avail- 
able to give counsel to his successor in the Department. But in less 
than a year he was again stricken. He submitted his resignation as 
Minister without portfolio; but Mr. Frost, mindful of Dr. Dunlop's 
devotion to the cause of education and his signal contribution as an 
administrator, appointed him Vice-Chairman of the Universities' Co- 
ordinating Committee. On the 25th of December, he again entered 
hospital from which he was never to emerge until his death on the 2nd 
of February, 1961. 



In recent years we have heard much about educating or develop- 
ing the whole child. If that expression has any meaning, it would 
appear that there might be one segment in Dr. W. J. Dunlop's whole 
being that was not sufficiently developed. For we have no knowledge 
of his ever having chased a little white ball all around an 18-hole golf 
course; never heard of his competing in ye ancient game of bowls or 
sweeping his way to victory in a curling contest; never heard of his 
scaling Mt. Robson, betting at the Woodbine races or sitting glued to 
his easy chair watching a ball game or a hockey match; never seen a 
picture of him on a sports' page proudly dangling a 50-pound muskie. 
Sports and athletics had no place in his life. The reason is obvious. In 
his youth, he was too busy getting an education or procuring the 
means by which he could get an education. When he came to man- 
hood, he was so joyously busy with the activities of his choice that 
sports no longer interested him. But that did not mean that he in any 
way entertained a dislike for them. It is true that he once rode a 
bicycle on the country roads; he drove a car, but in his later days he 
much preferred to have his wife as chauffeur. Strange to say of one 
with Baptist upbringing, he did once try to "trip it .... on the light 
fantastic toe." Back in 1938 in the Community Club in Kaspuskasing, 


the Kapuskasing Masonic Lodge had a banquet and a social evening 
of dancing. W.J., who was then the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge 
of Canada in the Province of Ontario, was asked to lead off in the 
dance with the wife of the Worshipful Master. He did and performed 
gallantly enough. But whether it was a minuet, a rhumba, or a rock 
and roll, we do not know. Anyway when he got back to his hotel, he 
said to Ewart Dixon, the Grand Secretary, "You know, Ewart, that was 
the first time in my life that I ever danced. Wait until I tell my wife." 
However this neglect of sports did not prevent him from playing very 
effectively his special role in life. 

It is of interest to try to discover how W.J. made his mark, to 
discover the secret of his success. We know that after he left Peter- 
borough King Edward Public School he never again sought for a 
position. The positions always sought him, and they were positions 
of increasing difficulty and responsibility. Back in 1948, near the end 
of a ten-year period as Chairman of the Board of Examiners of 
Optometry, Dr. Dunlop said in a fatherly way to the present Dean of 
the College of Optometry, Mr. E. J. Fisher, who had at that time just 
received his appointment as Acting Dean: "Son, if you want to succeed, 
delegate." Ewart Dixon who had travelled the length and breadth 
of Canada and the United States with Dr. Dunlop and who knew him 
perhaps better than most other men knew him has said: "In all my 
experience he was the greatest I knew to delegate work to others. He 
knew how to parcel out jobs but once he allotted the task to you, he 
never interfered; nor did he question your ability to do the job. He 
had absolute confidence in his choice." Therein lay a part at least of 
the secret. It was, however, quite impossible for him to delegate under 
compulsion. He could delegate only by winning men's friendship and 
confidence and this he did by his unfeigned sincerity, his candour, his 
geniality and his contagious enthusiasm. Men liked him and thev 
were glad to work with or for or under him. 

But how did he come by his unfailing serenity and imperturba- 
bility? He had all the pressures of most other men; certainly he had 
in the last ten years of his life; and yet he had none of the marks of 
those pressures: the furrowed brow, the haggard look, the nervous 
twitch, the drooping mouth, the cynical speech. To the very end, he 

— 1450— 

preserved the perceptive and penetrating glint of the eye and the faint 
trace of a smile about the mouth betokening inward kindliness and 
good humour and all but belying the hidden reserve of adamantine 
firmness and resolve. Whence came this quiet strength, this constant 
renewing of the spirit? We are sure that Dr. Dunlop would have named 
two sources: the home on the one hand and the Church and Masonry 
on the other. Time and again he reiterated his conviction that the 
foundations of our society were the home, the school, and the church. 
The influence of the Durham and Stayner home never forsook him, 
with its lessons of order, discipline, and work; prudence and thrift; 
and the love of learning for learning's sake. His own home was ever a 
quiet retreat where he could always enjoy good talk, good food, good 
music, and his one and only hobby, good books. It is hard to imagine 
Dr. Dunlop without the church and Masonry; he just would not have 
been Dr. Dunlop. They were part of his very life and undoubtedly 
were the source of much of his hidden strength. 

W. J. Dunlop was a thoroughly unselfish man; self-interest was 
never a motive to action; money was rarely a motive to action. He 
believed with all his heart in rendering service. In Peterborough, he 
did not confine himself to his profession and the classroom. He joined 
the church, became a Sunday School Superintendent and thus served 
the community. When he came to Toronto, he undertook or was asked 
to undertake scores of activities for which there was no monetary 
reward whatever. They were things that needed doing and he did 
them. He again identified himself with the church and at the Walmer 
Road Baptist Church and at St. Paul's Anglican Church he was again 
active as a Sunday School Superintendent. During his years with the 
Extension Department, his varied services were legion. Rt. Rev. F. H. 
Wilkinson has borne witness to this in these words : "He assisted more 
young people to find their life-time vocation than any man I know." 
Service was the ruling passion of his life. Therefore Masonry is his 
debtor; the Anglican Church is his debtor; the University, the Province 
of Ontario, and the whole of Canada are his debtors, for his services 
have enriched them all. Wordsworth would probably have seen in 
him his ideal of 'The Happy Warrior". Matthew Arnold might readily 
have seen in him the image of his own father, the renowned Thomas 


Arnold of Rugby, for Arnolds portrayal of his father would fit Dr. 
Dunlop perfectly: 

"Yes, in some far-shining sphere 

Conscious or not of the past 

Still thou performest the word 

Of the Spirit in whom thou didst live. 

Prompt, unwearied, as here! 

Still thou upraiseth with zeal 

The humble good from the ground, 

Sternly repressest the bad. 

Still, like a trumpet, dost rouse 

Those who with half open eyes 

Tread the border-land dim 

Twixt vice and virtue; reviv'st, 

Succourest; — this was thy work, 

This was thy life upon earth." 1 

We might have expected that one so genially and cheerily disposed 
toward his fellow-man, as was Dr. Dunlop, might have got through life 
without any snarling dogs trailing at his heels. But such was not his 
lot. Dr. Althouse told his audience at the Hart House Banquet: "It 
would be less than honest to claim that our friend made no enemies. 
He did — occasionally — and they turned out to be hostile indeed/' 
But Dr. Althouse went on to qualify that statement in these words: 
"And in all, he maintained kindliness as a part of his characteristic 
dignity." Along the way we have had occasion to take note of these 
clamorous critics and to assess the justice and the soundness of their 
criticism. We still hear them from time to time like the far distant 
rumblings of thunder after the storm has passed. But with the silenc- 
ing of those voices, we come to hear more and more the reassuring 
voices of those who knew him best and had judged his services and 
contributions to society aright. We again call to mind the eulogies of 
the Presidents of the Universitv of Toronto, the warm commendation 
of the Board of Governors of the University, the festival of praise at 
the Hart House Banquet; the telegram of greetings and praise from the 
Ontario Educational Association and the Rural and Urban Trustees 
Association, and the letters and telegrams that flowed into the Exten- 
sion office on his retirement as Director of Extension. We recall that in 

— 1452— 

September, 1942, the National Council of the Canadian Credit Insti- 
tute conferred upon him "the honorary designation of F.C.I. (Fellow 
Credit Institute) in recognition of his meritorious services in the field 
of Credit Education. " This Canadian Credit Institute had been incor- 
porated on the 11th of June, 1928, for the purpose of raising the status 
of credit men's work from that of an occupation to that of a profession. 
In this Dr. Dunlop had played an important part. He had mapped out 
the two-year diploma courses that were to be made available through- 
out Canada and administered by the Canadian Credit Institute through 
the Extension Department of the University of Toronto. It was he 
who selected the credit experts as teachers in the various subjects of 
the courses. Four Ontario Universities conferred on him the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws: the University of Western Ontario in June 
of 1942; the University of Ottawa in June of 1953; Queen's University 
in May of 1956; and the University of Windsor in June of 1959. All 
of them in their citations emphasised the one common theme — his 
contribution to education. We may be pardoned for quoting the cita- 
tion of the University from which he graduated in 1912: 

"William James Dunlop, a graduate of this University with a long and 
distinguished record as teacher and administrator in school and Univer- 
sity who, as Minister of Education for the Province of Ontario in a 
period when numbers have increased enormously, has steadily directed 
policy toward the improvement of basic education." 

Seventeen Masonic lodges made him an honorary member; one lodge 
has assumed his name; three Grand Lodges made him an honorary 
Past Grand Master. At the time of his resignation as Director of Uni- 
versity Extension, a bursary and a scholarship were established in his 
name and as a tribute to his long and distinguished service. The 
bursary was established by his colleagues and associates to be known 
as the William James Dunlop Bursary of the value of $100, "available 
only to elementary school teachers in Northern and North-western 
Ontario who have credit for at least two subjects in the Pass Course 
for Teachers or the General Course (Extension) and who undertake 
to enroll in at least two subjects in the summer session of the Depart- 
ment of Extension immediately following the award." The scholar- 
ship, known as the Dr. W. J. Dunlop Scholarship, was the gift of the 


Toronto Branch of the Association of Administrative Assistants or 
Private Secretaries, of the value of $100, for excellence in any year 
of any course in University College. All these tributes and honours 
William James Dunlop bore with his usual commendable dignity and 
humility. Fred Stinson, a graduate of U.T.S. writing in the 1961 U.T.S. 
"Twig", said with truth: "I do not think U.T.S., the University, or the 
Ontario Legislature will see anyone quite like him again/' Little 
wonder is it, therefore, that on the afternoon of Monday, the 6th of 
February, 1961, the great St. Paul's Anglican Church on Bloor St. was 
filled with men and women of all classes, all creeds, and all profes- 
sions, come to pay their last tribute of respect to a good man who 
served with distinction wherever it was his lot to serve. 

— 1454— 


A bbreviations 

U. of T., PJR.: University of Toronto, President's Reports. 
R.M.E.: Report of Minister of Education. 
Mrs. D.: Mrs. W. J. Dunlop. 
G.L.P.: Grand Lodge Proceedings. 


The Formative Years 

B. M. Dunlop: History of the Dunlop Family, and R. T. Dunlop: Our Maternal Family. 

Robert Burns: A Man's a Man for a y That. 

A typewritten poem by W. J. Dunlop, entitled "Our Mother, October 8th, 1924", in 

possession of Mrs. D. 

Robert Burns: The Cotter's Saturday Night. 

A handwritten poem by W. J. Dunlop, entitled "Our Father, February 26th, 1924," in 

possession of Mrs. D. 


Years of Testing and Apprenticeship 

1 Official School Contract, in possession of Mrs. D. 

2 'The Memoirs of C. B. Sissons", p. 62. 

3 Programme in possession of Mrs. D. 

4 Certificate in possession of Mrs. D. 

5 Testimonial in possession of Mrs. D. 

« The School, vol. 12 (1923-4), Sept. 1923, p. 32. 

7 The School, vol. 25 (1936-7), June, 1937, p. 83. 


Pioneering in Adult Education 

U. ofT.,P.R. 
U. ofT., P.R. 
U. ofT., P.R. 
U. ofT., PR. 
U. ofT., P.R. 
U. ofT., P.R. 
U. ofT., P.R. 

1919-20, p. 44-9. 
1933, p. 11. 
1935, p. 
1928, p. 

1933, p. 
1936, p 

1950, p. 

1951, p 


p. 48. 






10 Letter to Dr. Sidney Smith, in possession of Mrs. D. 
^Letter of C. E. Higginbottom, in possession of Mrs. D. 
12 Dr. J. G. Althouse's Hart House Address, in possession of Mrs. D. 
13 Telegram in posession of Mrs. D. 
14 Tennyson: Ulysses. 



The Church and Freemasonry 

1 Excerpts from Dr. Armitage's letter to the author, now in possession of Mrs. D. 

2 G.L.P., 1923. 

3 G.L.P., 1928, p. 289-93. 
* G.L.P., 1929, p. 46. 

Minister of Education 

1 R.M.E., 1951, p. 2. 

2 Federation Memorandum to Mr. Frost, March 18, 1955; and also memorandum to M. of 
E., April 7, 1955. 

3 Toronto Globe and Mail, March 3, 1953. 

4 St. Catharines' Standard, February 3, 1961. 

5 Toronto Globe and Mail, October 10, 1951. 

8 Dr. Smith's letter to Dr. D., in possession of Mrs. D. 

7 Toronto Daily Star, April 4, 1953. 

8 C. F. Fraser to Dr. E. A. Corbett, in possession of Mrs. D. 

9 Hon. Dana Porter to Dr. D., in possession of Mrs. D. 
10 Toronto Daily Star, editorial, April 16, 1954. 

^The Bulletin, Vol. 32, No. 1, March 15; "More Stress on 3 R's" by O. A. Tate. 
12 Kingston Whig-Standard, February 3, 1961. 
13 WJ.D. to Federation: Correspondence file of O.T.F. 
1 federation to W.J.D.: Correspondence file of O.T.F. 
15 The Bulletin, Vol. 40, No. 1, January 30, 1960. 


1 Matthew Arnold: Rugby Chapel. 





= 1 

No. 81 




— rf 
— tj 








R. W. Bro. George R. Sterling, P.D.D.C.M. (Alberta) 

V. W. Bro. J. Lawrence Runnalls, P.C.S. (Ontario) 

Read at meetings of the Association jointly with High- 
lands Lodge, No. 168, April 12th, Edmonton, Alberta 
and with Innisfail Lodge No. 8, April 21st, 1966 
at Innisfail, Alberta. 


_«!», — ... 
•{•• — ••— -i 



h ■■ ■ 1 1 tin im hb«— mi^^im^^Kii— on — — us — ■■ wtj» T 

I— ■■ ■ ■ i— B g iiii» l »— M ■■■ ■■ ■■■MM— «M— MM m m ■■ ■ « ■ ■ >— —M— «■<—»■ ^ ■ » ■ — »■— BH im ■ !» ■— ■ ■ i i i || hi m| |— ||^»|A 

■ IK - .i -ll MW i — m 1| ■ ■»)»— UM i ■■ ■■ na M IB — H H— II w 


Making A Mason At Sight 

George R. Sterling, P.D.D.G.M. (Alberta) 
J. Lawrence Runnalls, P.G.S. (Ontario) 

The practice of "Making a Mason at Sight" is unknown to most Cana- 
dians, yet it may be traced back over many years. Only on two occasions 
has this taken place in Canada. 

The origin of the ceremony appears to be lost in the dim past but was 
initially recorded in 1731, soon after the formation of the first Grand Lodge 
in England. 

In 1858, Dr. Mackey, famous Masonic scholar and historian, was asked 
to enumerate the Landmarks of Masonry. He listed twenty-five and many 
American Grand Lodges acknowledged them to be correct. The eighth stated 
that it was "the prerogative of the Grand Master to make Masons at sight." 
Mackey's report appeared in an article on the "Foundation of Masonic Law" 
in the American Quarterly Review of Freemasonry. 

The Book of Constitution (Ontario) in setting out the powers of the 
Grand Master does not refer in any way to Making a Mason at Sight. In one 
section it says: "The statement of powers and prerogatives of the Grand 
Master contained in the foregoing sections shall not be construed as limiting 
or abridging the powers and prerogatives attached to the office of the Grand 
Master by Masonic law or custom, except in so far as they directly limit or 
abridge the same." This may cover the point as far as authority is concerned. 

The term "Making a Mason at Sight" was coined by Laurence Dermott, 
Grand Secretary of the Atholl Grand Lodge of England. In 1778, he set out 
the regulations then in use in his Grand Lodge. Dr. James Anderson, the 
author of the first constitution in 1723, called it "Making a Mason in an 
Occasional Lodge." 

Making a Mason at sight is quite a complicated ceremony and the term 
used in describing it is a misnomer. It is not simply the Grand Master touch- 
ing someone on the shoulder and declaring him to be a Mason. The 
candidate must possess all the qualifications that any other candidate 
possesses as required by the constitution of the Grand Lodge of the juris- 
diction: residential, physical, intellectual, free-born, of lawful age and 
well recommended. 

In every case recorded in recent years, the candidate because of his 
professional duties or manner of living, was unable to become a Mason in 
the usual pattern. Usually he expressed a desire to join the Order, or at 
least expressed an interest in it. 


The ceremony in all essentials must be performed by the Grand Master 
— none other may preside. It cannot be performed in private but in open 
lodge with at least the perfect number in attendance. No previous notice 
need be given for such a meeting. Each degree is conducted separately, with 
lodge opened in due form for each degree. Obligations are administered in 
the usual way and all essential lectures given in full. No examination, of 
course, can be taken between degrees. 

When a person has been made a Mason in such a fashion, he is con- 
sidered to be a "Mason at Large." He is not a member of any particular 
lodge. He may then petition for affiliation with the lodge of his choice or 
be elected an honorary member. It is usual for all this to be arranged in 
advance but cases have been reported when all did not go as planned. 

The practice of making a Mason at sight had its origin before the first 
Grand Lodge was formed as Dr. Anderson refers to it in the Book of Con- 
stitution in 1723. No doubt it was in use in the making of Masons of im- 
portant personages of Church and State in the operative and post-operative 
days of the Craft. 

Cases In England 

Regardless of the origin of the practice, in 1731, Lord Lovell, the Grand 
Master, formed an occasional lodge at Houghton Hall, Sir Robert Walpole's 
house in Norfolk, and there made the Duke of Lorraine, afterwards 
Emperor of Germany, and the Duke of Newcastle, Master Masons. These 
seem to be the first recorded cases. 

Six years later, in 1737, Dr. John Desaguliers, Past Grand Master, 
initiated, passed and raised Frederick, Prince of Wales, in an occasional 
lodge. As Desaguliers was not Grand Master, there is some evidence that 
it was contrary to custom. No doubt he acted under dispensation from the 
Grand Master who at that time was the Earl of Darnley. 

In 1766, Lord Blaney, Grand Master, convened an occasional lodge and 
initiated, passed and raised the Duke of Gloucester. 

The following year, John Salter, the Deputy Grand Master, who was 
acting Grand Master, conferred the three degrees on the Duke of Cumberland. 

On the death of the third Duke of Atholl, Grand Master of the Ancient 
or Atholl Grand Lodge of England, in December 1773, the election of Grand 
Lodge officers was postponed until March 1775. On the latter date the Grand 
Secretary, William Dickey, reported the following transactions of the Grand 
Master's Lodge : — 

"February 25, 1775 — admitted His Grace, the (fourth) Duke of 
Atholl, into the first, second and third degree; and after proper instruc- 
tion had been given (it was) proposed that (he) should be immediately 
installed Master of Grand Master's Lodge which was accordingly done." 


"Upon the secretary reading the above transactions, His Grace, the 
Duke of Atholl, was unanimously elected Grand Master, and on the 25th 
of the same month was duly installed." 

This case did not follow the usual pattern as there was no Grand Master 
although there must have been an acting one in the interim. 

It is also interesting to note that it was the custom in the Atholl, or 
Ancient Grand Lodge and in Provincial Grand Lodges warranted by it (for 
example, Ontario in 1792) to have a lodge called Grand Master's Lodge over 
which the Grand Master presided. (Ontario's oldest lodge is Niagara No. 2. 
Number 1, long extinct, was Grand Master's Lodge). 

The occasional lodge was not necessarily convened at the usual meeting 
place of Grand Lodge. For example, in 1766, Grand Lodge held its com- 
munications at the Crown and Anchor Tavern while the occasional lodge was 
held at the Horn Tavern. In 1767, the lodge was held at the Thatched House 
Tavern, while Grand Lodge continued to meet at its usual place. 

In 1813, the Ancient and Modern Grand Lodges joined together to form 
the United Grand Lodge of England. Since that time no Grand Master has 
used his prerogative to make a Mason at sight and it is doubtful if such an 
action would meet with the approval of the English brethren today. It is well 
to note that those who were made Masons in this peculiar fashion were of 
the nobility and in many cases they were given special treatment in order 
that they might become head of the Craft. 

Cases In The United States 

There are numerous examples in the United States of "Making a Mason 
at Sight." Thirteen of the fifty states acknowledge the right of the Grand 
Master to take the action although not all of the States have made use of it. 

The last instance in New York State was in 1867 when Grand Master 
Robert D. Holmes reported to Grand Lodge that he had made Hon. James 
T. Brady a Mason at sight on account of his personal merit. Previous cases 
in this State are not at hand. 

Pennsylvania seems to be the State with the most cases. In 1887, Joseph 
Eichbaun, Grand Master, initiated, passed and raised a candidate although 
the name is not recorded among the sources studied. 

Governor Asa S. Bushnell of Ohio was made a Mason at sight in 1892 
by Grand Master Levi C. Goodale. 

On March 30, 1898, John Wanamaker, a successful merchant and phil- 
anthropist of Philadelphia, was made a Mason at sight by Grand Master 
Wagner. He was followed by two judges, Pennypacker and Gordon of that 

The making of Admiral Schley by Grand Master Small of the District 
of Columbia in 1899 caused widespread discussion. It was reported that all 


three degrees were conferred in full form for the Admiral. Several years 
later, Governor Foster M. Voorhees, New Jersey, was made a Mason in the 
Opera House at Elizabeth, NJ. by the Grand Master of New Jersey. Still 
more recently, Vice-President Fairbanks was similarly honoured by the Grand 
Master of Masons in Indiana. 

Perhaps the best known and most widely publicised case was that of 
President-elect William Howard Taft. The ceremony took place on February 
18, 1909, at the Scottish Rite Cathedral in Cincinnati, Ohio. Before being 
nominated for the Presidency, Taft expressed the desire to become a Mason. 
His father and brother had been members for some time. The necessity of 
him being continually on the move and the many calls upon his time made it 
difficult for him to devote much time to the organization and prevented him 
gratifying his wish. W illiam B. Melish and Levi C. Goodale, Past Grand 
Masters of Ohio, and Jacob H. Brownwell, Grand Secretary, petitioned Charles 
S. Hoskinson, Grand Master to perform the ceremony of making Taft a 
Mason at sight. 

Soon after the event, George Fleming Moore, Grand Prior of the Supreme 
Council 33°, Southern Jurisdiction, and editor of the New Age, published a 
booklet describing in detail the ceremony. 

He reported that the Grand Masters of twenty States were in attendance 
as well as the candidate's brother. 

Coming up to more recent times, we find that General Douglas Mac- 
Arthur, famous hero of World War II, was made a Mason at sight by Samuel 
Hawthorne, Grand Master of the Philippines, on January 17, 1936. He imme- 
diately applied for affiliation with Manila Lodge, No. 1. Of his own volition 
he advanced through the Scottish Rite becoming an Honorary 33° Mason 
in 1947. 

On May 16, 1946, General Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright received the 
degrees of Masonry all in one day in Union Lodge, No. 7, Junction City, 
Kansas. He had served in the Philippines and was captured by the Japanese 
and endured great hardships. Although in 1946 he was stationed in Texas, 
his home was in Kansas so the ceremony took place there with Grand Master 
Samuel G. Wiles presiding. 

On December 26, 1946, a most unusual instance occurred when Grand 
Master Frank J. Myers, of Wyoming, made a Mason at sight of his own son, 
Ralph E. Myers, when the latter was on his death bed in a hospital in Buffalo. 
We have not been able to learn the circumstances under which the Grand 
Master in one jurisdiction entered the territory of another and conferred the 
three degrees upon the candidate. This was the first occasion in the history 
of Wyoming that such a making had taken place. 

Still another Pennsylvania case took place when Richard A. Kern, Grand 
Master, conferred the three degrees on Merle M. Ogden in Fernwood Lodge, 
No. 543, Philadelphia, on December 4, 1947. 


In most, if not all, the cases here recorded, it would seem that the 
sentiments behind each case resembled those that actuate the granting of 
honorary degrees by universities. 

Cases In Canada 

There are just two Canadian cases on record, one in Ontario in 1937, 
and the other in Alberta in 1946. 

The Grand Master of Canada (Ontario) for 1937-9 was William James 
Dunlop, who, at the time, was Director of Extension for the University of 
Toronto. The President of the University at this time was Canon Henry 
John Cody. At the time, Dunlop said of his President, "I think Dr. Cody is 
the greatest Canadian of our time. The purpose of "Making a Mason at Sight" 
is simply to honour a man who has rendered distinguished service to the 
Craft, and who is at an age when he would not ordinarily join the Craft in 
the usual way." 

Canon Cody was born at Embro and after progressing through early 
education, entered the University to which he was attached in some measure 
for the next sixty years. On graduation in 1894, he was ordained and appointed 
a curate in St. Paul's Anglican Church, Toronto. He rose to acting rector in 
1899, and to rector in 1907. He continued in this capacity until 1934 when he 
became President of the University. 

He entered politics in Ontario as a Conservative in the government of 
William H. Hearst, and for 1918-19 was Minister of Education. 

Twice he refused a bishopric, preferring to remain with the University. 
He was honoured with more than a score of degrees in Canada and the 
United States. 

He died on April 27, 1951 at age 82. Bulletin 496, issued with the regular 
notices of University Lodge, No. 496, Toronto had this to say, in part, in 
the September 1951 issue, "The Honourable and Reverend Brother Henry 
John Cody, M.A., D.D., LL.D., C.M.G., who passed to the Grand Lodge 
Above on April 27, 1951, at the age of 82, was a member of Prince of 
Wales Lodge, No. 620, as well as of University Lodge, No. 496. His intimate 
friends in the Church, in education and in public life, considered him the 
greatest Canadian of his time. 

He was born and educated in the little village of Embro, attended Dr. 
Tossie's Grammar School in Gait, and was one of the most brilliant graduates 
of the University of Toronto, heading his classes and winning medals and 
prizes in two honour courses, Classics and Philosophy. He was an eloquent 
and inspiring preacher, was rector of St. Paul's Anglican Church for thirty- 
three years, helped to reorganize the University of Toronto 1905-6, was 
Minister of Education of Ontario 1918-19, member of the Board of Governors 
of the University and Chairman of the Board 1923-32, President of the 
University 1932-45, and Chancellor 1944-47." 


He was a great man and one of his greatest characteristics was kindness. 
He was interested in people and had remarkable ability in remembering names 
and faces. Everywhere he went in Canada, in the United States, in the 
British Isles, or elsewhere, he found friends because he was friendly. Always 
cheerful and happy, he helped and inspired everyone he met, from the King 
to the humblest pan-handler in the street. And he was a Canadian first, last 
and always, and proud he was to be a citizen of our country." 

Grand Master Dunlop was a member of University Lodge, No. 496. 
The officers of the lodge seemed quite in the dark as far as plans for the 
special occasion were concerned, although a short notice in the October, 1937, 
summons stated that a matter of unusual interest would be presented at the 
meeting on October 13. 

After the opening and business sessions, it was announced that M.W. 
Bro. Dunlop and other Grand Lodge officers were in waiting and requested 
admission. When they entered and the Grand Master had assumed the gavel, 
he announced that he was about to form an occasional lodge and named the 
officers for the occasion. He also announced that the candidate would be 
Canon Cody. He was then admitted and given the obligation and lectures of 
the first degree. This was followed by a similar course in the other two 
degrees. Several who were present have stated that all essential parts were 

When the work was completed, the Grand Master addressed the candidate 
and informed him that he was a "Mason at Large." 

At this juncture, a Past Master gave notice that he would move that 
Brother Cody be made an honorary member. This would require a unanimous 
vote. Canon Cody made no application to affiliate in the usual manner. 

At the November meeting, when the motion was made and put, the ballot 
was not clear. Some one apparently was not happy with the way things were 
done. The matter was shelved for the time being. 

In the meantime, Prince of Wales Lodge, No. 630, Toronto, took advan- 
tage of the disagreement in University Lodge and elected Canon Cody an 
honorary member of that lodge. 

Between October 1937 and June 1938 much politicing took place behind 
the scenes and on June 8, he was elected to honorary membership in University 

The press of the day reported the events in quite some detail. The 
Toronto Star, on October 14, put it this way, "Masonic circles in Toronto 
rumbled today with reverberations of last night's unique ceremony at Masonic 
Temple, when Dr. H. J. Cody was made a Mason at sight by W. J. Dunlop, 
Grand Master in Ontario. 

"Walter Howell, former alderman and high-ranking Mason said. "I did 
not think, as I watched that ceremony, that it was in the best interests of 


Freemasonry or of Dr. Cody himself. I did not think it was necessary. If a 
man wants to become a Mason, he is better off starting at the bottom. The 
lessons I learned when I was taking my first, second and third degrees have 
been very valuable to me. The whole idea of progressing through the ranks 
is an important part of Freemasonry. Canon Cody would have benefitted 
by the study that the various degrees necessitate." 

"I'd rather not discuss the action of the Grand Master," said John 
A. Rowland, P.G.M., "but it is something which I decidedly did not ever 
do. Time will show if there is any resentment over what has been done." 

Time heals all things and in a very short time the case became an item 
in Masonic history and was to all intents forgotten. 


The second case in Canada of "Making a Mason at Sight" took place 
in Alberta in 1946. 

The Grand Lodge of Alberta was in session at Edmonton in June of 
that year. The Grand Master, M. W. Bro. G. H. Crane-Williams, took the 
occasion to confer the signal honour on one of the most respected of his 
fellow Albertans, Bishop Barfoot. 

It might be well at this point in our story to record some information 
concerning the men behind the scenes at this time. 

George Henry Crane-Williams was born in Kidderminster, England, on 
October 29, 1882. In 1905 he went to the Orient as a missionary for the 
Church of England, and was stationed at Fukien, China. Soon he transferred 
to civil employment but he never lost his interest in the Church. At the out- 
break of World War I, he returned to England and enlisted for war service. 
At the close of the war, he became employed with the Austin Motor Cor- 
poration, travelling continually in Europe, Asia, Africa and America. His 
former connections made his services specially useful in the Far East. When 
he retired he settled in the Peace River district of Alberta. 

He was raised in Rising Sun Lodge, No. 1401, E.C., in Kobe, Japan. 
He served as Grand Senior Warden and Grand Secretary of the District 
Grand Lodge of Japan. He was active, also, in Capitular and Scottish Rite 

In Alberta, he joined Lake Saskatoon Lodge, No. 106 and Grand Prairie 
Lodge, No. 105 and held honorary membership in other lodges. 

Making his home at Dimsdale in the Peace River district, he worked 
faithfully for his Church. For this, he was honoured with the ecclesiastical 
rank of Canon of St. James' Cathedral, Peace River, and Honorary Canon 
of the Diocese of Athabasca. In this connection, he made a lasting friendship 
with Rt. Rev. Walter Foster Barfoot, then Bishop of Edmonton. 

A second person behind the scenes was Bro. the Rt. Rev. A. H. Sovereign, 
M.A., D.D., Bishop of Athabasca and Chaplain of Peace River Lodge, No. 


89 at the time. He was very well known to the Grand Master and to Bishop 

The third person was the late M. W. Bro. Sam Harris, Past Grand 
Master of Alberta, so well beloved, not only in his own province but 
throughout all Canada. His home was at High Prairie, also in the Peace 
River district. 

There is no doubt that these three, along with several others, discussed 
the whole situation carefullly before the ceremony was embarked upon at the 
Grand Lodge session in June 1946. 

Walter Foster Barfoot was a native of Collingwood, Ontario, having 
been born there in 1893. After passing through the schools of his native city, 
he entered Wycliffe College in Toronto to train for his chosen profession, 
the clergy of the Anglican Church. From this college he graduated with the 
degree of Master of Arts. 

World War I intervened before he gained a foothold in his profession. 
He served with the Royal Sussex Regiment, where he attained the rank of 
captain and afterwards became adjutant of his Regiment. In the intervening 
years between the two World Wars he took an active part in the Canadian 
Legion, acting as chaplain. 

On demobilizing, he served first in St. John's Anglican Church, in 
Toronto. In 1922, he became Rector at Melita, Manitoba, from where he 
moved in 1925 to become a professor at Emmanuel College, Saskatoon. Nine 
years later he was called to be Warden of St. John's College, Winnipeg, and 
Canon of St. John's Cathedral. In 1942 he became Archbishop of Edmonton 
and in 1951 Primate of the Anglican Church of all Canada. 

In 1942 he married Lorena Richardson. They had no children. 

The procedure in the two Canadian ceremonies differed in several points. 
In the Alberta case a formal notice was issued and all interested persons were 
aware of what was taking place. Apparently it had the approval of all closely 
associated with Grand Lodge. 

The "Occasional Lodge" opened on June 11 at precisely 6:00 P.M. 
with the Grand Master, M. W. Bro. Crane- Williams in the chair. After the 
First degree was conferred in all essentials, adjournment took place for dinner. 
The toast to the "New Initiate" was given by M. W. Bro. George Moore 
and the Bishop responded suitably. At 8:15 P.M., M.W. Bro. H. P. Reid 
was in the chair for the Fellowcraft degree, followed by M. W. Bro. John 
Martland for the Master Mason degree. Before closing, the Grand Master 
addressed the candidate and M. W. Bro. Martland closed the Lodge. 

At the session of Grand Lodge the next morning, the Grand Master 
made reference to the ceremonies of the previous evening in these words, 
in part, "It is great joy to me, as it will be a pleasure in perpetuity to reflect 
upon, that I was able to exercise my prerogative to confer upon Brother 


Barfoot the three degrees in Freemasonry in an occasional lodge which I 
called for that especial purpose. He is a veteran of the First World War 
and a Chaplain of the Legion and knowing men and being known of men. 
I am convinced we shall benefit vastly from his association with us, even as 
I know so well he will be greatly enriched by what Freemasonry has to 
offer him among other worthy men." 

Prior to the assembly of Grand Lodge on June 12, a church service was 
held in the Cathedral of All Saints. The preacher was Bro. the Rt. Rev 
A. H. Sovereign. He was assisted in the service by the Grand Master. In 
the sermon, Bro. Sovereign stressed the worthwhile life and seemed to be 
speaking directly to Bishop Barfoot. 

In closing he quoted from Bro. Rudyard Kipling, 

"And only the Master shall praise us, and only the Master shall 
blame ; 
And no one shall zvork for money, and no one shall zvork for fame; 
But each for the joy of working, and each, in his separate star, 
Shall drazv the Thing as he sees It for the God of Things as they are." 

Bishop Sovereign's text was ; 

"And, in that City of God, the length and breadth and height are 
equal." (rev. 21. 16) 

Looking back in 1966, twenty years after the occurrence, it would seem 
that it had the approval of all. In all, six Grand Masters assisted M. W. Bro. 
Crane-Williams in the ceremony. M. W. Bro. R. B. Dargavel representing 
the Grand Lodge of Ontario and M. W. Bro. M. S. Donovan, Grand Master 
of Manitoba, were in attendance at Grand Lodge. 

Bro. Barfoot did not take a very active part in Masonry in the years 
following his initiation, partly due to the age at which he entered the Order 
but largely due to the busy life which he led and to the illness of his wife. 
He did, however, fraternize with his brethren and worked indirectly for 
the Order. 


In February 1925, (Note that this was before the Canadian cases) the 
Builder, which was the official journal of the National Masonic Research 
Society, carried a symposium on the pros and cons of making a Mason at 
sight. About twenty Masonic scholars took part. Both sides were argued 
fully. Most of those taking part were from the United States and the sides 
were about evenly divided. In this paper we shall quote the two Canadians 
who were represented, N. W. J. Haydon of Toronto and R. J. Meekren of 
Stanstead, Quebec, both of whom seem to be in favour of the privilege. 

It Is Legitimate 

"If, when publishing the symposium, you would make it clear that this 
phrase really means conferring upon some eminent citizen, who has signified 
his desire to join us, an honorary membership in our Order generally, in 'an 


occasional lodge,' called into being for that object alone then I would say 
that it is a legitimate privilege of the office of the Grand Master — to be 
exercised with the discretion we expect from such a trusted officer." 

"It is true that the conditions attendant upon this action in the eighteenth 
century no longer exist. Our Order has become popular and honourable, 
so that we no longer need to scramble for "some nobleman to act as Grand 
Master." But there still are noble men, whose earlier years contained no 
opportunity — possibly no inclination — to knock at our doors. Why should 
we not recognize their services to humanity as do the universities ; leaving 
to their own choice their honouring some constituent lodge by affiliating 
with it ?" 

N. W. J. Haydon 

Legitimate If Correctly Interpreted 

"If 'to Make Masons at Sight' be understood as meaning that a Grand 
Master may take a profane aside privately and make him a Mason, I should 
unhesitatingly say it was against the general trend of opinion and tradition 
among Masons in all countries and all times so far as we have record; 
although power to do so has been claimed, and probably at times exercised, 
by holders of high degrees. 

"If, however, the phase be taken in the sense that a Grand Master may 
summon a sufficient number of Masons, and with them form a lodge, and 
in that lodge initiate a candidate without the regular formalities of investi- 
gation, it is within his right, as in so doing he only exercises in one case the 
general dispensatory powers that inhere in his office, where not specifically 
limited by constitution or statute." 

"The Grand Master is the sole inheritor of the powers once common to 
all Master Masons, and in an institution founded on antiquity, such a tra- 
ditional right ought to be maintained, and exercised in special cases where 
the character and position of the candidate, and the general circumstances, 
combine to make it appropriate and beneficial to the Craft." 

R. J. Meekren 


The Builder: Volume II (1916), XI (1925), XIV (1928) 

The History of Freemasonry: R. F. Gould, Volume IV 

Making a Mason at Sight: G. M. Moore, Cincinnati, Ohio (1909) 

The Freemason: Volume LXXIII (1953), LXXIV (1954) 

Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry: Mackey and McClenachan, Volume II 

The Philalethcs: Volume XVII (1964) 

The Toronto Daily Star: October, 14, 1937 

Bulletin 496: September 1937 (University Lodge, No. 496, Toronto) 

Proceedings: Grand Lodge of Alberta, 1940, 1941, 1946. 

Notes: R. W. Bro. E. H. Rivers, Grand Secretary, Alberta 

Printed Programme, Occasional Lodge, Alberta: June 11, 1946 


Supplement To Booklet No. 81 


On July 14, 1966, Bro. Ronald S. Longley, M.W. Grand Master of 
Masons in Nova Scotia convened an "Occasional Lodge" in the Common- 
wealth Room of the Nova Scotian Hotel, Halifax, N.S.. at 2:30 p.m. 

There was present a large gathering of members of the Craft in Nova 
Scotia, together with a number of distinguished visitors from across Canada, 
and from the New England States, the guests of the Grand Lodge of Nova 
Scotia, meeting in its Centennial session on the following day. 

The Grand Master was assisted by the principal officers of Grand Lodge 
and by several Past Grand Masters : 

Worshipful Master M.W. Ronald S. Longley, Grand Master 

Immediate Past Master M.W. Bro. R. Clifford Levy, P.G.M. 

Deputy Master R.W. Bro. C. Dickson Sabean, D.G.M. 

Senior Warden R.W. Bro. Fred C. Morrison, S.G.W. 

Junior Warden -„„R.M. Bro. Murray Grandy, J.G.W. 

Treasurer V.W. Bro. A. E. Nichols, Gd. Treas. 

Secretary ...R.W. Bro. Harold F. Sipprell, Gd. Secty. 

Chaplain ....M.W. Bro. Donald M. Sinclair, P.G.M. . Gd. Chap. 

Senior Deacon „„.... V.W. Bro. G. E. Simmons, S.G.D. 

Junior Deacon V.W. Bro. J. W. A. Dunbar, J.G.D. 

Inner Guard V.W. Bro. E. T. Ruddcrham, Gd. Pursuivant 

Tyler V.W. Bro. G. Morrison, Gd. Tyler 


Before opening the Occasional Lodge the Grand Master explained the 
purpose of the meeting, quoting from the paper by Bros. George S. Sterling 
and J. Lawrence Runnalls on the subject of "Making a Mason at Sight*' 
printed in the Proceedings of the Canadian Masonic Research Association 
(No. 81) respecting the authority of a reigning Grand Master to exercise 
this prerogative and making special references to the two occasions in Cana- 
dian Craft Masonry when this prerogative was exercised. 

The candidate on this occasion was His Honour Henry Poole Mac- 
Keen. Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, a man of many distinctions, 
civil and military, and he proposed to ask the three senior Lodges of the 
jurisdiction to confer the several degrees. 

First Degree : 

After declaring the "OccaMonal Lodge" open in due and ample form, he 
called upon the officers of Virgin Lodge No. 3, G.R.N.S., to occupy the 
stations and places and confer the First degree upon the candidate according 
to the Emulation working. 


The members of Virgin Lodge taking part in this ceremony were : 

The East Wor. Bro. Claude F. Keays 

The West Bro. Norman McG. Lambert 

The South Bro. J. Goldman 

Signs, Token and Word Wor. Bro. Ernest A. Stone 

Charity Charge ._Wor. Bro. George O. Cahoon 

Working Tools Bro. Kenneth A. Grant 

Charge Wor. Bro. Courteney F. Jones 

Perambulation Bro. Donald B. Rcid 

Rep Candidate Bro. George Edgar Dobson 

Acting Sen. Deacon M.W. Bro. H. M. Standish, P.G.M. 

Organist V.W. Bro. Dr. R. A. P. Fleming 

M.W. Bro. Harry M. Standish of Virgin Lodge No. 3 then gave a short 
history of the Lodge, which was formed under a dispensation dated January 
21, 1782, as Artillery Lodge No. 2 on the roll of the Provincial Grand 
Lodge of Nova Scotia (Ancients) receiving its warrant, September 9. 1784 
and its warrant as Virgin Lodge No. 2, on July 31, 1800. In 1829, a 
warrant from the United Grand Lodge of England was granted to it as 
No. 829, E.C., renumbered as No. 558 in 1862, and as No. 396 in 1863. It 
united with the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia as No. 3 in 1869. On its long 
roll of membership there have been many men of great distinction, including 
five Past Grand Masters in Nova Scotia. 

The candidate was then received in the usual way, duly obligated, 
invested with signs, grips and words, presented with the working tools of 
an Entered Apprentice and invested with an E.A. Apron. 

Second Degree : 

Following the closing of Virgin Lodge on the First degree, the Grand 
Master called upon Saint John's Lodge No. 2 to confer the Fellowcraft 
degree, using the Emulation work, which was exemplified in faultless style 
and in full form. 

Saint John's Lodge No. 2 was formed under a dispensation dated May 11, 
1780 and warranted as No. 211 (Eng. Cons., Ancients) June 30, 1780. In 
1814 it became No. 265 on the roll of the United Grand Lodge of England; 
No. 187, in 1832; No. 161, in 1863; and No. 2, G.R.N. S. in 1869. Its 
membership list over the years includes scores of names of great distinction 
in the military and naval history of the city and Province. 

The East W. Bro. Harold F. Spencer 

The West Bro. Frederick A. Briggs 

The South Bro. Hazen H. Veno 

Prayers -- R.W. Bro. Walter M. Richard 

Director of Ceremonies ....W. Bro. Harold C. Walker 


Floor Work Bro. Earnest J. Moignard, S.D. 

South East Corner Bro. Malcolm H. Mitchell, J.D. 

Signs, Tokens & Words ....Bro. F. Martin, I.G. 

Working Tools Bro. Joseph A. Tummonds, J.S. 

Music -— ....Bro. Walton H. Parker, Org. 

Rep. Candidate Bro. Eric L. Lavers 

Conducting the candidate __R.W. Bro. Dr. John R. Vaughan 

Labour was then suspended until 8 :00 p.m. During the interval, the 
distinguished visitors were entertained at dinner. 
Third Degree : 

On resuming labour, the Grand Master called on the Master and Officers 
of Saint Andrew's Lodge No. 1 to confer the Third degree. 

Saint Andrew's Lodge No. 1 was founded in 1750 as the First Lodge 
with the Hon. Edward Cornwallis, founded of Halifax, as its first Master, 
under a dispensation from Major Erasmus James Philipps, Provincial Grand 
Master for Nova Scotia under Henry Price, Provincial Grand Master, 

In 1758 it became No. 4, on the roll of the Provincial Grand Lodge of 
Nova Scotia (Ancients) ; received a warrant, No. 155, dated March 26, 
1768 from the Grand Lodge of England, Ancients; adopted the name St. 
Andrew's in 1781; No. 188, (Eng. Const.) in 1814; No. 137, in 1832; No. 
118, in 1863; and No. 1, (G.R.N. S.) in 1869; English Centenary Warrant 
Feb. 9, 1871. The Lodge is now the oldest Lodge in the British Common- 
wealth Overseas and has had among its membership twelve P.G.M.'s. 

The officers taking part in the First section were: 

W. M. W. Bro. J. Bernal Sawyer 

S. W. Bro. Frederick H. Langille 

J. W. Bro. Ian W. Murray 

Treas W. Bro. Hugh E. Spencer 

Secretary Bro. Frank E. Wood 

Chaplain W. Bro. Samuel E. Clowser 

S. D. Bro. Mellick E. Warren 

J. D. Bro. Herbert F. Grant 

I. G. — Bro. William J. Powers 

S. S. ..Bro. Douglas Murray 

J. S Bro. Arthur C. Layton 

Marshal Bro. Arnold S. Feder 

I. P. M. Wor. Bro. Kenneth W. W'insbv 


The principal actors in the Second Section or Drama were : 

Prologue V.W. Bro. H. M. Mclnnes 

King Solomon _„. W. Bro. J. B. Sawyer 

Hiram King of Tyre Bro. Fred Langille 

Hiram AB Bro. Claude LeRoux 

Herald —.Bro. A. Laurie Redden 

Trumpeter Bro. Erno Reti 

Marshal Bro. D .R. Sawyer 

Master of Ceremonies Bro. R. G. Hattic 

High Priest Bro. Ian W. Murray 

Scribe Bro. B. A. Redmond 

Seafaring Man ....Bro. W. J. Powers 

together with about thirty others taking the parts of nobles, guards, crafts- 
men and ruffians, and the necessary make-up, properties and directors ; the 
"work" being done according to the authorized work of the jurisdiction, 
under the direction of Bro. A. D. Grayston, with most dramatic effect. 

On the retirement of the cast the Grand Master thanked those who had 
taken part in the conferring of the three degrees, and after a few words from 
the newly raised Brother, the Occasional Lodge was closed in due and ample 
form. It was truly a memorable night. 




* — . 



No. 82 








1819 - 1874 

First Grand Secretary 


by Bro. John E. Taylor 

Read at the 44th Meeting of the Association held at 
Hamilton, Ontario, May 12, 1966 



" ■"■ " il 


Thomas Bird Harris 

by Bro. John E. Taylor 

Thomas Bird Harris was one of the most prominent Freemasons of his 
era and the first Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Canada when the 
amalgamation took place between that Grand Body and the Ancient Grand 
Lodge of Canada, July 14th, 1857. Of his private life very little is known. 
History is silent as to his activities outside of Freemasonry. He is known to 
have been an Anglican by faith and a member of the St. George's Society, 
Toronto. He was also a member and director of the Mechanics Institute, 
Toronto. Doubtless he was active in many other fields, but of these we are 
told nothing. 

The minutes of St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 16, Toronto, where he was 
initiated in 1848, do not give his occupation, and one has to search obituary 
notices to find out much about the man. He was born at Bristol, England, 
in 1819; he and his family came to Canada in 1832, 1 but a search of early 
directories of the City of Toronto fails to show his name. It may be fairly 
assumed, however, that he was residing with his family in Toronto in 1848 
as the minutes of the 12th September for St. Andrew's Lodge No. 16 show 
that Thomas Bird Harris and John Harris were both proposed for member- 
ship by Bros. T. J. Smith and R. McClure, P.M. John Harris was probably 
his brother and was also active in the Craft. 

Between 1848 and 1849, Bro. Harris moved to Hamilton where he lived 
the rest of his life. He affiliated with The Lodge of Strict Observance on 
November 20th, 1849, giving his occupation as that of a merchant. He took 
his demit thence December 19th, 1854. 2 In 1850 he is shown as a Grand 
Steward — member of Lodge No. 22 — and it can be presumed that he was 
then one of the Wardens as the account notes the presence of the Masters, 
Past Masters and Wardens of several lodges. 

St. John's Lodge No. 231 (Irish) 

Early in 1852 Bros. J. W. Blaine, H. Langton, T. B. Harris, A. Booker, 
J. F. McCuaig, and others made application to the Grand Lodge of Ireland 
for a charter to open a lodge in Hamilton. The Grand Lodge acceded to their 
request and a warrant, numbered 231, and dated July 2nd, 1852 was issued, 
stating that: "Our trusty and well beloved brethren, T. B. Harris, A. Booker 
Jr., and John W. Kerr, having besought us that we should be pleased to 
erect a Lodge of Freemasons in Hamilton, in the County of Wentworth, 
and in the Province of Canada West, of such persons, who by their know- 
ledge in Masonry, may contribute to the true advancement thereof. We, 
therefore, having nothing more at heart than the prosperity of Masonry and 
reposing special confidence in our said trusty and well beloved brethren, do 
by these presents, constitute and approve them, the said Thos. Bird Harris, 
Alfred Booker and John William Kerr to be Master and Wardens of a lodge 




of Free and Accepted Masons, to be hoi den in Hamilton, County of Went- 
worth, and Province of Canada West, aforesaid." 3 

Thus on St. John's Day, December 27th, in the old Masonic Hall, at the 
corner of Main and John Streets, now called Germania Hall, the first officers 
of St. John's Lodge No. 231 G.R.I. — now No. 40 G.R.C. — were installed, 
with Bro. T. B. Harris as the first Worshipful Master. Wor. Bro. Harris 
was re-elected Master again on June 16th, 1853. 

Provincial Grand Lodge Formed 

Then on November 24th, in the lodge-room of St. John's Lodge No. 231, 
was held the first meeting of the lodges working under the jurisdiction of the 
Grand Lodge of Ireland to discuss "Matters of the utmost importance to the 
progress of Masonry in Canada West." 4 Brethren from five Irish lodges 
attended, and Bro. Harris was chosen President of the convention, commun- 
ications being received from two other lodges not represented approving a 
copy of resolutions passed by King Hiram No. 226 Ingersoll, and also 
approving the formation of a Provincial Grand Lodge. A motion was passed 
"that the rapid increase of Lodges working under warrants granted by the 
Grand Lodge of Ireland, requires a provincial governing authority, to be 
composed of representatives from the several private lodges in Canada." 

A second convention was held in London, Canada West on the 4th May 
1854, at which a committee was appointed "to draft a constitution for the 
government of the Grand Lodge of Canada West." Wor. Bro. Harris was 
a member of this committee, and now held the Provincial Grand Lodge rank 
of Very Worshipful. The rank must have come from the Grand Lodge of 
Ireland as such an appointment definitely did not come from the Provincial 
Grand Lodge of the English jurisdiction. At the subsequent convention held 
at the Masonic Hall in Hamilton on October 10th, 1854, Thomas Bird Harris 
was chosen Secretary, and thus became Grand Secretary of the A.F. & A.M. 
of Canada, an office he was to hold in succeeding Grand Lodges until his 
death. William Mercer Wilson was elected the first Grand Master at the 
same Convention. Their deaths occurred within months of each other. 

On November 2nd, 1855, the officers of the new Grand Lodge were 
installed by M. W. Bro. the Hon. H. T. Backus, P.G.M. of the Grand Lodge 
of the State of Michigan. Bro. Harris continued as Grand Secretary, when 
the Ancient Grand Lodge of Canada and the Grand Lodge of Canada were 
united in 1858. 

All told Brother Harris was W. Master of St. John's Lodge six times; in 
1852, when the Lodge was formed, 1853, 1858, 1859, 1869 and 1870. He was 
also Junior Warden of Acacia Lodge, Hamilton, Upper Canada, at its for- 
mation in 1855. 

The history of Acacia Lodge No. 61, Hamilton, contains the following 
extract relating to Bro. Harris (p. 8) : "The meeting of Freemasons interested 
in the contemplated establishment of a new Masonic lodge, Hamilton, was 


held in the City Hotel in June 1855. There were fifteen present, of whom 
nine were Past Masters and one an Entered Apprentice. W. Bro. W. C. 
Stephens was Chairman and W. Bro. Thomas Bird Harris, Secretary. He 
was J.W. from 1855 to 1857 and twice W.M. in 1863 and 1865." 

Royal Arch Masons 

Bro. Harris joined St. John's Chapter No. 231 attached to St. John's 
Lodge of the same number. This Chapter is now No. 6 in the Grand Chapter 
of the Royal Arch Masons of Canada in the Province of Ontario. As first 
Principal of this Chapter, he was prominent in the formation of the Grand 
Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Canada at a meeting of three Chapters 
held in Hamilton, January 19th, 1857. At this meeting the formation took 
place of the new Grand Chapter with R. Ex. Companion Thomas B. Harris, 
Grand Scribe Ezra. He was now Grand Secretary of two of the most impor- 
tant constituent bodies of Freemasonry in Upper Canada. He was also a 
member of Hiram Chapter No. 7, at Ancaster and was made its First Prin- 
cipal in 1857, and likewise one of the founders of Mount Moriah Chapter 
No. 19, in St. Catharines, in 1861, as Scribe N. A copy of his signature is 
extant in a register. 

Red Cross of Constantine 

Brother T. B. Harris was a charter member of Harington Conclave 
No. 22 at its formation July 28, 1870, and was the first Most Puissant Sov- 
ereign. Other charter members were Thomas White, John James Mason — 
a subsequent Grand Secretary — Richard White and Alexander Turner. 
The Conclave did not survive and was revitalised in 1955 with a new number 

Knights Templar 

T. B. Harris continued to join other Masonic bodies, as they were 
formed. He was installed in Genessee Encampment at Lockport, New York, 
in 1854 5 and in the following year obtained a warrant from the Supreme 
Grand Conclave of Ireland to open an Encampment at Hamilton, to be 
attached according, to the Irish constitution — to Lodge No. 231, Irish 
Registry, Hamilton, of which he was by now a Past Master. When this war- 
rant was exchanged for an English Templar warrant, he became the first 
Eminent Commander of Godfrey de Bouillon Encampment. 6 He served on 
eight different occasions and was the strength and stay of the Encampment 
in its early history. On the formation of Plantagenet Preceptory No. 8, St. 
Catharines in 1866, he was again one of the charter members. In the Pro- 
vincial Grand Conclave, he held numerous offices. In 1861 he was Grand 
Chamberlain; a year later, he was Grand Sub-Prior, and for the next four 
years to 1866 he was Prior. In 1867 he became Chamberlain : in 1868 he was 
Grand Chancellor of the Dominion Body, an office he held until 1872. 

Cryptic Rite 

R. 111. Comp. Harris was a Past R. 111. D.G.M. in this Order and was 
Inspector-General of Divisions in 1873. 7 


Scottish Rite 

The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite took form in Hamilton in 1868 
with the Sovereign Chapter of Rose Croix and Moore Sovereign Consistory, 
and as a Freemason already prominent in all existing orders, Harris was 
one of the original members and was admitted into the 32nd degree. He was 
also named one of the first members of Moore Sovereign Consistory and at 
the second meeting was elected Lieut. -Commander. 8 He also became a member 
of the 33rd degree and an Active Member of the Supreme Council. 

Thomas Bird Harris, a man dedicated to Freemasonry, if ever there 
was one, died from a severe attack of typhoid fever on August 18th, 1874 
at the age of 55. His funeral must have been one of the largest and most 
impressive which the City of Hamilton had seen at that time or indeed for 
many years to come. 

The editorial page of the Hamilton Spectator for Friday, August 21st 
gives an account of over a column and a half filled with details. The Masonic 
service was read in front of his home on Duke Street by the Grand Master, 
M. W. Bro. William Mercer Wilson. His body was then borne to the Church 
of the Ascension, and the Anglican Service given almost in full. The whole 
would fill many pages. Masonic burial hymns are rarely heard these days and 

1 close with the one sung at the open grave. 

"Deep sorrow now pervades each heart, 
And grief our bosoms swell ; 
A brother from our band departs, 
In that new home to dwell. 
No more in our loved lodge again 
Shall we our brother greet : 
But in that lodge that's free from pain 
Shall we our lost one meet. 
Here rest in peace, thy labours o'er, 
Our brother we resign, 
Till the Grand Master's word restore 
To light and life divine." 

And so with the dropping of the sprigs of evergreen, Thomas Bird Harris 
came to his last resting place. 


i C.M.R.A. No. 27, pps. 19-20 

2 The Lodge of Strict Observance No. 27 - Correspondence 

3 History of St. John's Lodge No. 40, 1852-1952 

4 Ibid. 

5 J. R. Robertson - History of Knights Templar of Canada p. 67 
c J. R. Robertson - History of Knights Templar of Canada p. 90 

7 J. R. Robertson - History of Cryptic Rite 

8 C.M.R.A. No. 39, p. 11 



John Ross Robertson — History of Freemasonry in Canada, Vol. II 

John Ross Robertson — History of the Knights Templar of Canada 

John Ross Robertson — History of the Cryptic Rite 

Proceedings — Grand Chapter of Canada 1874 

Proceedings — Grand Lodge of Canada 1875 

Proceedings — Knights Templar 1874 

R. V. Conover — History of Grand Chapter 

C.M.R.A. 1954(4) 

C.M.R.A. No. 27 

C.M.R.A. No. 39 

C.M.R.A. No. 75 

History of St. Andrew's Lodge No. 18 

History of St. John's Lodge No. 40 (1852-1952) 

History of Acacia Lodge No. 61 (1855-1955) 



Some additional information respecting Thomas Bird Harris has been 
brought to the notice of the Secretary of the Association. 

1. With the exception of the year 1856, Thomas Bird Harris was Grand 
Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Canada from 1855 until his death in 1874, 
serving under five Grand Masters, beginning with William Mercer Wilson 
and ending with Wilson again in office, a period of twenty years (W. S. 
Herrington, History of the Grand Lodge of Canada, p. 351-52). 

2. At the 13th Annual Communication at London, Ontario, July 8-10, 
1868, the Grand Master, W. M. Wilson presiding, announced that the testi- 
monial voted by Grand Lodge had been duly presented to R. W. Bro. Thomas 
B. Harris, Grand Secretary, consisting of a silver claret jug and goblets, with 
tray, having a suitable inscription thereon. (Graham's History of Freemasonry 
in Quebec, p. 220). 

3. Shortly after the formation of Moore Consistory, Hamilton, on 
December 8, 1868, Bro. Harris was made a 33° Mason and named as 2nd 
Lieutenant Grand Commander August 10, 1871. 

4. As Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of "Canada" R. W. Bro. 
Harris signed the letter, sent by the Grand Lodge to the new Grand Lodge 
of Quebec, October 25, 1869, refusing to recognize the latter. (The corres- 
pondence is printed in full in Graham's History of Freemasonry in Quebec, 
October 25, 1869 and November 16, 1869 (p. 238, 240). 

5. His death came on August 18th, a few weeks after his election for 
the twentieth time. His funeral was held following a special communication 
of the Grand Lodge, after the service of the Anglican Church in Hamilton. 
The Grand Master conducted the Masonic ceremony. At its conclusion, he 
addressed the large gathering of brethren, but was so overcome through the 
loss of his intimate friend that he could not give utterance to his feelings. 
He himself passed away a few short weeks later. (Herrington, p. 159; 
Graham, History of Quebec, p. 280). 

6. Harris Lodge No. 216 at Orangeville and Harris Royal Arch Chapter 
No. 41 at Ingersoll are both named after this distinguished Masonic leader. 

7. His portrait. 



-■«——■■ ■» —- 


+. ■• » — « — » — .< — >. — m •• >• — « — .. — n •• .. .. .. — ., „ .. „ — „ ._,|. 

No. 83 


1783 — 1840 

Canadian Merchant and Fur Trader 

Second Provincial Grand Master 
of Upper Canada 

1822 — 1840 

V. W. Bro. J. Lawrence Runnalls, P.C.S. 
President, C.M.R.A. 



Read at the 44th Meeting of the Association 
held at Hamilton, Ontario, May 12, 1966. 


t : 

.4—. — .._. „_„. .._. .__. — ..__„._„„__„. „. — .._„. — * 


Simon McGillivray 

1783 — 1840 

Canadian Merchant and Fur Trader 

Second Provincial Grand Master of Upper Canada 

Prior to the formation in 1855 of the Grand Lodge of Canada in the 
Province of Ontario, there had been three Provincial Grand Lodges in the 
province under William Jarvis, Simon McGillivray and Sir Alan Napier 
McNab. The story of the first and third have been told for the Association in 
previous papers. This paper, then, might be considered to be a continuation 
of Paper No. 57, given on February 11, 1961. 

First it is well to review some of the Masonic history preceding 1822 when 
the second appointee took up his duties. 

William Jarvis was appointed by the Duke of Atholl, Grand Master of 
the Ancient Grand Lodge of England, the appointment being dated March 7, 
1792. He was authorized to grant dispensations each with a tenure of one 
year and to report them to the Grand Master for ratification. The latter re- 
tained the sole right to issue warrants. Dues were to be forwarded regularly 
to England. Jarvis relied uopn Christopher Danby, his Deputy, to attend to 
these functions. Unfortunately for all Upper Canadian Masons, Danby was 
remiss in his duties, as he made no reports nor returns to Grand Lodge. He 
did not even transmit the information concerning the lodges warranted by 
Jarvis. There was no record left to indicate the names of those made Masons. 
Any moneys collected were put to local uses. 

The members in general were not at fault. In his first report to Grand 
Ledge on February 23, 1823, McGillivray had this to say, in part : 

"I have questioned the past Provincial Grand Officers, with whom I had 
an opportunity of conversing, some of whom declared they never had 
seen the original patent granted to Bro. Jarvis, while others stated they 
understood subsequent authority had been received from England abro- 
gating the limitation of time imposed upon dispensations in the patent, and 
all concurred in imputing to a certain Bro. Christopher Danby, rather 
than to Bro. Jarvis himself, the blame for the irregularities, which had 
taken place." * 

In later years, when the brethren were impatient with English authorities, 
the Mother Grand Lodge had no record of those with whom it was dealing. 

In 1796, when the seat of provincial government was moved from Newark 
(Niagara) to York (Toronto), Jarvis, as Provincial Secretary, went with it. 
As his warrant or patent was a personal document, he took it with him and 
claimed that wherever he resided that was the centre of Masonic authority. 
At no time had he been very active in Masonry, partly because he had no 
depth of experience in it, but largely because he was helping to establish a 
new form of government and all his energies were expended in his daily duties. 


When he moved to York and away from the enthusiastic group at Niagara, 
he did not continue his Masonic work. The Provincial Grand Lodge organi- 
zation, set up at Niagara, continued to act in the absence of its head and 
reports were transmitted regularly to Jarvis. In 1804, when he did call 
an assembly at York, the brethren at Niagara felt that they had the seat of 
authority and continued to act as a Provincial Grand Lodge. Then from that 
time until 1822, when the second Provincial Grand Lodge came into being, there 
were in reality two opposing organizations in the province. It would seem that 
although there was some correspondence with England, no returns were made 
by either. 

Unfortunately the work was sadly lacking in uniformity, too. McGillivray 
reported on this point in these words : 

"In the meantime, the Craft in point of numbers had greatly increased in 
the province. Several of the lodges, which had been constituted, as already 
stated, made many Masons without giving them, or perhaps being incom- 
petent to give them, much instruction, and many of the immigrants, who 
were annually added to the population of the province, were already Free- 
masons. Some of the immigrants joined the lodges which they found 
established in the province, and being more practised in Masonry than 
those whom they thus joined, became instructors, or in other words, intro- 
duced innovations, which were received more readily in consequence of the 
disorganized state of the ruling power, or rather want of any ruling power, 
in the province, which could be referred to as an authority. These new 
acquisitions were principally from the United States of America, and in 
addition to the instructions they bestowed on the Craft in Upper Canada, 
they introduced new, and higher, degrees in Masonry, and in fact took the 
lead in most of the lodges. Some of them were accused by the gentlemen, 
acting as a Grand Lodge at Niagara, of teaching more than they professed, 
that is, of inculcating principles of disloyalty, and mixing Republicanism 
with Masonry, and the accusation was countenanced by the fact that two 
of the three persons who in the beginning of the American War, were 
driven from the province as emissaries of the enemy, happened to be Free- 
masons. The lodges, who had seceded from the body at Niagara, retorted 
on them, the charge of assuming authority, which they did not possess, 
attempting to deceive the lodge, and levy money on false pretences, and, 
as usual in disputes of this kind, both parties got out of humour and called 
each other harsh names, whilst in the interval, administration of the lodges 
became more and more irregular. Men whose conduct reflected discredit 
on the fraternity, gained admission to the lodges ; respectable men shrank 
from associating with them, and thus Masonry seemed sinking into irre- 
trievable anarchy and even contempt." 2 

There were, however, pockets of faithful and honest men, and, thanks to 
them, the Order was kept alive. 

After the death of Jarvis in 1817, several attempts were made to revive 
the Order. The leader of this movement was Bro. John Dean of Bath, a 
member of Addington Lodge No. 13 on the Jarvis Register. He along with 
R. W. Bro. Jermyn Patrick, the last Secretary of the Provincial Grand Lodge 
under Jarvis, sent out a circular inviting each lodge to send a delegation to a 
convention to be held in Kingston on August 27, 1817. The circular was so 
worded that an attempt was made to appeal to all Masons in the province. 
However, the eastern part of the province, only, was represented. The lodges 


warranted by the Niagara Grand Lodge and many of the western lodges re- 
frained from joining the others. 

The main business of the convention was to draw up a petition to Grand 
Lodge in an attempt to have a new Provincial Grand Master named, with the 
hope that Masonry might be revived. The name of Bro. Roderick McKay 
was sent in nomination for the position. Ziba Marcus Philips was elected 
president of the convention and John Ferguson as secretary. 

The petition reached England but no reply was vouchsafed. For two 
years the Craft was kept in suspense by the home authorities. In the meantime 
Bro. McKay was drowned in an unfortunate accident. 

The death of McKay discouraged the brethren somewhat and delayed 
further the calling of a second convention until February 10, 1819. Some 
favoured suggesting the name of Sir Peregrine Maitland, Lieutenant-Governor 
of Upper Canada, as one who might well take the place of McKay. His name, 
however, does not appear to have been sent in, no doubt because his stay in 
Canada was short. 

A third convention was called on February 15, 1820. In the meantime 
a very careful re-organization was taking place, although the division between 
east and west remained. Once again an attempt was made for recognition by 
Grand Lodge and to have a Provincial Grand Master named. This time, a 
representative in the person of John B. Laughton, was appointed to go to 
London to present the case for the provincial brethren. 

A fourth convention came together at Kingston on February 12, 1821, 
at which time the name of Colonel James Fitzgibbon of the War of 1812-4 
fame, was put forth. The good offices of Laughlin seem to have paid off, 
for in 1822, the Grand Master, the Duke of Sussex, appointed Simon Mc- 
Gillivray to the office of Provincial Grand Master with instructions to re- 
organize the Craft in Upper Canada and to report to the Grand Master the 
condition of the Craft. James Fitzgibbon was named by McGillivray as his 

No doubt there was joy among the brethren of Upper Canada as at long 
last there was some chance that wrongs might be righted and new life given 
the institution of Freemasonry. 

Simon McGillivray As A Citizen 

Simon McGillivray was a native of Scotland, having been born in 1783 
at Stratherwick, Inverness-shire, the son of Donald McGillivray and Anne 
McTavish. We know relatively little about the family background but suspect 
they were very modest folk. Simon was a cousin of John McGillivray of 
Dummaglas, later chief of the clan. The two were schoolfellows for a time 
In his boyhood days he unfortunately broke a leg which caused him so much 
trouble that he had to be taken out of school and continue his education under 
a private tutor. The accident left him with a limp. His mother's brother, 
Simon McTavish, a prosperous merchant of London, undertook to train him 


for the mercantile world. He had also trained Simon's elder brothers, William 
and Duncan, and had then taken them into his business. Simon rose to 
responsible duties and eventually became a partner in his uncle's firm. 

McTavish also had extensive business interests in the New World. He 
set up a business in Albany some time before 1772, but just prior to the 
American Revolution in 1775, he transferred his interests to Montreal and 
entered the fur trade. Four years later, to strengthen the trade and to cut 
down on needless opposition, he led in the formation of the North West Com- 
pany. At the same time he helped to form the firm of McTavish, Frobisher 
and Company, which held a large interest in the North West Company. He 
was claimed to be the wealthiest resident of Montreal during his time. 

In 1805, Simon McGillivray became a partner in his uncle's business in 
London, the firm of McTavish, Fraser and Company. This naturally led to 
trips to Montreal for his firm, the first taking place about 1800. With his 
brothers, William and Duncan, he joined up with McTavish in forming Mc- 
Tavish, McGillivray and Company. From 1813 until 1825, he made regular 
trips to Canada, usually spending the summers in Canada and the winters in 
London. He kept up a sumptuous bachelor apartment in connection with the 
London business. It is said that during his business career in the new world 
he made eight round trip crossings of the ocean, three times going into the 
interior as far as Fort William (named after his brother, William) and once 
to the Red River. 

The multiplicity of company names would indicate that there were several 
interlocking companies organized to control each other and particularly the 
North West Company. When the latter company was formed in 1779, there 
were eight partners of which Simon McTavish was the leading shareholder. 
Reorganization took place several times, bringing in more merchants but all 
the while the McTavish - McGillivray group kept control. After the death of 
McTavish and Duncan, William and Simon McGillivray and Thomas Thain 
became majority shareholders and were in virtual control. The company ex- 
tended its trading territory westward even as far as the Pacific Coast and the 
Arctic. Its traders had to cross the lands ceded to the Hudson's Bay Company 
in 1670. This led to frequent clashes. 

To make matters worse, Lord Selkirk established the Red River Settle- 
ment in 1811. This colony straddled the route of the North West Company 
to its western fields. An unfortunate incident took place on June 19, 1816, 
when a pitched battle took place and the Governor of the Colony, Robert 
Semple, was killed. This resulted in the arrest of William McGillivray and 
several others and was followed by a long series of litigation. The court in 
Canada, where the case was heard, let the North West Company off easily. 
However, it began a series of events, coupled with poor business ability of 
several of its principals, which in the end led to the bankruptcy of the North 
West Company. 

On December 27, 1825, in reporting to his company, McGillivray said: 

"Before the commencement of this unfortunate contest the concern had 
been a profitable one. Large fortunes had formerly been made in the 


House, and but for the competition of the Hudson's Bay Company and 
Lord Selkirk, it was not doubted that trade would continue to yield large 
profits." 3 

In desperate straits, in 1821, William and Simon went to London to nego- 
tiate a union with the Hudson's Bay Company. They could see no other way 
to keep afloat. It was a virtual capitulation to the older company. After 
amalgamation, the new company had complete control of trading rights over 
the northern half of the continent. 

William died in 1825 and Thomas Thain in 1832. After the death of the 
former, Simon had to take up the responsibilities of both. In order to satisfy 
their creditors, he put up all his wealth, even including his famous collection of 
paintings which were sold by auction. A letter of July 25, 1826, said : 

"By my assignment, the Trustees are in possession of all my property, 
both in Canada and in England and also the partnership assets, so far 
as it is competent for me to sign my name." 4 

In 1839, Washington Irving wrote : 

"The feudal state of Fort William is at an end ; its council chambers are 
silent and desolate ; its banquet hall no longer echoes to the auld world 
ditty; the lords of the lakes and forests are all passed away." 5 

After making his assignment, Simon McGillivray had to seek other 
means of making a livelihood. In 1830, he accepted an appointment as one 
of the commissioners named by the United Mexican Silver Company to re- 
organize the management of their silver mines. He served in this capacity for 
five years returning to London in 1835. This five year period seemed to 
recuperate his fortunes because on his return to London he became one of the 
proprietors of the paper, the "Morning Chronicle." In 1837, he married the 
eldest daughter of Sir John Easthorpe, his fellow proprietor. Simon died at 
his residence, Dartmouth Row, Blackheath, London, on June 9, 1840, and 
was buried in Northwood Cemetery. He was survived by his widow and an 
infant daughter, Mary, who in later life married Rear-Admiral Richard 

In Robertson's History, he reports Simon McGillivray as being about 
five feet ten inches in height, strong, broad shouldered, with brown hair, 
inclining to auburn, with fair complexion. He was near-sighted and wore 
a pair of gold-rimmed spectacles and when speaking with anyone, appeared 
to look directly into the face of the listener. His manner was sincere and he 
was earnest in discussion. 

He was exceptionally keen in business, and before beginning any enter- 
prise, weighed its merits carefully. His business interests brought many 
business acquaintances to his home where he entertained lavishly. Many people 
sought his advice. He was scrupuously honest and save for the unfortunate 
mistakes of his partners, would have died a wealthy man. 

When his death occurred, at the age of 56, the "Morning Chronicle" had 
this to say, in part : 

"This high-minded and most amenable gentleman paid the debt to nature 
on the evening of Tuesday last. He had been for some time suffering 
from an internal complaint but he was only confined to his house for 
about a month." 

— 1486— 

(Omitted are several paragraphs about his business interests.) 

"Few men so extensively engaged in important businesses have passed 
through life with a higher reputation for unsullied integrity and rigid ad- 
herence to principles than Mr. McGillivray. No man ever hesitated to place 
the most implicit reliance on his honour. His word was sacred. His intentions 
were always pure and his conduct open and straightforward. We do not believe 
there exists an individual who would say that Simon McGillivray, in any one 
of his numerous transactions in which he was embarked, did him an intentional 
wrong. But if he was inflexably just, he was, at the same time, kind and 
generous to a fault. His confidence once bestowed was not lightly withdrawn 
and he was a firm and unshaken friend in the hour of trial. 

"His natural abilities were strong and he had carefully cultivated them. 
He had applied himself successfully to several branches of science and his 
taste in fine arts was generally admitted. He was a close reasoner and what- 
ever he wrote was remarkable for a lucid arrangement. Having arrived 
carefully and methodically at his conclusions he was with difficulty driven 
from the opinions he had once embraced. He never pronounced an opinion 
until he had carefully examined the subject. 

"In private relations of life he was exemplary, an affectionate parent 
and a kind brother. 

"It would have been affectation to have allowed the connection of Simon 
McGillivray with this journal or his relationship to its principal proprietor to 
have restrained us from paying a brief tribute to the memory of a gentleman, 
so long and extensively known and esteemed both in England and America. 

"But we have sparingly used the privilege of friendship in this brief 
sketch of his life and character." 6 

As A Mason 

Simon McGillivray was initiated in Shakespeare Lodge, No. 99, on April 
23, 1807, the anniversary of Shakespeare's birth. He soon became an officer 
of the lodge, eventually becoming Master, an office which he filled with 
distinction for three terms, 1814, 1815 and 1822. 

He was a personal friend of the Duke of Sussex, Grand Master of the 
Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) and no doubt had some part to play in 
bringing about the union of the two grand lodges in 1813. He was elected 
Grand Junior Warden in 1814. 

In 1813, he helped establish The Royal Inverness Lodge, No. 648, E.R. 
the first lodge to be warranted by the United Grand Lodge. The members 
of this lodge were chiefly from the Loyal North Briton Volunteer Corps in 
which McGillivray was a captain. In 1816, he was installed as Worshipful 
Master by H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex. 

In 1818, along with the Grand Master, he helped to resuscitate Royal 
Alpha Lodge, No. 16. Since that time it has been the custom for the Grand 
Master to belong to this lodge. 


After 1813, it took quite some time to co-ordinate the efforts of the two 
former Grand Lodges. To this end a Lodge of Reconciliation was set up. 
Records indicate that McGillivray attended a meeting of this lodge on January 
15, 1815, probably as a visitor, not a participant. 

For the years 1920-1, he was Deputy Master of the Lodge of Antiquity, 
No. 2, E.R. On his return from his business ventures in Canada, he was 
appointed President of the Board of General Purposes and in 1828 he served 
as Worshipful Master of Somerset House and Inverness Lodge, No. 4, E.R. 

From the above it is clearly evident that Masonry played a very active 
part in his life. H e served as Master of three lodges, as well as taking more 
than the usual interest in Grand Lodge. 

At the time of his death in 1840, the Freemasons' Quarterly Magazine 
carried an article written by a correspondent, which article points up the 
admiration the brethren held for him : 

"Poor Simon McGillivray is dead. He was initiated in Shakespeare 
Lodge, and a valued member of the Lodge he was. Whenever he was present 
everything went prosperously, and in his absence the Lodge suffered reverses. 
That Lodge was called the Royal Inverness Lodge, and was the first warrant 
granted by H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex. Poor McGillivray established the 
Lodge, although he was not her first Master. The Royal Inverness Lodge 
was constituted at its formation by the officers of the Loyal North Briton 
Volunteer Corps, of which the Duke was the commander and the subject of 
this memoir had been a captain in that corps. Bro. McGillivray presented the 
Lodge with the drinking shell and snuff horn that belonged to the officers' 
mess, during the time he was Master, in 1817, he being installed in that year. 

"The Lodge met in the Freemasons' Tavern and the Grand Master was 
present at the banquet, as our deceased brother was an especial favourite with 
His Royal Highness. Bro. McGillivray continued attending the Lodge until he 
left England in 1821 ; and during his absence the Lodge got very much dis- 
organized. He continued out of England until 1824, and when he came back 
he set to work to get the Lodge in order again. He paid off the debts himself, 
amounting to £150, and everything went off prosperously. The Lodge went 
on prosperously until Bro. McGillivray went out of England again. Soon after 
his return, which was in 1827, was the first time the writer saw him in Inver- 
ness Lodge ; and the Lodge never recovered from the want of his vigilant care 
. . . Ultimately, through the exertions of Bro. McGillivray the Lodge united 
with Somerset House Lodge of which it is believed the deceased brother 
continued a member until his death." 7 

In McGillivray's time, the Royal Arch was an integral part of the Craft 
lodge. He took this degree and rose to the office of Grand Superintendent. 
When he went to Canada, he took over the office of Grand District Super- 
intendent for Upper Canada. 

It might be of interest to state here that William McGillivray served at 
the same time as his brother, as Provincial Grand Master of the District of 
Montreal and William Henry. 


As Provincial Grand Master 

As stated previously, there was a great demand by the brethren of Upper 
Canada to have a new Provincial Grand Master appointed by the mother Grand 
Lodge in England. The Grand Master, looking about him, might have chosen 
one of those suggested by the Canadians, but he was unsure of them, partly 
because they had not had regular registration with Grand Lodge but also 
because they had been party to factional interests in Canada. 

In his first communication with the Canadian lodges, the newly-appointed 
Provincial Grand Secretary said : "It may be necessary in the first place to 
state that our late Provincial Grand Master, Bro. Jarvis, neglected to com- 
municate to the Grand Lodge from which he derived his authority, any report 
of his proceedings, and from this unfortunate circumstance much difficulty has 
arisen, the Grand Lodge remaining ignorant of even the existence of our 
lodges, until our application to them. In consequence of which the Grand 
Master has felt considerable difficulty in the mode of proceeding to accom- 
plish the object of our application, and he could not appoint to the office of 
Provincial Grand Master a brother whose name did not appear on the registry 
of the United Grand Lodge, neither could a brother so appointed by the 
Grand Master regularly exercise jurisdiction over the lodges, until they first 
be constituted by or acknowledge the authority and constitution of the 
Grand Ledge of England. The Most Worshipful Grand Master, being desirous 
to accede to our wishes, and conceiving that all difficulties might be obviated 
by the above appointment, was pleased to make it, and give our Right Wor- 
shipful Grand Master instructions applicable to our case and directions to 
report his proceedings on his return to England." 8 

Close at hand was an excellent candidate for the position of Provincial 
Grand Master, his friend of many years, Simon McGillivray. Not only had 
McGillivray taken an active part in Masonry in England, thereby knowing the 
institution thoroughly from the Grand Lodge point of view, but he had an 
intimate knowledge of Canada and its affairs. He would certainly be unbiased 
and might be able to heal the breach between the two factions in the province 
and to restore order and harmony in Masonic circles in Upper Canada and 
to set it on a solid basis for the future." 

In assessing McGillivray's qualifications for the position, Robertson said 
of him : 

"Brother McGillivray was firm, yet conciliatory, and in every way fitted 
for the task before him. He possessed great sagacity and knowledge of 
human nature, which excellent gifts were supplemented by an intimate 
acquaintance with the system of Masonry he was re-establishing. 

"Brother McGillivray had a personal advantage possessed by few in his 
mission to Canada. He was known by his credentials as a Mason possess- 
ing the confidence of the highest authorities, and what was more important 
to a certain extent, he was well known to the mercantile community as a 
man of unblemished reputation and integrity, one who in deciding the 
merits of a question would render an impartial opinion and act with 
justice toward all concerned." D 


On April 15, 1822, the Duke of Sussex appointed McGillivray to the 
office of Provincial Grand Master of Upper Canada. He was to proceed to 
Canada to re-organize the Craft and in particular to make a complete survey 
and to report to the Grand Master. There were no restrictions, as had been 
the case of the appointment of William Jarvis thirty years previously, in the 
warranting of lodges, providing that all were reported to Grand Lodge. For 
each lodge he warranted, he was required to transmit 5 guineas to the Grand 
Treasurer. No mention was made of yearly dues. 

The Provincial Grand Master immediately appointed Colonel James 
Fitz-Gibbon, hero of the War of 1812-4, to be his Deputy. This won popular 
approval and helped to ameliorate any feelings the brethren had on the refusal 
of the Grand Master to accede to their suggestions re the appointment of a 
Provincial Grand Master. John Dean was appointed as Provincial Grand 
Secretary, also a popular appointment as this brother had been the mainstay 
in the several conventions that had been held. He was a wise and sincere man 
and did much to bring matters to a successful conclusion. 

Early in September 1822, Bro. Dean set to work to carry out the instruc- 
tions of the Provincial Grand Master. His first act was to notify all lodges 
of the several appointments. This he did by issuing a circular letter. At the 
same time he issued a summons for a Provincial Grand Lodge Convocation. 
The summons was worded thus : 

"To the Worshipful Master, Wardens and Brethren of Lodge No. . . . 

"In compliance with the orders of the Right Worshipful Provincial Grand 
Master, you are hereby summonsed to cause your lodge to be represented in 
the Provincial Grand Lodge, to be held at York, on Friday, the 20th instant. 
It is desirable the representatives should consist of the Worshipful Master, 
Wardens and Past Masters of your lodge, with your warrant and your 
respective jewels. 

Bath, September 7, 1822. 

Yours fraternally, 

John Dean, P.G.S." 10 

It is well to note that the meeting was called for York and not at 
Kingston, the site of the previously conventions. This was to have the 
meeting nearer the centre of the province, and also to seek to have the Niagara 
and the western lodges take part. The notice did not allow much time for 
assembly, if consideration is given to the slow mode of travel in those days. 
The meeting did not take place, however, until the 23rd as many representatives 
could not reach York in time. It took time, too, to prepare new dispensations 
for all lodges. 

Instructions came from the Grand Master in these words : 

"In respect to the lodges at present existing in Canada, and which, it 
is presumed, have been constituted by the late Brother Jarvis, the Grand 


Master proposes that these lodges should receive warrants of constitution 
from him, and that all the present members should be registered in the books 
of Grand Lodge. In this case the Grand Master will propose to the Grand 
Lodge that the several warrants of constitution for the existing lodges should 
be granted to them without the payment of the accustomed fee of five guineas, 
but the fee upon the registering of the brethren, 10s. 6d. sterling, each, cannot 
be dispensed with ; also as follows : — in regard to 2s. sterling, per annum, from 
each subscribing member towards the general fund of benevolence, I beg to 
state, for the information of the brethren, that the Grand Lodge, feeling that 
the lodges in the colonies could not partake equally with others of its advan- 
tages, have resolved that the lodges should no longer be required to contribute 
toward it, but their members being registered should be entitled like all others 
to claim assistance from it." xl 

The Provincial Grand Master paid special attention to the Niagara and 
western brethren. Bro. Charles Duncombe, a member of Mount Moriah Lodge, 
No. 773, Westminster, was named as spokesman for this group. McGillivray 
met him in private and acted in a firm manner toward him, with the result 
that he and Bro. D. Curtis of King Hiram Lodge of Oxford (Ingersol) were 
allowed to sit as visitors in the convocation. W. J. Kerr, son of Dr. Robert 
Kerr, Grand Master of the Niagara Grand Lodge, was also received formally. 
Eighteen lodges were represented, four being from the Niagara Peninsula. 

The whole meeting was a success and it was evident that the former 
animosities were to be forgotten and harmony would prevail. 

The first appointments were well made. Besides Bro. Dean, Bro. Bernard 
Turquand was also appointed as a second Provincial Grand Secretary. Bro. 
Elias Smith Adams, son of George Adams, the Grand Master of the Niagara 
group at the time, was appointed as Grand Senior Deacon. This healed the 
breach as far as the St. Catharines group was concerned. William J. Kerr 
received appointment as Grand Senior Warden, while his father was made a 
Past Deputy Provincial Grand Master. Bro. Z. M. Phillips, the last president 
of the Kingston conventions, was favoured with the rank of Past Provincial 
Deputy Grand Master. To the treasurership, Bro. the Hon. John H. Dunn, 
Her Majesty's Receiver-General and a Member of the Legislative Council, was 
a popular appointment. 

At the close of the first meeting of the Provincial Grand Lodge, all looked 
well and the future appeared bright. The Provincial Grand Master, as re- 
quested, made a full report to the Grand Master on his return to England. 

But things did not work out as well as planned. This was the first and 
only session that McGillivray was able to attend. In September 1825, he 
planned on attending but bad weather made it impossible for him to reach 
York until the meeting had adjourned. It was left to the Provincial Deputy 
Grand Master to carry on and sometimes courses were taken contrary to the 
wishes of the Provincial Grand Master. In 1825, Fitzgibbon found it necessary 
to retire and John Beikie, a former sheriff of York and a member of the 
Legislative Council replaced him. 


When McGillivray took employment in Mexico, he got out of touch with 
Upper Canada and, in spite of the pleas of the Canadian brethren to have 
another appointment made, no action was taken. 

Another occurrence took place that disrupted affairs. The "Morgan 
Incident" became the centre of news in 1826 and this set off a wave of anti- 
Masonry that shook the Craft to its roots. Many lodges, and even American 
Grand Lodges, ceased operation. Had there been vigorous leadership at that 
time a different picture would have been evident in the province. The Pro- 
vincial Grand Lodge continued to meet spasmodically up until 1829 but records 
are almost non-existent. 

Several lodges did continue to have meetings and were alive enough to 
lead the way again after the death of McGillivray in 1840. 

McGillivray made a short trip to Canada in 1838 and made one final 
attempt to re-organize the Provincial Grand Lodge but things had gone too 
far by this time to be successful. 

To Sum Up 

There were high hopes in 1822 when Simon McGillivray was appointed 
Provincial Grand Master. Had his tenure in Canada been longer, there is no 
doubt that he would have accomplished his purpose to the satisfaction of all. 
Unfortunately, his business life was such that this was not possible. Com- 
munication, too, was slow and poor, so it was impossible to keep up a steady 
contact with either party. The Grand Master was at fault in not taking a 
greater interest in Canadian affairs. Repeatedly he turned a deaf ear to their 
pleas. As his was a life-term appointment, no doubt he grew careless of his 
duties. Perhaps the greatest impediment of all was the disruption caused by 
the Morgan affair. 

At the end of the period, in 1840, of the second Provincial Grand Lodge, 
things were not much better than at the beginning in 1820. The rift between 
the two sections had been healed but little else was attained. 

The highest praise might go to those faithful Masons of Upper Canada 
who, despite so many set-backs, kept the Order alive. From the vantage point 
of the 1960's it is easy for us to suggest what might have been done, but had 
we lived from 1822 to 1840, we might not have changed things. 

Despite the lack of fulfilment of his plans, Simon McGillivray was a 
great Mason and lasting friend of the Order. He deserves an honoured place 
in our history. 


Freemasonry In Canada Vols. I and II John Ross Robertson 

The MacMillan Dictionary of Canadian Biography (Third Edition) 

Documents Relating To The North W**t Company Wallace 
(Vol. 21 Relations of the Champlain Society) 


Freemasonry In The Province of Quebec A. J. B. Milborne 
Ars Quatuor Coronatum Vol. 18 

Oxford History of Royal Somerset House and Inverness Lodge 
The Builder Vol. 10 (1924) 



History of Freemasonry in Canada, Robertson Vol II Pg. 46 


Ibid, Pg. 47 


Documents Relating to the North West Company, Pg. 368 


Ibid, Pg. 377 


Ibid, Pg. 2 


Robertson Vol. II Pg. 161 


Ibid, Pg. 164 


Ibid, Pg. 17 


Ibid, Pg. 20 


Ibid, Pg. 19 


Ibid, Pg. 18 


TO all and every our Right Worshipful, Worshipful, and loving brethren. 
WE, Prince Augustus Frederick of Brunswick, Luneburgh, Duke of Sussex, 
Earl of Inverness, Baron of Arklow, Knight, Companion of the Most Noble 
Order of the Garter, &c, &c, &c, 


of the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons 
of England. 


KNOW YE, that we of the great trust and confidence reposed in our right 
trusty and well beloved Brother, Simon McGillivray, Past Grand Warden 
of the United Grand Lodge of England, do hereby constitute and appoint the 
said Simon McGillivray to be Provincial Grand Master, for the Province of 
Upper Canada, in North America, with full power and authority in due form 
to make Masons, and constitute and regulate lodges as occasion may require, 
subject nevertheless to our approval, and also to do and execute all and every 
such other acts and things appertaining to the said office, as usually have 
been and ought to be done and executed by other Provincial Grand Masters, 
he, the said Simon McGillivray, taking special care that all and every member 
of every lodge he shall constitute have been regularly made Masons, and that 
they and the members of all other lodges, within his province do observe, 
perform and keep all and every the rules, orders and regulations contained in 
the Book of Constitutions (except such as have been or may be repealed at 
any Quarterly Communication, or other General Meeting) together also with 


all such other rules, orders, regulations, and instructions as shall from time 
to time be transmitted by us, or by the Right Honourable Lawrence, Lord 
Douglas, &c, &c, &c, our Deputy Grand Master, or by any of our successors, 
Grand Masters, or their Deputies for the time being, and we hereby will and 
require you, our said Provincial Grand Master, to cause at least one General 
Meeting or Communication to be held in every year, and that you promote 
on those, and on all other occasions whatever may be for the honour and 
advantage of Masonry, and the benefit of the Grand Charity, and that you do, 
as early as circumstances will permit make a special report to us of the present 
state of the Craft in the said province, and also do yearly send to us, or our 
successors, Grand Masters, an account in writing of the proceedings therein, 
and also of what lodges you constitute, and when and where held, with a list 
of the several members of the said lodges, and copies of all such rules, orders, 
and regulations, as shall be made for the good government of the same, with 
whatever else you shall do by virtue of these presents, and that, at the same 
time, you will remit to the Treasurer of the Society, for the time being at 
London, Five Guineas sterling, for every lodge you shall constitute, for the 
use of the Grand Lodge, and other necessary purposes. 

Given at London, under our hand and seal of Masonry, this 15th day of 
April, A.L. 5822, A.D. 1822. 

(Signed) William H. White, 

Edward Harper, G.S. 

By the Grand Master's Command, 
(Signed) Dundas, D.G.M. 


Patent for James F'itzgibbon 

TO all and every, our Worshipful and loving brethren. 

T, Simon McGillivray, PROVINCIAL GRAND MASTER, for the Province 
of Upper Canada, under the authority of His Royal Highness, Prince Augustus 
Frederick, Duke of Sussex, Earl of Inverness, Baron of Arklow, K.G., &c, 
&c, &c. Most Worshipful Grand Master of the United Fraternity of Free 
and Accepted Masons of England. 


KNOW YE, that by virtue of the patent or warrant to me granted by the 
Most Worshipful Grand Master, whereof a copy is hereon above written, and 
conformably to the laws and constitutions of the Grand Lodge in that behalf 
made, and also of the great trust and confidence reposed in our right trusty 
and well beloved Brother, James Fitzgibbon, Esquire, I do hereby constitute 
and appoint and depute him, the said James Fitzgibbon, my Deputy Provincial 
Grand Master for the said province, and do fully authorize and empower him 
in my absence, for me and in my name, to preside over the Craft in the said 


province, and to regulate the lodges therein, and also to convene Grand 
Lodges, or general communications for the said province, in conformity with 
the laws of Grand Lodge, at such times and places as to him may seem 
expedient and necessary, and then and there to appoint Provincial Grand 
Wardens, and other Grand Officers for the Provincial Grand Lodge, and 
generally to do and perform all such acts in my absence, as I might do, if 
present, subject nevertheless to such directions and instructions as I may at 
any time give, touching the said matters or otherwise, and I do hereby strictly 
enjoin my said Deputy to take special care that all and every the lodges in 
the aforesaid province, and the brethren and the members thereof respectively 
do conform to and observe all the laws, constitutions and ancient regulations 
of the Craft. 

Given under my hand and seal at York, in the said province, this 17th 
day of September, in A.L. 5822, A.D. 1822. 
Witnesses : John H. Dunn, John Dean, Bernard Turquand. 

Simon McGillivray, Provinvial G.M. 




Centennial History 




Militia Templi 
Knights Templar 

Instituted 14 November, 1866 


of the 

United Religious and Military Order of St. John of Jerusalem, 

Palestine, Rhodes and Malta and of the Temple. 




Em. Kt. Evans F. Greer 

JUNE 6, 1966 

Published Jointly by 


Read at Centennial Meeting and 45th Meeting of C.M.R.A. 

_1497_ NO. 84 


Supreme Grand Master 
of The Sovereign Greot Priory of Canada, Knights Templar 

— 1498— 


Provincial Grand Prior — 1965-1966 
Hamilton District 
— 1499— 


HISTORY 1866 - 1966 

A meeting of the Masonic Knights Templar was held in Masonic Hall, 
St. Catharines on Feb. 12, 1866, to consider the feasibility of organizing an 
Encampment and Priory to be held in St. Catharines. 

Members present as follows: 

Sir Kt. Jas. Seymour, Godfrey de Bouillon, Hamilton. 
Sir Kt. Edwin Goodman, Godfrey de Bouillon, Hamilton. 
Sir Kt. Theophilus Mack, Lake Erie Encampment, Buffalo. 
Sir Kt. Isaac P. Willson, Godfrey de Bouillon, Hamilton. 
Sir Kt. Wm. McGhie, Godfrey de Bouillon, Hamilton. 

Sir Kt. James Seymour was elected chairman of the meeting and 
Wm. McGhie, secretary. 

After Sir Kt. Jas. Seymour was conducted to the Chair, he explained 
briefly the object contemplated. He stated that Masonry had reached a 
status in the Niagara Peninsula that would justify an effort being made to 
establish this Encampment and Priory in St. Catharines. The nearest Encamp- 
ments being Hamilton and Buffalo. The forming of an encampment here 
would greatly convenience the resident Sir Knights and Knight Templarism 
could greatly be promoted; that it was a great inconvenience and much extra 
expense as the situation was. 

It was then moved by Sir Knight Theophilus Mack and seconded by 
Sir Kt. I. P. Willson that a petition be signed and sent to the Provincial Grand 
Commander for authority to open this Encampment in St. Catharines. 

Sir Knight Edwin Goodman moved the motion that the name be 
Plantagenet. This was seconded by Sir Kt. Theophilus Mack and carried. 


Plantagenet, surname, originally a name of the English Royal House of 
Anjou orAngevin Royal House, founded by Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, husband 
of Matilda, daughter of Henry I, and so named from the badge of a sprig of 
broom, (planta genista) which he wore in his bonnet. The Plantagenet Kings, 
who reigned from 1154 to 1485, were in direct line of descent, Henry II, 
Richard I, John, Henry III, Edward I, II, and III, and Richard II, through 
the House of Lancaster, Henry IV, V, and VI, and through the House of 
York, Edward IV, and V, and Richard III, a total of fourteen monarchs. The 
York family branch was known as the "White Rose", and the Lancaster 
family branch as the "Red Rose". The House of Tudor was founded by their 
union in 1485. Source — Funk & Wagnalls Encyclopedia 

At a meeting of the Sir Knights held on 20th day of March, 1866, the 
petition to the Provincial Grand Commander for a dispensation to open an 
encampment in St. Catharines as set forth was submitted for signature, 
when the following Sir Knights attached their names thereto with the encamp- 
ment to which they severally belong, viz: 

— 1500— 

James Seymour- — Godfrey de Bouillon, Hamilton 
Edwin Goodman — Godfrey de Bouillon, Hamilton 
Isaac P. Wilson — Godfrey de Bouillon, Hamilton 
Wm. McGhie — Godfrey de Bouillon, Hamilton 
James Mackay — Godfrey de Bouillon, Hamilton 
John W. Murton — Godfrey de Bouillon, Hamilton 
Thos. Bird Harris — Godfrey de Bouillon, Hamilton 
Theophilus Mack — Lake Erie Commandery, Buffalo 

The document was forwarded to the E.C. of Godfrey de Bouillon Encamp- 
ment, Hamilton, for recommendation, which being obtained and properly 
certified, the document was transmitted to the V.E. Provincial Grand Com- 
mander, who graciously granted his Dispensation dated August 15, 1866. 

On the same day in Prov. Grand Conclave assembled in St. Catharines, 
the Prov. G. Com. installed James Seymour, Eminent Commander, First 
Captain of said Plantagenet Encampment, and Wm. McGhie, Registrar. 

At the meeting held on Monday, January 14, 1867, the E.C. stated that 
as proper rules and regulations were needed, he intended to act temporarily 
under those of Godfrey de Bouillon Encampment, Hamilton, from which 
nearly all the Fraters hailed, until a proper code could be prepared for this 

The fee for installation was fixed at $25.00. 

Among the occupations of the first Sir Knights installed were sail maker, 
cabinet maker, coppersmith, town treasurer, miller, carriage trimmer, black- 
smith, accountant, farmer. Many of these trades have vanished. 

At the meeting on Monday, March 11, 1867, the E.C. informed the 
Fraters that he had received the Patent of Constitution which fully empowered 
them to assemble as a regular Encampment and Priory. 

One item of interest read in the minutes of the meeting of Monday. 
April 13, 1868 was that refreshments for the year amounted to $19.51 This 
always included cigars for all Fraters. 

At the second installation of officers held on the above date, Sir Knight 
Edwin Goodman was installed as Eminent Commander. 

Officers at the installation were known then as First Captain, Second 

Captain, Prelate, Registrar, Treasurer, Almoner, Expert, First Standard 

Bearer, Second Standard Bearer, Captain of Lines, First Herald, Second 
Herald, Member of Council, and Equerries. 

At the meeting of April 14, 1873, it was reported the Grand Conclaves 
of England, Ireland and Scotland, had agreed to its formulation with a view 
of uniting their several jurisdictions under one common head, H.R.H. The 
Prince of Wsles, being Supreme Grand Master, that the respective Grand 
Conclaves named change their titles to Great Priories and their chief officers 
become Great Priors, each body retain its right to local self government 
subject only to the Convent General in matters of disciplinary appeal, Ritual 
and Warrants. The word Masonic as a prefix to the title of Knights Templar 
is omitted as not strictly correct when applied to a Christian Order and the 
apron is dispensed with as not being a military badge. Subordinate encamp- 
ments are to be called Preceptories, and the E.C. become Preceptors, First 
and Second Captains changing their titles to Constable and Marshal. The 

— 1501 — 

committee reported that it had learned that the V.E. Grand Prior has 
taken action in the matter of applying to H.R.H. the Most Eminent and 
Supreme Grand Master for authority to constitute the Dominion of Canada 
into a Great Priory with all the rights and privileges accorded to the Great 
Priories of the Empire already established. 

Great Priory was held in October 1874 at Ottawa, and at the meeting 
on March 8, 1875, it was advised that V.E. Knight James Seymour was elected 
a member of the Great Council, and was also named to a special committee 
to revise the statutes, constitution and outdoor dress. The next annual 
assembly of Great Priory was to be held in St. Catharines. 

At this meeting the E.P. submitted a letter from the Provincial Prior 
of Dorset, England, protesting in strong terms against the innovations and 
radical changes recently introduced into the constitution and nomenclature 
of the orders and asking united action in bringing the subject before the 
Great Priory at the earliest moment with a view to its full discussion and 
speedy change to the old forms, names and usages. 

"After having read the above report from the National Great Priory 
held at London, England, on 11th December, 1874, the Sir Knights of 
Plantagenet Preceptory and Priory do most heartily approve of the same 
and unite with the English Fratres in earnestly invoking such attention from 
the Great Priory as will lead to some modification of the objectionable and 
needless changes introduced into the statutues of the Convent General, there 
being no justification in the opinion of this Preceptory when the commissioners 
assumed authority to constitute a supreme body known as the Convent General 
for radically changing the fundamental principles of the orders or for altering 
the nomenclature of their chief officers, by introducing high sounding grades 
and titles, the claim to which as in any way derived from the Knights Temp- 
lar of medieval history has only a mythical foundation and is well calculated 
to bring into disrepute the whole institution and destroy its time honoured 
record of chivalric philanthropy." 

A copy of the foregoing resolution was ordered to be engrossed, signed 
and sealed by the Registrar, and to be at once transmitted to V.E. Prov. G. 
Prior of Dorset, England for presentation to the Great Priory at its ensuing 
assembly in May. 

At the meeting of December 3rd, 1883, a letter was read from the Prov. 
Prior informing this Preceptory that the annual election of officers must be 
held in December and the installation in the following January. A special 
meeting was called for this purpose. Previous to this the installations had 
been held in April of each year. 

The installation in 1884 was not held until February as the Prov. Prio: 
could not be present until that time. 

At the installation, Sir Knight L. R. Smith refused to be installed as 
Registrar until after the books of the Preceptory had been placed in his 

The minutes from April 1875 to March 1883 have never been written up 
although 50 blank pages were left in the minute book to do so, but the 
attendance register shows that meetings were held during that period. 

— 1502— 

In the minutes of April, 1884 Sir Knight Smith reported that when he was 
installed as Registrar it was understood that the books were to be properly 
written up at once and that two months had elapsed and they are no farther 
ahead. This history was lost forever. 

After Doctor Edwin Goodman was installed in the Preceptor's chair, he 
made a speech showing great concern and anxiety for the necessity of the 
early formation of Sovereign Great Priory. 

The meeting of December 28, 1894 was held in the Masonic Hall and the 
meeting of March 6, 1895 was held in Odd Fellows Hall. This was due to a 
fire in the Masonic Temple. A newspaper clipping read: "The Masonic 
Temple on Ontario St. was destroyed by fire early this morning (Jan. 14, 1895) 
in the worst blaze in many years. Incendiarism is suspected. The public 
library and business college were also burned out." 

When the Masonic Temple on Ontario Street was built the Preceptory 
leased from the Masonic Temple Association jointly with Mount Moriah 
Chapter No. 19 R.A.M. and Maple Leaf, Temple and St. George's Lodges. 

On January 25, 1901, a message of condolence was sent to His Majesty, 
King Edward, on the death of Queen Victoria. This was officially acknow- 
ledged on January 29, 1901. 

The 24th annual assembly of Sovereign Great Priory was held in St. 
Catharines on August 14 and 15, 1907, Plantagenet Preceptory being host for 
this wonderful occasion. A special medal was struck for this occasion and 
presented to visiting Fraters to commemorate the meeting of Sovereign Great 
Priory at our Garden City. To my knowledge there are only three of these 
medals in existence today. 

A photo group of the members of Godfrey de Bouillon Preceptory No. 3, 
Hamilton attending Great Priory in August at St. Catharines was presented 
to St. Catharines Preceptory. At the opening of the present temple, Centre and 
Court Streets, St. Catharines in 1955, no pictures were allowed and many 
pictures were destroyed and burned. This apparently was the fate of this 
picture. There was an excellent picture of James Seymour, Dr. Edwin 
Goodman and Dr. Theophilus Mack. These apparently suffered the same fate. 

February 10, 1908 — A Dominion flag (Red Ensign) of silk was decided 
upon as the most suitable present for presentation to Hugh de Pay ens, Com- 
mandery of Buffalo on the occasion of the anticipated visit to that Commandery 
on March 23, 1908. 

On the following day, March 24, 1908, the Supreme Grand Master A. 
A. Campbell wrote from London, Ontario, to Mr. S. P. Gourley at St. 
Catharines, Ontario: 

"I arrived here safely at 11:30 this morning and trust that you and your 
party reached St. Catharines feeling none the worse for your last night outing. 

"I want to congratulate you upon the magnificent turn out you had. 
Every Sir Knight was neatly uniformed and your general appearance was such 
as to attract favourable notice. 

"I can assure you that, as Supreme Grand Master of the Sovereign 
Great Priory of Canada, I was proud of Plantagenet Preceptory and although 
we always look to well drilled and large bodies of Knights Templar in United 

— 1503— 

States cities, still I do not believe there is a city in the United States of the 
same size as St. Catharines that could have turned out a more representative 
and neatly uniformed body of Templars than you did yesterday and I feel that 
Great Priory is indebted to you and your good Fratres for sustaining the dignity 
of our ancient and honorable order. 

. i 

'Again your courteous act in presenting Hugh de Payens Commandery of 
Buffalo, N.Y., with a Canadian Ensign, also gave evidence of your enthusiasm 
and zeal in promoting the best Templar feeling between the Sir Knights along 
the Niagara Frontier, and I am sure it must have pleased you and your Sir 
Knights to realize how highly your thoughtful act and kindness was appreci- 

At the same meeting it was moved that the by-laws be changed regarding 
the fee for membership and be amended to read that "after October 12th, 19G8, 
the fee shall be $100.00." This was to include the uniform and the coat. 

A committee was formed to prepare a set of by-laws for the Preceptory 
and to report as soon as possible. 

At the following meeting on May 11, 1908, there were 40 visitors, some 
from Albany, N.Y., Jamestown, N.Y., and Godfrey de Bouillon and Niagara 
Commandery No. 64. There were also 53 members present from Plantagenet 

The writer cannot help but feel that if we had more of these social 
events and exchange fraternal visits, we would have a much better attendance 
at our present meetings. 

August 21, 1908 — It was resolved that Plantagenet Preceptory attend 
the 95th Annual Conclave of Knights Templar of the State of New York to be 
held at Niagara Falls, New York, on September 1, 1908 and that we engage 
the 19th Regimental Band and that Jacques de Molai Preceptory No. 42 of 
Niagara Falls. Ontario accompany us on that occasion. Sir Knights J. R. 
Newman and A. T. Riddell were appointed to take subscriptions from the Sir 
Knights to defray expenses. The Sir Knights responded cheerfully and $215.03 
was collected and spent as follows: 

Tower Hotel Meals for Band $ 36.00 

Wm. Peel Services of Band 148.00 

Transportation for Band 19.00 

Entertaining 8.50 

Balance 3.50 

$ 215.00 

February 10, 1913 — A communication was received from W. Whyte, 
Grand ChanceDor of the Sovereign Great Priory requesting the Preceptory 
to send him a photograph copy of our charter, size about 6V2" x 8V2", and 
also advising that an extra copy be taken and kept in some safe place for 
reference in case of accident to the original. 

November 9, 1914 — V. Eminent Knight J. Waugh was to act as Pre- 
ceptor during the absence of Eminent Sir Knight (Colonel) F. C. McCordick 
who had left with the 2nd Contingent and to be second in command. 

April 12, 1915 — Correspondence was received from the District Secre- 
tary and it was moved that the Registrar notify him that the Sir Knights would 
procure white mantles at once. _i<04 

June 14, 1915 — A communication was received from Eminent Knight 
George Foulis, District Secretary, informing the Preceptory that on account 
of the names of the Sir Knights eligible for the office of Presiding Preceptor 
having been omitted from the notice of the April meeting, the Provincial Prior, 
under instructions from the Supreme Grand Master, had declared the selection 
of officers void. 

December 2, 1918, at the end of World War I, a telegram was received 
by Eminent Sir Knight A. L. Jackson from the Provincial Prior reading: 
''Congratulations, the cause for which our order stood and fought has won. 
Let us learn a lesson thereby in the hour of our joy. 

Sgd. G. E. Parkes, 

Prov. Prior." 

October 30, 1922 — A Past Preceptors Jewel was presented to Right 
Eminent Knight George Burch at a dinner, preceding the opening of the 
Preceptory, on the occasion of his 80th anniversary. 

November 1, 1926 — Rt. Em. Kt. George Burch, acting for the Sovereign 
Great Priory, installed V. Era. Kt. R. C. Davis to the office of Grand Almoner 
of Sovereign Great Priory. 

December 5, 1927 — A history committee was formed as follows: Rt. 
Em. Kt. Geo. Burch, Rt. Em. Kt. Grove Davis and Em. Kt. H. J. Johnson. 

October 5, 1931 — V. Em. Kt. A. T. Riddell was installed in the office 
of Grand Captain of the Guard by Rt. Em. Kt. Grove Davis. 

November 2, 1931 — Em Kt. T. Hatson spoke at some length on the need 
of this Preceptory in properly preparing a historical outline, to be sent 
to Sovereign Great Priory for inclusion in the history of Knights Templarism. 

February 1, 1932 — A communication from the Prov. Prior relating to 
presenting the Prov. Prior on his termination of office with a past Prov. 
Prior's Jewel and that each Preceptory be assessed $5.00 per year as their 
contribution. After a lengthy controversy on the question, it was moved that 
this Preceptory does not agree with the resolution but recommends that a 
better plan would be for each individual Preceptory to present their own 
Prov. Prior with a Jewel (if so inclined). 

October 1, 1934 — Rt. Em. Kt. Grove Davis installed V. Em. Kt. N. B. 
MacPhee as Grand Almoner of Sovereign Great Priory. 

November 5, 1934 — A protest was made to the Grand Chancellor 
Regarding change of election and installation of officers from November and 
December to April and May. 

November 5, 1934 — Em. Kt. D. W. Eagle was appointed to the history 
committee. This history was to be presented to Sovereign Great Priory. 
Em. Kt. Eagle was killed in an auto accident on March 6, 1938. The history 
was not completed. 

February 8, 1935 — Plantagenet Preceptory exemplified the Royal Arch 
degree at Mount Moriah Chapter under direction of Ex. Comp. Grove Davis Z, 
assisted by his officers. _i505- 

November 2, 1936 — It was regularly moved that the Registrar write 
Rt. Em. Kt. R. V. Harris advising him of the illness of Em. Sir Kt. McComb 
and our inability to obtain items for historical purposes. 

January 4, 1937 — This history was never obtained and a moment o* 
silence was observed in respect to the late Em. Sir Kt. A. McComb. 

February 1, 1937 — Rt. Em. Kt. Doctor Hatzan, Prov. Prior, in a talk 
referred to the possibility of an amalgamation of Dunnville, Niagara Falls and 
St. Catharines Preceptories. 

May 21, 1937 — A number of Plantagenet Fratres journeyed to Lockport, 
N.Y., and attended an assembly of Genesee Commandery No. 10, which was 
instituted 111 years ago. Plantagenet Fratres had the honor of being the first 
Canadian Preceptory to be received on a visit. 

June 29, 1937 — A letter was received from assistant secretary to the 
Governor General of Canada, Ottawa, enclosing a letter from His Majesty 
the King, reading: 

Buckingham Palace, 
31 May, 1937 

"The private secretary is commanded by the King to convey an expression of 
sincere thanks to the officers and Fratres of Plantagenet Preceptory No. 8 
Knights Templar for message of loyal assurance on the occasion of "their 
Majesties Coronation". 

December 5, 1938 — 50 year Jewels were received from Sovereign Great 
Priory for the Sir Knights as follows: W. H. Collinson, Walter Bradley and 
Samuel Brisbin. Sir Knights Collinson and Bradley were unable to be present 
on account of illness and were presented by proxy. Accompanying the Jewels 
was a personal letter from the Most Em. Grand Master, R. V. Harris, K.C., 
of Halifax expressing his regret being unable to be present but extending his 
congratulations and best wishes. The Registrar presented letters for these 
Sir Knights from the Most Em. Supreme Grand Master R. V. Harris. 

November 1, 1939 — A special committee was formed to meet the 
Jacque de Mo]ai officers for further talks on amalgamation of the three 
preceptories, Dunnville, Niagara Falls and St. Catharines. 

November 6, 1939 — Financial difficulties were encountered at this 
time and it was decided to offer to the Masonic Board of Control the property 
owned by this Preceptory as follows: Half share of the Red Room furniture, 
share of the General rooms, kitchenware, etc., in lieu of outstanding account 
against them per letter December 2, 1939 . 

May 6, 1S40 — Sir Kt. A. E. Swaze was presented with 50 year Jewel by 
Rt. Em. Kt. Grove Davis. 

August 20, 1940 — Samuel Brisbin, a member and regular attender of 
this preceptory for 52 years, passed on to his reward. 

November 3, 1941 — A letter was received from Masonic Board of 
Control granting the request to take over the assets and giving the Preceptory 
a clear receipt. Starting January 1st, 1942 the Preceptory would be a tenant at 
an annual rental of $50.00. 

November 5, 1945 — The Preceptory received as a visitor Em. Com- 
mander Gallin of Seattle, Washington, he having been a resident of Manila 

— 1506— 

at the time of the Japanese invasion and was held by them for over two 
years. He told of his experiences and of the destruction of their beautiful 
Temple with all their records. 

December 6, 1948 — Annual dues changed from $3.00 to $5.00 per year. 

December 5, 1949 — Most Em. the Supreme Grand Master of Sovereign 
Great Priory John H. Eydt was received under an arch of steel and installed 
the officers for the year 1950. 

December 3, 1951 — Rt. Em. Kt. J. P. Hudson installed the officers for 
1952, this being the first time the installation had been done by one of our 
own officers. 

June 2, 1952 — Plantagenet Preceptory conferred the Royal Arch degree 
in Mount Moriah Chapter No. 19 Royal Arch Masons under the direction of 
Rt. Em. Kt. J. P. Hudson on May 8, 1952. 

July 5, 1954 — 50 year Jewel presented to Sir Kt. Edmund Potter. 
This Sir Knight was a druggist on St. Paul St. The store still carries his name. 

November 1, 1954 — V. Em. Kt. J. A. Simmers installed into office of 
Grand Constable. 

May 2, 1955 — First meeting held in new and present Masonic Temple, 
Centre and Court Streets. 

October 5, 1959 — V. Em. Kt. Cecil Baum appointed Standard Bearer 
for Hamilton District Sovereign Great Priory. 

March 5, 1S62 — Em. Kt. Murvin J. McComb presented this Preceptory 
with a lovely bound volume of the sacred law. This was received by 
V. Em. Kt. Wm. S. Coolin who thanked Em. Kt. M. McComb on behalf of the 
Preceptory. The Sacred Volume was then turned over to the Chaplain to be 
used at all future assemblies. 

January 7, 1963 — One minute of silence was observed on the passing of 
our late Em. Kt. Murvin J. McComb. He loved Masonry and lived a truly 
Masonic life. He will be missed by his many friends. 

April 26, 1964 — Plantagenet Preceptory held its first local church 
service in St. John's Church, Jordan, on April 26, 1964. Service was conducted 
by Sir Kt. R. W. Foster. 

October 5, 1964 — It was brought to the attention of the Preceptory that 
V. Em. Kt. Wm. Coolin had received the Knight York Cross of Honor at 
London, Ontario, on October 3, 1964. V. Em. Kt. Coolin was the first St. 
Catharines Mason to receive this honor and was the 44th Mason to ever 
receive the York Cross. Rt. Em. Kt. Coolin has been Registrar of this Pre- 
ceptory for nine years and was Presiding Preceptor in 1954 and Prov. Prior 
for 1965-66. 

December 10, 1965 — A beautiful lectern for use by the Chaplain and 
Preceptory was presented by Em. Kt. C. Naylor. 


Down through the years, Plantagenet Preceptory exchanged fraternal 
visits with Buffalo, Lockport, Tonawanda and Niagara Falls, New York, 

— 1507— 

Toronto, Hamilton, Brantford and Kitchener, and on many occasions was 
accompanied by full regimental band. These visits were truly enjoyed by all 

The writer remembers when he was Preceptor, on the occasion of the 
visit of Most Em. Kt. E. G. Shafer, there were 45 Sir Knights visiting from 
Tonawanda Commandery. On the return visit of their Supreme Commander 
at Tonawanda, on the occasion of their inspection, the writer was used as 
royalty and asked to join in their inspection. 

On the occasion of our first Christmas observance, the Sir Knights from 
Tonawanda came over in full force and put on a drill that will be remembered 
by all for many years. 


We owe a debt of gratitude to our late Preceptor Em. Kt. Murvin 
James McComb, who passed on to his reward December 9, 1C62. for saving 
the minutes and history of this Preceptory. 

He noticed some old books in the basement of the present Masonic 
Temple and asked the caretaker what they were. He received a reply, "They 
were old minutes of some lodge. He had intended to throw them in the 
garbage or burn them but had not got around to it." 

Our late Preceptor Murvin McComb examined them and replied. 
"These are the minutes of Plantagenet Preceptory. These books are history 
and valuable." He carefully preserved them. 


The membership in 1S05 was 80 members. This went to a high of 
171 members in 1926 with outstanding dues of $300.C0, and the membership 
dropped to a low of 74 in 1941. This was caused chiefly by the depression. 
Present membership at our centennial year is 109. 

The writer is indebted to historians Mrs. John Willis, Miss Helen Brown 
of St. Catharines General Hospital, Miss Sylvia Butler, V. Worshipful Brother 
Lawrence Runnalls, Brother Murton Seymour, St. Catharines Library, Archives 
of St. Catharines, City Hall, and the many secretaries of the Blue Lodges for 
the information on the lives of our highly esteemed charter members. Without 
their valuable help this history would not have been possible. 

In the early years dues were payable in both pounds, shillings and 
pence and also in Canadian currency. 

Visits by Most Eminent Knights Supreme Grand Masters of Canada 

March 23, 1908 Most Em. Kt. A .A. Campbell 

May 10, 1917 Most Em. Kt. A. W. Chapman 

March 7, 1920 Most Em. Kt. A. Shaw 

April 7, 1930 Most Em. Kt. A. B. Barr 

December 4, 1934 Most Em. Kt. A. B. Barr 

December 1, 1947 Most Em. Kt. Ben Bailey 

December 5, 1949 Most Em. Kt. John H. Eydt 

November 5, 1956 Most Em. Kt. Perry S. Cochrane 

February 1, 1960 Most Em. Kt. J. W. Carson 

April 1, 1963 Most Em. Kt. E. G. Shafer 

April 6, 1964 Most Em. Kt. F. C. Ackert 

— 1508— 

Year Preceptor 


Prov. Prior 


Jas. Seymour 

Wm. McGhie 


Jas. Seymour 

Geo. G.ove 


Edwin Goodman 

Chas. P. Camp 


Edwin Goodman 

Chas. P. Camp 


Edwin Goodman 

L. C. Camp 


Isaac P. Willson 

D. T. Scholfield 


Isaac P. Willson 

D. T. Scholfield 


Edwin Goodman 

Peter McCarthy 


Edwin Goodman 

John Clement 

1875 tc 

► 1882 Minutes not recorded 


Edwin Goodman 

L. R. Smith 


Edwin Goodman 

L. R. Smith 


Levi Yale 

L. R. Smith 


Geo. Walker 

L. R. Smith 

Wm. Gibson 


Geo. Walker 

C. H. Connor 


Edwin Goodman 

J. H. Ingersoll 


Edwin Goodman 

J. H. Ingersoll 


Geo. Burch 

A. E. Swaze 


Geo. Burch 

A. E. Swaze 


J. H. Ingersoll 

A. E. Swaze 


C. H. Connor 

A. E. Swaze 


C. H. Connor 

A. E. Swaze 


Chas. Burch 

H. J. Johnston 


Chas. Burch 

H. J. Johnston 


John W. Coy 

H. J. Johnston 


John A. Marquis 

C. O. Beam 


John A. Marquis 

H. J. Johnston 

Chas. Burch 


Levi Yale 

H. J. Johnston 


T. J. Stevenson 

A. E. Swaze 


T. J. Stevenson 

A. E. Swaze 


J. A. Grobb 

A. E. Swaze 

Geo. Burch 


J. A. Grobb 

A. E. Swaze 


F. Killmer 

A. E. Swaze 


S. P. Gourlay 

H. J. Johnston 


S. P. Gourlay 

A. E. Swaze 


C. O. Beam 

Jas. Pringle 

John Burns 


Thos. J. Wilbee 

A. T. Riddell 

A. Stevenson 


Jas. E. Merriman 

A. T. Riddell 

J. McLarty 


John Herod 

A. T. Riddell 

J. A. Grobb 


J. M. A. Waugh 

A. T. Riddell 

D. W. Evans 


Wm. Hendershot 

A. T. Riddell 

W. R. McCormack 


F. C. McCordick 

Robt. L. Dunn 

J. Henderson 


J. M. A. Waugh 

H. J. Johnston 

F. Hamburg 


A. T. Riddell 

F. Killmer 


A. T. Riddell 




J. M. A. Waugh 


A. L. Jackson 




G. E. Parker 


R. C. Davis 





R. C. Davis 




A. Shaw 


A. M. McComb 





W. A. Anderson 




Wesley Bowman 


Grove H. Davis 





Harry Rule 





F. A. Wilson 





N. B. MacPhee 





Chas. G. Burch 




Grove Davis 


Albert Cox 





C. B. Manners 




J. W. Holstock 


W. B. Beaton 





F. D. Wilson 




J. A. Lockheed 


Chas. Longhurst 




H. Tetlow 


J. B. Fetterley 




W. J. Elliott 


D. W. Eagle 




J. F. Carmichael 


A. E. Turner 



F. D. Wilson 


N. W. Byard 



Dr. A. Hatzan 


Richard Wilson 



. Eagle 

Geo. Pringle 


N. B. MacPhee 

Richard Wilson 

John Eydt 


N. B. MacPhee 

Richard Wilson 

R. W. E. McFadden 


J. B. Fetterley 

Richard Wilson 

C. E. Palmer 


J. B. Fetterley 

Richard Wilson 

W. Hessenaur 


C. E. Weaver 

Richard Wilson 

J. B. Fetterley 


E. Bowman 

Richard Wilson 

Jas. Webster 


Axel Johnston 

Richard Wilson 

G. E. French 


F. Mabel 

Richard Wilson 

H. Hewitt 


N. B. MacPhee 

Richard Wilson 

J. R. Brucker 


J. P. Hudson 

Richard Wilson 

M. Cuthbert 


Robt. Barr 



Jas. Hill 


Joseph Simmers 



W. Lockheed 


Harold Johnson 



K. Law 


Eli Worley 



W. Shaw 


John C. Wismer 



J. P. Hudson 


Cecil Baum 



Sven Valentin 


Wm. S. Coolin 



C. E. Morgan 


Elwood R. Shrum 



F. Capling 


T. Edgar Warren 


S. Coolin 

F. C. Ackert 


A. R. Fenning 


S. Coolin 

Joseph Simmers 


Lewis Phillips 


S. Coolin 

Robt. Simpson 


Fred Chess 


S. Coolin 

J. E. Cass 


Fred Chess 


S. Coolin 

A. T. Bramhall 


Eric A. Shields 


S. Coolin 

A. Sherman 


Murvin J. McComb 


S. Coolin 

J. T. Armstrong 


Evans F. Greer 


S. Coolin 

Wm. Hogan 


Leonard Pharoah 


S. Coolin 

D. J. Marriott 


Clifford Naylor 

Fred Chess 

Wm. S. Coolin 


Robt. Bowen 

Fred Chess 

T. McHugh 




James Seymour 

JAMES SEYMOUR was born in Limerick, Ireland, November 5, 1825 
and came to Halifax in 1828. His boyhood days were spent in the Maritime 
Provinces. He became associated with the Toronto Globe and the Hamilton 
Spectator. While working for the Spectator he met Elizabeth Murton, 
daughter of Sheriff Murton, who later became his wife. Her father was 
founder of Murton Lodge of Perfection (Scottish Rite) which they named 

after him. There were six children by this 
marriage, one boy and five girls. 

In 1853 he purchased the Constitutional 
newspaper in St. Catharines and was editor and 
publisher until 1871. This was a very influential 
weekly newspaper. In 1871 he received an 
appointment as collector of Internal Revenue. 

Their only son, Joseph Richard Seymour, 
was a druggist at 51 St. Paul Street, where the 
Bank of Commerce now stands. He was a mem- 
ber of Temple Lodge No. 296 and was Master for 
1887-88-89, and shortly afterwards moved to 
Vancouver. He was so inspired by his illustrious 
father that he followed his father's footsteps in 
Masoniy and became a Mason of great renown 
also. He pioneered and organized Masonry for 
the Province of British Columbia. 


James Seymour was initiated into Masonry in Barton Lodge No. 6. 
Hamilton, on February 13, 1850. He was a charter member of St. John's 
Lodge No. 231 which had their charter from the Grand Lodge of Ireland dated 
July 2, 1852. He was one of the first officers and was installed as Junior 
Deacon. He was also a honorary member of Niagara Lodge No. 2, being 
No. 1C3 on the lodge's register. 

He affiliated with St. George's Lodge No. 15 and on July 7, 1857 a 
discussion took place for a petition to start a new lodge. 

Immediately a group of St. George's members, headed by the lodge 
secretary, VVm. McGhie, along with James Seymour and Past Master Fred 
Parsons, began meeting to form a new lodge. Success was soon attained. 
Maple Leaf No. 103 received its charter on July 29, 1858. 

In 1861, members of the two lodges ,who had attained the rank of 
Royal Arch Masons, joined together to found Mount Moriah Chapter No. 19. 
James Seymour who had resigned from St. George's Lodge to help form 
Maple Leaf Lodge, became the charter first Principal of Mount Moriah 
Chapter for 1861-62. Dr. Edwin Goodman of Maple Leaf and Dr. Theophilus 
Mack of St. George's Lodge were also charter members. 

Through 1870 a group of Masons worked toward the organization of a 
company to build a Masonic Temple. One of the leaders of the movement 


was James Seymour. An agreement was found in the local registry office 
dated January 12, 1871, to form the Masonic Association of St. Catharines. He 
had the distinction of being the only St. Catharines resident to fill the office 
of Grand Master of Grand Lodge of Canada. 

He was Master of Maple Leaf Lodge No. 103 for 1860 being installed 
December 27, 1859, and treasurer for Maple Leaf Lodge for 1862-63-64-65. 

He was D.D.G.M. in 1863-64 and again in 1866-67 and was elected 
Grand Master of Grand Lodge of Canada for 1871-72. 

In the year 1872 he was so helpful in forming Seymour Lodge No. 277, 
Port Dalhousie and Seymour Lodge No. 272, Ancaster that in both cases the 
lodges were named in his honour. 

He was Grand First Principal of Royal Arch Masons in 1874. 

In 1866, James Seymour along with many of the charter members of 
Mount Moriah Chapter No. 19 became charter members and founded Plan- 
tagenet Preceptor y No. 8. He was installed the charter Eminent Commander 
(Preceptor) in 1866 and re-elected for the year 1867. He was treasurer for 
Plantagenet Preceptory in 1868-69-70-73-74-75 and V. Eminent Knight in 1374. 
Later he was installed Right Eminent but I cannot give date for this as history 
for 1876 to 1882 was not recorded. 

A large portrait 3' x 5' of our highly esteemed member hangs in 
the Masonic Hall, Gertrude and Main Streets, Port Dalhousie Ward. This 
picture hung in the Masonic Temple, Davenport Road and Yonge Street, 
Toronto for almost a century and was given to Seymour Lodge No. 277, St. 
Catharines in the year 1963. 

JAMES SEYMOUR — The Organizer 

He helped organize St. John's Lodge No. 231 — later renumbered No. 40 
— Hamilton, and founded Maple Leaf Lodge No. 103; Seymour Lodge No. 272, 
Ancaster; Seymour Lodge No. 277, Port Dalhousie; Mount Moriah Chapter 
No. 19, Royal Arch Masons, St. Catharines; Plantagenet Preceptory No. 8, 
St. Catharines; Masonic Temple Association, St. Catharines. 

We owe a debt of gratitude to this great Mason. Every lodge that he 
helped to found is still flourishing and prosperous today. 

As you can see he loved Masonry and was keenly interested in it. 
Outside of his family, it was his first and foremost thought. He made many 
speeches on Masonry and was a powerful and influential speaker. It was his 
ambition to inspire the thoughts of men to greater heights. 

In religion he was a Methodist and loved to see all his family in St. 
Paul Street Methodist Church of which he was a member. He was a regular 
attendant for church devotions. 

He kept a team of fine driving horses. It was a sight to behold and 
remember, to see the fine horses, well groomed, stepping high, with shining 
harness and well polished brass buckles, and a gleaming carriage coming 
down the street. 


James Seymour has two grandsons living at the present time, Murton 
Seymour, a successful lawyer in St. Catharines, who was bom in St. Catharines 
on July 6, 1892. He was one year old when his father, Joseph Richard 
Seymour, moved to Vancouver in 1893. In 1915, he held a commission in the 


Royal Flying Corps. While in France during World War I he was with the 
41st Squadron. At the conclusion of the war he held the rank of Acting Wing 
Commander. He was called to the Bar in 1919 in both British Columbia and 
Ontario. After his graduation he practised law in St. Catharines and his 
office is presently located on Queen Street in St. Catharines. In 1924 he was 
appointed to the Board of the St. Catharines General Hospital and in 1925 
was appointed secretary to the Board and still holds this appointment. On 
October 13, 1932 he was appointed part time city solicitor until he retired in 
1959. He was corporation counsel for the city until he retired in 1963. Murton 
Seymour is a member of Perfection Lodge No. 616 A.F. & A.M., St. Catharines. 

The other grandson is Allan Seymour Notman, a prominent hardware 
merchant on St. Paul Street, St. Catharines for many years, now retired. 

There is one grandson deceased, Richard Ansley Seymour, brother of 
Murton Seymour, who was assistant medical superintendent of Vancouver 
General Hospital. He died April 16, 1964. 


"In 1853 when the Constitutional newspaper came into the possession of 
James Seymour, he made extensive additions and at present it possesses 
facilities for executing work cheaper, neater and with rapidity unsurpassed by 
any other establishment in the province. Mr. Seymour has in operation one 
of "Ruggles Machine Presses" which will turn out work in short order, every 
way superior to that executed previously. He has in his employ six workmen 
who rank in the highest sphere of their profession as well as the newest 
style of types, plain and ornamental, v/hich enables him to accomplish the 
greatest difficulty peculiar to printing offices with the utmost of ease." 

"The Constitutional can boast of being the greatest and best conducted 
paper in the Niagara Peninsula and its circulation extends to the four corners 
of the globe, there being many subscribers in Europe, Asia, Africa and 

"The proprietor is noted for a courtesy and gentlemanly deportment 
seldom met with in newspaper publishers. He is obliging to the townsmen and 
strangers and doubtless ere long he will gain that reputation which he de- 
serves and which he has so long sought for." 

This article entitled "Business Career" was printed by a competitor. 
The St. Catharines Journal, dated August 28, 1856. 

He passed on to his great reward and rest on Jan. 9, 1888, age 64 years, 
with interment in Victoria Lawn Cemetery, St. Catharines. 

Prominent Masons and journalists came from across Canada and from 
the United States for his funeral to pay respects to one of our pioneers in 
Masonry for this district. It was one of the largest funerals in this area. The 
cortege winding for a couple of miles through the streets of St. Catharines. 

The charter was ordered draped for a period of 30 days in remembrance 
of our beloved and highly esteemed member. 


On the completion of his second term as D.D.G.M. in 1867, he was 
presented with a most beautiful silver tea service with the inscription: 
"Presented to R. W. Bro. James Seymour by the brethren of the Masonic 
Order in Niagara and St. Catharines, June 24 AL5867." This tea service on 


being examined by a local silversmith said he thought it was made of German 
silver and is all hand worked. To replace a similar set today, the price would 
be almost prohibitive. This is in the possession of his great grandson, John 
Allan Notman. 

A solid gold watch and chain was presented to James Seymour by the 
Grand Lodge of Canada in 1873 with the inscription: "Presented to Most 
Worshipful Brother James Seymour, Past Grand Master, Grand Lodge of 
Canada, A.F. & A.M. of Canada, with the assurance of the great respect 
entertained for him by every member of Grand Lodge as a slight acknowledg- 
ment of the active and zealous interest taken and the invaluable services 
rendered by him in the discharge of the high responsible offices so worthily 
filled by him AL5873." This watch is in the possession of his grandson, 
Murton Seymour. 

This gentleman also has in his possession a copy of the Constitutional 
newspaper dated October 18, 1866. This paper was given to him by the late 
Henry B. Burgoyne and contains a very interesting article on Mason y 
written by our esteemed Frater. 

He dedicated himself to Masonry so that as a true apostle of Mason y 
he might be the better enabled to do good and live as a man should. 

His was a noble character. His was a sublime mission and if we emulate 
his example we shall not err. 

Lives of great men all around us 
We can make our lives sublime 
And departing leave behind us 
Footprints on the sands of time. 


Dr. Edwin Goodman 

EDWIN GOODMAN was born at Grimsby, Ontario, in the year 1833. 
When he moved to St. Catharines he lived at 56 Ontario Street. This has 
been renumbered but the house stood where F. J. Murphy Garage now 
stands, later occupied by McCollum Motors. He was son of Mrs. Goodman 
and Dr. Henry Rigg Goodman 

He was married twice His first wife was Caroline Elizabeth Cross of 
Windsor, Vermont, U.S.A. There were 5 children, 4 boys and 1 girl. On the 
second marriage to Jessie McCallum, there were no children. 


In 1877 he was elected as Alderman for 
St. Thomas Ward and then he was twice Mayor 
of St. Catharines in 1891 and 1892 and was 
Coroner for Lincoln County, chairman of the 
Board of Health and chairman of the Library 
Board. In over 45 years he was never out of 
harness in civic affairs. He was a staunch Con- 
servative and for many years president of the 
Conservative Association for the County of Lin- 
coln. He was a close friend of Sir John A. 
MacDonald and the leaders of his party. He was 
frequently asked to stand for Lincoln County in 
the Dominion House but he steadfastly refused. 


He was a man of most remarkable attain- 
ments, excelling in whatever he turned his hand to. He was a physician of 
great skill, an artist of merit, a poet of ability and an orator easily excelling 
all others upon the political hustings of the county. He was a writer of 
reputation, and so well known because of his articles in the public press, in 
medical journals, and in widely published magazines, that he justly earned the 
title of "The Learned Doctor", a title he carried with him to his grave. 


He was initiated into Masonry in Maple Leaf Lodge No. 103 November 
25, 1858, and raised January 20, 1859, was Worshipful Master in 1861 and 
treasurer for 23 consecutive years, 1867 to 1890, Very Worshipful Master in 1884 
and D.D.G.M. in 1886. 

He was a charter member and founder of Mount Moriah Chapter No. 19 
of Royal Arch Masons, being first Principal in 1863 and District Grand 
Superintendent in 1882. 

He was a charter member of Plantagenet Preceptory No. 8 in 1866 
and was installed 1st Captain at the inauguration. He was Preceptor for ten 
years, 1868-69-70-74-75-76-83-84-88-89. In this body he was appointed Very 
Eminent but history does not record the date. 

On going through some old records the writer came across an old book 
"Statutes for the Government of the Religious and Military Order of Masonic 
Knights Templar", dated December 9, 1864. This book bears the signature of 


Dr. Goodman and was procured from England by him to set up the by-laws for 
Plantagenet Preceptory. These statutes use the original names, Eminent Com- 
manders, etc., and the word Masonic is used in each case before Knights 
Templar. This was later dropped. 

The Sir Knights of our Preceptory can thank Dr. Goodman for their 
existence today, due to his untiring efforts during the formative years. 

He also organized the Masonic Compact, a benevolent society whose 
object was to look after the widows of departed brethren. 

Dr. Goodman died April 9, 1908, age 75 years. The deceased was a 
staunch Episcopalian and in his younger days took an active part in the 
affairs of his church. 

At the funeral service many of the mourners were unable to get into 
the church and a large and long funeral procession wended its way to Victoria 
Lawn Cemetery to pay their respects to our esteemed Brother. 

DR. GOODMAN, the Poet 

Dr. Goodman loved to write poetry and wrote many poems showing 
great ability. The following poem entitled "Elizabeth" was written to his 
first wife two years before they were married. It was found in her scrapbook 
and written in 1855. 


When the winds sigh o'er the ocean, love, 

When stars gleam in the sky, 

Thy soothing voice breathes softly, love, 

And speaks thy loving eye; 

And I feel though jar away, love, 

By fate condemned to part, 

That thy image, ever clinging, love, 

Will twine around my heart; 

'Twill guide my lonely footsteps, love, 

And shed a gentle light, 

Illume my saddened pathway, love, 

Clad in the robes of night. 

Though tossed on time's tempestuous breast, 

Thy form alone I see; 

My heart to others calloused, love, 

Dreams think alone of thee, 

In nature, every object, love, 

By God adorned with grace, 

Transformed, assumed thy likeness, love, 

And images thy face; 

The high o'er arching vaults above, 

The moon, mild, chaste and fair, 

Shed o'er my soul thy virtues, love, 

And stamp these ever there. 

Ah! should these lines e'er meet thee, love, 

Let not displeasure swell. 

Within thy breast, but deign at last, 

A kind, though sad, farewell. 

It need hardly be said that this poetical effort is of exceptional merit. 


His son, Alfred, in writing his memoirs of his father, said: 

"My father was a man of great self respect. He sometimes sacrificed 


much to retain his dignity. He was always master in his own hou:e, and as 
his children grew to manhood he demanded the respect due to him as head of 
the family, and it was given to him. He was not ostentatious in his affectiois, 
but we knew, through the stories that would leak out through our moiha ■ 
(Elizabeth Cross), that his love for us all was deep and strong, and was simply 
hidden behind a dignified reserve of manner; and when real so^.ow Visited U3 
he was wondrously kind and attentive, and at the sick bed as gentle as a 

The sentiments the son ever held in regard to his father were admiration, 
respect and love, and the greatest of these was love. 


As a patron of athletic sports, Dr. Goodman was well known, and his 
skill both on the ice at the old Scottish game of curling and at the bowling 
green in the more modern sport called forth expressions of admiration from 
those who witnessed it. At rifle matches he also excelled as a rifle shot and 
brought home a great number of trophies from these matches. 


His sons, Arthur, Edward and Alfred, arrived home for an exhibition 
being held, called "The Made in St. Catharines Fair". The three sons weighed 
a total of 630 pounds, Arthur 220, Edward 210, and Alfred 2C€. In pas ing 
the store of an old friend, he said, "I am taking these boys as an exhibit to ou ■ 
"Made in St. Catharines Fair." "Pretty good specimens, eh?" 

He maintained his sense of humour from a boy and at the age of 14 in 
the year 1848 he wrote his mother, and I quote some excerpts from the letter: 
"Mater, Veni Hue Aleriter? 

"Mammy Dear: — 

"You are staying away so long I think you must want to wean us, and 
we are too young for that, particularly Grandma. I should think Louisa 
and John who are fond of making long visits would now be satisfied with yours. 

"Don't say anything but I have some fine segars locked up for my own 
special use." 

His son, Alfred, on remarking about the letter said, "My father quoted 
Latin before I knew him, and was quoting Latin all the length of his days, 
and thus he commenced his school boy letter." 


In 1877 he was elected as alderman and twice mayor of St. Catharines 
for the years 1891-1892. His son, Alfred, on writing about this, said: 

'He repeatedly refused to stand for Mayor of St. Catharines until I 
took the matter into my own hands. The time for election was approaching, 
and he had been asked by friends to stand for the chief magistrateship. Ha 
stated that he would only accept the position by the unanimous consent of 
the electors, and he disliked the annoyance and fatigue of a political contest. 

"I asked him if he would be satisfied if he were petitioned by about 500 
citizens. He said he thought he would, for that should assure his election 
without his asking for votes. (The entire vote then was not over 3.C00. ) 
Without consulting him I circulated a petition up one street and down another 
No one refusing, I soon had five hundred names on the list and calling my 
father into the dining-room unrolled the petition. 


"Here are your five hundred petitioners asking you to stand for mayor," 
I said. "Do you consent?" 

The son remarks, "It was a proud day for him when his father put his 
hand on my shoulder and said, 'I consent.' " 

Dr. Goodman worked unceasingly and untiringly together with James 
Seymour and Dr. Mack as he could foresee a great future in Masonry and a 
large expanse in population for this great country which he loved so dearly 
and the Niagara Peninsula and St. Catharines in particular. 

We owe a debt of gratitude to this great Mason for his foresight. 
Words can never express our thanks to this great pioneer of Masonry for 
St. Catharines. 

One item of particular interest was as follows: When Dr. E. Goodman's 
father arrived at Hamilton, Ontario from England in 1833, he looked the land 
over, which is now downtown Hamilton, and was offered all the land he wanted 
for one dollar an acre but thought the land at Grimsby was more fertile and 
located there. 

Dr. Theophilus Mack 

DR. THEOPHILUS MACK, one of our charter members was born April 
22, 1820 in Dublin, Ireland, and at the age of twelve years came to Canada 
with his parents. His father, a minister of the Church of England, after having 
other charges, became rector of the church and chaplain of the garrison at 

Dr. Mack was one of the first pupils of 
1837-38, he was a lieutenant in the provincial 
navy and subsequently he studied medicine in 
Upper Canada College. During the rebellion of 
the military hospital at Amherstburg, graduated 
at Geneva College, New York in 1843, obtained 
his provincial license and settled in St. Catharines 
in 1844 where he continued to practise until his 
death on October 24, 1881, age 61 years. 

He was married in 1845 to Miss Jane 
Adams, a daughter of the first mayor of St. 
Catharines. There were no children. Dr. Mack 
lived in a large house named "Sunnyside" in 
the vicinity of the present broadcasting station 
CKTB, a few doors from the corner of Yates and 
St. Paul Streets. 

In 1856, Dr. Mack became interested in developing the mineral waters 
of St. Catharines. He was at first associated with Colonel Stephenson, and in 
1864 he erected "Springbank" termed one of the finest thermal establishments 
in America. Springbank became in its later days the first Ridley College. 

Dr. Mack had great foresight in the founding of the nurses training 
school which was named after him. He was an outstanding surgeon and 
gynaecologist. He wrote poetry and had marked artistic ability, a scholar 
with a rare gift in the use of words and possessed a keen sense of humor. 

On his demise on October 24, 1881 he was buried in Victoria Lawn 

Cemetery, St. Catharines. 

J -1518- 


Dr. Mack was a member of St .George's Lodge No. 15 A.F. & A.M. He 
was a charter member of Mount Moriah Chapter No. 19 Royal Arch Masons, 
also a member of Buffalo Chapter No. 71 of Royal Arch Masons. Dr. Mack 
was the first Scribe E of Mount Moriah Chapter when inaugurated in 1861. 
Later in 1866 he was a charter member and helped to found Plantagenet 
Preceptory No. 8, St. Catharines. He was installed 2nd Captain at the 
inauguration of Plantagenet Preceptory. He was a member of Lake Erie 
Commandery, Buffalo. 


Grand Lodge Proceedings 

St. Paul Street United Church History 

Archives, St. Catharines City Hall 

Dominion Archives, Ottawa 

Micro Film Journal Newspaper, St. Catharines Library 

Goodman Family History by Alfred Goodman 

History of St. Catharines General Hospital 

History of St. George's Lodge 

Funk & Wagnall's Encyclopedia 


OFFICERS — 1966 

Front Row, left to right: F. Smith, W. Rudge, W. Pharoah, R. Bowen, C. Naylor, 
L. Pharoah, J. Simmers. 2nd Row: D. Wiley, K. Burtch, G. Corbin, L. Staff, H. Ballantyne, 
E. Greer. 3rd Row: J. Voss, F. Chess. Absent W. L. O'Neill. 


Front Row, left to right: L. Phillips, A. E. Turner, J. Simmers, R. Bowen, C. Burch, B. 
Fetterley, E. Shrum. 2nd Row: J. Wismer, C. Naylor, C. Baum, L. Pharoah, F. Chess, 
E. Greer. Absent: F. Wilson, C. Weaver, J. P. Hudson, H. Johnson, E. Worley, W. Coohn, 
E. Shields. \5'X) 





— 1521 — 


Historical Sketch 


Sussex Preceptory 

No. 9 

Knights Templar 


1867 to 1967 

INSTITUTED May 25th 1867 

As compiled by 
Eminent Knight J. Ross Beattie 




In an attempt to trace the history of Sussex Preceptory 
No. 9, an effort has been made to contact members acquainted 
with the events of the earlier years to form a foundation upon 
which to build. However, it must be realized that the silent 
scythe has been most active among such members, to such an 
extent that the remaining source of information at present is 
none other than that of the minute books as recorded through- 
out the passing years. 

From the records available, it appears that there was only 
one break in the recording of events. This unfortunate gap 
occurred during the years in which the Preceptory was making 
fruitless pilgrimages from Stanstead to Dunham; Dunham to 
Montreal; Montreal to Stanstead. 

The use of "The History of the Sovereign Great Priory of 
Canada Knights Templar (1855 - 1905)" 


M. Em. Kt. Reginald V. Harris, Grand Historian, Q.C., D.C.L., 
G.C.T. is gratefully acknowledged. 

January 4, 1917. It is recorded that the Em. Preceptor 
E. N. Trenholme, appointed a committee to consider the ques- 
tion of a jubilee celebration, it being almost fifty years since 
this Preceptory was chartered. However, at a later assembly of 
the same year, after mature deliberation on the advisability of 
holding such a celebration, it was resolved, due to the unsettled 
state of the war, and the world in general, to postpone this 
activity until after the cessation of hostilities. One notes from 
the records that this celebration was never held. 

As early as 1916, a motion by V. Em. Kt. George Ogston, 
one of the pillars of Knight Templarism in the Sherbrooke area 
for over forty-five years, was introduced to set up a plan with 
a view to act in conjunction with other Masonic committees 
with reference to the securing of a Masonic Temple. This fact 
was not to materialize until approximately eight years later. 

Several times, one lears from the recorded minutes of the 


regular assemblies, a committee was drawn up to set about 
compiling the history of Sussex Preceptory during its earlier 
years, yet no record of any such achievement is to be found. 
Several verbal reports were made during regular assemblies, or 
at such times as a notable distinguished visitor was in attend- 
ance, but no record was established to assist in compiling this 

R. Em. Kt. C. J. Jarjour, Chairman of the present "Cen- 
tennial Committee" has requested permission to express his 
thanks, on behalf of his Committee, as well as that of all 
Fraters of this Preceptory to the Compiler of this Historical 
Sketch, Em. Kt. J. Ross Beattie, for his interest, effort, and 
time spent in collecting and assimilating the data and pertinent 
information to render this effort a reality. 

So live that you are known for your deeds, not your mortgages. 

When the other fellow acts that way, he's ugly; when you do 
it, it is nerves. 



First Presiding Preceptor of Plantagnet Preceptory, 
subsequently renamed Sussex Preceptory No. 9, K.T. 



At a meeting of members of the Palestine Commandery 
No. 5 of St. Johnsbury, Vermont, residing at Stanstead, Prov- 
ince of Quebec, Canada, the feeling prevailed that the interests 
of the Order would be promoted by the establishment in this 
part of the Dominion of Canada of a Commandery of the Civil, 
Religious and Military Orders of the Temple and that of the 
Knights Hospitalers of St. John of Jerusalem. 

On the 25th day of the month of May, 1867, A. O. 749, Em. 
Frater William James Bury McLeod Moore, Provincial Grand 
Commander and Provincial Grand Prior of the Dominion of 
Canada of the Royal Exalted Religious and Military Orders of 
Masonic Knights Templar and Hospitalers of St. John of Jeru- 
salem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta, in England and Wales, 
granted a dispensation to the Sir Knights William Benton 
Colby, Frederick David Butterfield, Charles Hollis Kathan, 
George Daniel Wyman, Squire Wright Taylor, Robert Cooney 
Parsons and Lafayette Buck full power and authority to 
assemble and establish an Order under the name and style of 
the Plantagnet Encampment. 

Frater W. B. Colby proceeded to Montreal where he was 
installed Em. Commander at the British Masonic Chambers by 
Colonel Moore. On his return, he summoned a meeting of 
Plantagnet Encampment to be held at the Masonic Hall, Stan- 
stead, Quebec, on the 24th of January, 1868, and installed the 
following officers: 

Frater Frederick David Butterfield - First Captain 
Frater Charles Hollis Kathan - Second Captain 
Frater George Daniel Wyman - Prelate and Registrar 
Frater Squire Wright Taylor - Captain of Lines 
Frater Robert Cooney Parsons - Expert 
Frater Lafayette Buck - Treasurer 
Frater John Hamilton Graham 
Frater Isaac Henry Stearns 




Provincial Grand Commander, 
Rt. Em. Col. W. J. B. McLEOD MOORE 

who installed 

the first presiding preceptor 

of Sussex Preceptory No 9, K.T. 


A committee consisting of the Em. Commander and Pre- 
late was appointed to draft by-laws and rules for the govern- 
ment of this Encampment, the same to be submitted, and if 
found acceptable, forwarded to the Provincial Grand Prior for 
his approval. 

February 5, 1868, a special communication from the Em. 
Grand Commander of Canada, Col. W. J. B. McLeod Moore, 
informed the Em. Commander that in consequence of there 
already being a PLANTAGNET Encampment at St. Catherines, 
Ontario, this Encampment would in future bear the name of 
''SUSSEX" Encampment. 

The fee of this Encampment was: — Every Companion 
shall previous to his installation pay the sum of Twenty-five 
dollars, which sum shall include all fees due the Grand Con- 
clave for registration, Certificate, etc. Five dollars of the 
above sum shall accompany the application and shall in every 
instance, be returned in case of rejection. The dues shall be 
two dollars payable at the Regular Assembly of each year. 
The Registrar and Equery shall be exempt from the payment of 
dues — and the Equery shall received an allowance of one 
dollar for every assembly that he attends in the performance 
of his duty. 

Assemblies are to be called for Wednesday next preceeding 
the full moon of the months of March, June, September and 
December at such hour as the Presiding Preceptor may deem 

Unfortunately, interest lagged and numerous transfers of 
members to other centers gave the Encampment many anxious 
moments. After an urgent request had been submitted to the 
Em. Grand Commander, a special dispensation was granted to 
allow the Encampment to transfer its place of assembly from 
Stanstead Village to Dunham, Quebec. Property to the value 
of $407.00 in Encampment equipment was moved to the new 
site, January 23, 1874. 

Indolence and feeble attendance continued to haunt the 
Order at its new station, to such an extent, that a further 
dispensation was sought and granted on March 25, 1875, to 
allow the Encampment to transfer to Montreal, where it was 
hoped a resuscitation of life and interest would ensue. Here 
the Order almost died ! 


A report of the Provincial Grand Prior, Rt. Em. Knight 
W. B. Simpson, on October 11, 1878, reads as follows: — "Sussex 
Preceptory of this city, has not, so far as I am aware, held a 
meeting during the past year — nor do I anticipate that it will 
succeed in this city — one Preceptory being, in my opinion, 
amply sufficient; and I would strongly recommend that the 
Preceptor and his officers remove their Preceptory either to 
Sherbrooke or Stanstead, where they would have a very much 
larger field of usefulness open to them." 

Discouraged, but not defeated, the Preceptor and his 
officers decided to request permission to return to the environ- 
ment from whence they originally came, namely Stanstead 
Village. The Grand Prior of Canada keenly desirous that the 
Order should continue to live and grow, granted special dis- 
pensation for the return of the Order to its place of birth. 
Such was ordered on March 18th 1880. So ended six years of 
useless pilgrimage. 

It is to be regretted that in the many transfers from pillar 
to post, the minutes of the meetings during which time the 
Precepory dwelled in Dunham are unavailable, thus breaking 
a valuable link in the history of Sussex Preceptory. 

A shadow of gloom enveloped the Preceptory when, on 
February 24th, 1884, one of the founders of this Order, at the 
full age of 51, Em. Sir Knight William B. Colby, responded to 
a summons from the Great Captain of Our Salvation. A man 
of honour and sincere devotion to principle departed from his 
earthly labours. 

Sussex Preceptory continued to experience growing pains, 
so a decision to transfer the place of meeting to Sherbrooke 
was requested. Dispensation was granted and permission from 
the Grand Chancellor arrived April 30th, 1900. 

The first assembly at this new site was held in the Masonic 
Hall, on May 24th, 1900. As a result of the transfer, attendance 
improved and the Preceptory appeared to resume new life 
after many difficult years of bare survival. 

A gala event in the life of Sussex Preceptory occurred on 
November 1st, 1900, when an invitation was extended vo 
several of the neighbouring Preceptories and Commanderies, 
requesting that the Fraters undertake a pilgrimage to Sher- 


Most Eminent Knight W. E. MONTGOMERY 



brooke. Many distinguished Fraters answered the call and a 
brilliant parade was led to the strains of appropriate music 
from the Band of the 53rd Battalion through the streets of 
Sherbrooke. It is reported that the local ciitzens admired the 
splendid performance of the Sir Knights. Even the local Press 
supported the demonstration and declared the parade to be 
one of the finest ever witnessed in the Eastern Townships. 

This same year, Sussex Preceptory No. 9, received special 
dispensation to appear in uniform in public for the first time. 
The purpose of the plan was to make its first visiting pilgrim- 
age to Newport, Vermont, where the Fraters were the guests 
of Malta Commandery No. 10. A goodly number of Fraters 
responded to the invitation and assembled at the Sherbrooke 
House, whence they proceeded to the station to board a special 
coach placed at their disposal. Upon arrival, the Newport 
Band and a delegation from Malta Commandery were on hand 
to welcome the visitors. A group of over two hundred Knights 
marched to the strains of military music to Malta Commandery 
Hall, where the visitors were treated to a brilliant exemplifica- 
tion of the Most Illustrious Order of the Red Cross and of the 
Temple. It is reported that the excellent calibre of the work 
performed was surely a revelation to many of the visiting 

Good Friday, April 10th, 1903, recorded the first district 
meeting for Sussex Preceptory. Visiting delegations from 
Quebec, Montreal and Newport, Vt. were suitably received by 
Rt. Em. Sir Knight H. E. Channell, Presiding Preceptor and his 
officers. Among the distinguished guests received were the 
Provincial Prior of the Province of Quebec, Rt. Em. Sir Kt. 
Joseph I. Phillips and the Supreme Grand Master, Most Em. 
Sir Kt. David L. Carley. Also Rt. Em. Sir Kt. Col. Ray of 
Rhodes Preceptory No. 23 of Port Arthur, and last, but not 
least, our esteemed Sir Kt. John B. Keating, British Vice 
Consul of Portland, Maine, an honorary member of Sussex 
Preceptory No. 9. 

The records report a short account of a Pilgrimage to attend 
an assembly of the Sovereign Great Priory at Sarnia, Ont. on 
August 12th, 1903. The Fraters and their lady friends to the 
number of twenty-five assembled at the Grand Trunk Station, 
on Monday, August 10th, leaving by the 3:30 p.m. express; a 
special pullman being provided for the party. After a pleasant 
journey with short stops at Montreal and Toronto for refresh- 


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merits, the delegation arrived at London about midday on 
Tuesday where they were the guests of, and entertained with 
splendid hospitality, by the Fraters of Richard Coeur de Lion 
Preceptory No. 4 of that city for the remainder of the day, 
leaving in company with them the next morning for Sarnia 
where they arrived about ten o'clock; and where they were 
welcomed by the Fraters of St. Simon of Cyrene Preceptory 
No. 37. Due to a shortage of hotel accommodation, they were 
sent across the river to Port Huron where they received every 
attention, and where they had an opportunity of extending 
their acquaintance with American Knights Templarism, by 
meeting many Fraters of Port Huron Commandery No. 7. 
After spending a week on the journey, they arrived home 
happy and overjoyed at having had the opportunity of tasting 
varied and uninterrupted pleasure, not the least of which was 
the more fuller realization of the fact that Knights Templarism 
wherever met is living up to the honourable and time honoured 
traditions of the institution. 

Rt. Em. Kt. Ames reported on behalf of a joint committee, 
appointed to consider the question of securing new rooms for 
Lodge purposes, as the committee considered it desirable to 
move, and that they had arranged with the "Record" people to 
add another storey to their building now under construction, 
and to finish off the said storey in a suitable and satisfactory 
manner for the purpose required, also wired for the necessary 
electric lighting and a proper system of ventilation installed; 
that an agreement had been signed leasing the flat for a 
period of five years at an annual rental of four hundred dollars, 
including heating. 

As Sussex Preceptory was enjoying years of prosperity, it 
was resolved that a permanent fund be established and that 
the sum of three hundred dollars be set aside to form the 
nucleus of such a fund. This fund was to be augmented from 
time to time as the finances of the Preceptory permitted. The 
revenue arising from the said fund was to be used for 
charitable purposes, or for expenses actually necessary to 
carry on the work of the Preceptory. The capital was to be 
used only in the case of dire necessity, and then, only upon 
the unanimous vote of the Preceptory after notice of motion 
had been given setting forth the necessity for such action and 
inserted in full in the notice calling the assembly at which such 
resolution was to be voted upon. 


March 4th, 1915, the Presiding Preceptor informed the 
assembled members of Sussex Preceptory of the death of Rt. 
Em. Sir Kt. H. A. Channell, one of the "fathers of Templarism" 
in the Sherbrooke area, which occurred in the Sherbrooke 
Hospital in late February. His remains were laid to rest in 
Stanstead with full Masonic honours, Sussex Preceptory form- 
ing an escort assisted by a representation from Malta Com- 
mandery, Newport, Vt. 

As the first World War had been raging for several years, 
and many of the Fraters from this Preceptory were serving on 
active duty overseas, it was resolved to write off the dues of 
any member serving on active duty with the overseas forces. 

A letter from Sir Kt. Lieutenant Avery arrived requesting 
the Preceptory to see what could be done to furnish socks 
urgently needed by the members of his Company overseas. 
The matter was promptly dealt with and a liberal donation 
was voted to cover the cost of one hundred and fifty pairs. 

The minutes of the regular November assembly, 1919, 
record that a resolution was passed affecting Article 12, Sec- 
tion 1 of the By-Laws of this Preceptory. It was resolved that : 
every candidate for installation shall pay the sum of One 
Hundred Dollars previous to receiving the Illustrious Order of 
the Red Cross, which fee shall include fees due to Sovereign 
Great Priory for registration and certificate, a copy of the 
Statutes and By-Laws, white Mantle, Star; also the following 
uniform : chapeau, cap, belt and sword with case. 

Sussex Preceptory No. 9 K.T. held its last assembly in the 
"Record' Block on September 27, 1923. 

The place of assembly was transferred to a new Temple 
located on Montreal Street, October 4, 1923. 

The Registrar reported at the regular November assembly 
that membership in Sussex Preceptory No. 9 had reached a 
grand total of 224 members. It is to be noted that at this same 
meeting, a resolution, raising the dues from five to seven 
dollars annually, was passed. Also, in future, no Frater would 
receive his uniform until he had received the Order of Malta. 

The regular November assembly of 1932 proved to be one 
of historical importance to Sussex Preceptory, as the Supreme 
Grand Master, on his official visit, presented Rt. Em. Kt. W. R. 




Elliott with the Jewel of a Provincial Grand Prior, this being 
the first time that such a presentation was ever made to any 
member of this Preceptory. 

The Presiding Preceptor, at the regular February assemby, 
1936, made reference to the death of our Beloved Ruler, King 
George V, on January 20th, 1936, and he called upon the Fraters 
to stand and observe the customary interval of one minute's 
silence in memory of our Late King. The altar was ordered 
draped for a period of three months. 

Sussex Preceptory was now experiencing a period of 
"lean years", as many of its members had reached the age 
when they were applying for life membership, while many 
others were experiencing financial embarrassment due to the 
depression of the early thirties, it was resolved to reduce the 
admission fee to seventy-five dollars, in order to encourage 
prospective members to seek enrolment in the Preceptory. 

June 4th, 1936 records a further move to reduce the 
admission fee to fifty dollars which would entitle the aspirant 
to the benefit of all the Orders, fee to The Sovereign Great 
Priory, Registration, Certificate, white Mantle and Star, copy 
of the Statutes and By-Laws. 

The financial pinch was really being felt as the November 

4th meeting, 1942, records that a notice of motion was given 

that at the next regular assembly it would be moved to instruct 

our Temple Director to vote for the sale of the Temple at a 

price not less than fifteen thousand dollars. This motion was 

passed at the subsequent regular meeting by a standing vote 
of the Fraters. 

Attendance at the regular assemblies dropped to such an 
extent that the Presiding Preceptor became alarmed and saw 
fit to speak to the Fraters present on the indifference of so 
many members of Sussex Preceptory. However, it must not 
be forgotten that the members of this Preceptory lived as far 
away as Megantic to the east, and Cowansville and Farnham 
to the west. The Provincial Grand Prior, on the occasion of his 
official visit at this same meeting, expressed regret that no 
candidate was available, however, the officers demonstrated 
their worth by exemplifying the Novice portion of the Order 
of the Temple. Needless to say, the distinguished visitor was 
greatly impressed by the efficient and skillful manner in 


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which the officers exemplified the work. Steps were sub- 
sequently taken to encourage R.A.M. members to seek enrol- 
ment in the Order, otherwise within four years, the active 
membership would drop to nineteen, due to the number who 
would be eligible for life membership and not counting those 
who might be summoned by the Great Captain of our Salva- 
tion to meet with Him in the Celestial Conclave. 

Sussex Preceptory suffered a great loss with the death of 
Rt. Em. Kt. Rufus Whitney, on September 5th, 1948. This 
highly esteemed Frater had given freely of his time, energy 
and talent to help Sussex Preceptory grow through the years. 

At this period it is to be noted that the financial status of 
the Preceptory was becoming rather lean. It was resolved to 
contact each of the Fraters with a view to requesting from two 
to five dollars from each one. This was to be called "Operation 
Back-Log" and was an attempt to stablilize the finances of the 

The regular December assembly, 1951, entertained a motion 
to have the By-Laws of Sussex Preceptory revised and printed, 
as many individual changes had been brought about during the 
past years. This revision was to incorporate all amendments to 
date and to bring the existing By-Laws into accordance with 
the Statutes of The Sovereign Great Priory. These By-Laws 
were subsequently submitted to The Sovereign Great Priory, 
accepted and adopted as official. The printing of three hundred 
copies cost $56.00. 

The Fraters of Sussex Preceptory assembled on February 
10th, 1952, to attend Divine Service at Trinity United Church 
where a memorial service to His Majesty, the Late King 
George VI was observed. Rt. Em. Kt. H. S. Pye, Presiding 
Preceptor, ordered the draping of the altar, out of respect for 
the Past Grand Master of the Knights Templar of England, 
His Late Majesty King George VI. 

Sussex Preceptory was informed on December 1, 1955, by 
the Sherbrooke Temple Board that the Preceptory's lease on 
the Montreal Street quarters was to be terminated as of June 
30th, 1956. 

December 6th, 1956, Sussex Preceptory held its first 
regular assembly in the new Masonic Temple, Prospect Street, 


to which the Order was transferred and where it has continued 
to function to the present date. Distinguished visiting Fraters 
present at the opening ceremony of these new quarters were 
the Provincial Grand Prior, Rt. Em. Kt. Walter E. Montgomery, 
Rt. Em. Kt. E. S. Beckstead and Em. Kt. P. Booth from Richard 
Coeur de Lion Preceptory No 7, in Montreal. As this was the 
occasion for the installation of officers for the ensuing year, 
the Provincial Grand Prior, Rt. Em. Knight W. E. Montgomery 
assumed the office of Installing Preceptor, and assisted by Rt. 
Em. Sir Knight E. S. Beckstead, each performed his role in his 
customary noble, efficient and inimitable manner. 

As few events of historical importance in the life of Sussex 
Preceptory have occurred during the past decade and as the 
Centennial Year is at hand, there remains little but to sum up 
some of the more important aspects of the activities of this 
Order. The Fraters of Sussex Preceptory have been invited 
frequently, during the past century of its existence, to prov- 
ide an Escort, or Guard of Honour, at the Annual Church 
Parade of most of the Masonic bodies in the Eastern Town- 
ships. It is noted that the Presiding Preceptor, on the occasion 
of such invitations, always exhorted the Fraters to make a 
valiant effort to comply with the request. 

The records show that material and monetary assistance 
have been tendered unselfishly, on many occasions, to the 
"poor widow and the helpless orphan". 

One learns with a certain pride and euphoric sensation, 
that a warm, cordial and fraternal relationship has existed 
throughout the years between the Fraters of the four Precept- 
ories of the Province of Quebec. The fact must not be over- 
looked, that on occasions, too numerous to mention, the Fraters 
from Richard Coeur de Lion No. 7; William de la More the 
Martyr No. 25, and Melita No. 63, have individually or sever- 
ally journeyed to Sussex Preceptory No. 9 of Sherbrooke, to 
assist with, or to exemplify in full, the various orders of the 
United Order of the Temple and the Order of Malta. We take 
this opportunity to express our sincere thanks to, and grateful 
appreciation of, all those Fraters who have assisted us in our 
work throughout the past years in the cause of, and for the 
advancement of Knight Templarism. Long may these friendly 
relations continue to exist ! 

— 1540— 





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* M. Em. Kt. I. H. Stearns 

* Em. Kt. W. B. Colby 

* V. Em. Kt. C. H. Kathan 

* Em. Kt. E. Kemp 

* V. Em. Kt. E. H. Goff 

* V. Em. Kt. A. H. Gilmore 

* Em. Kt T. Wood 

* Rt. Em. Kt. E. R. Johnson 

* V. Em. Kt. S. Lebourveau 

* Rt. Em. Kt. H. E. Channell 

* Em. Kt. C. O. Brigham 

* Em. Kt. M. B. Schofield 

* Rt. Em. Kt. F. D. Butterfield 

* Em. Kt. G. D. Wyman 

* Rt. Em. Kt. A. N. Thompson 

* Em. Kt. R. C. Parsons 

* V. Em. Kt. W. M. Pike 

* Rt. Em. Kt. A. Ames 

* V. Em. Kt. G. L. Pinkham 

* V. Em. Kt. H. A. Channell 

* Em. Kt. C. M. Thomas 

* Em. Kt. F. G. Butterfield 

* Rt. Em. Kt. H. Spencer 

* Rt. Em. Kt. W. C. Fuller 

* V. Em. Kt. A. O. Norton 

* Rt. Em. Kt. J. McMorine 

* Em. Kt. F. H. Bradley 

* V. Em. Kt. M. B. Rice 

* Rt. Em. Kt. P. L. Baldwin 

* Rt. Em. Kt. W. G. Cross 

* V. Em. Kt. H. B. Lovell 

* Rt. Em. Kt. E. J. Astell 

* Em. Kt. T. L. Jackson 

* Rt. Em. Kt. D. H. McLeod 

f Em. Kt. E. N. Trenholme 

* V. Em. Kt. G. Ogston 
f Em. Kt. J. W. Brill 

* Em. Kt. H. W. Welsh 
Em. Kt. G. Pearson 

* Em. Kt. J. Fales 

* Em. Kt. J. V. Ames 

t Em. Kt. H. W. Dolloff 

* Em. Kt. W. W. Shaw 

* Rt. Em. Kt. R. P. Whitney 

* Em. Kt. S. C. Smith 

* Rt. Em. Kt. W. R. Elliott 

* Em. Kt. G. S. Anderson 
Em. Kt. L. Stevenson 

Rt. Em. Kt. J. W. Blake 
Rt. Em. Kt. H. R. Stevenson 



1867, 1868, 1869, 1872, 1883 

1870, 1871, 1883 


1875, 1876 

1877, 1878 


1880, 1881, 1882 


1885, 1903, 1904 





1890, 1898, 1899 






1896, 1897 




1905, 1906 







1913, 1917 




1918, 1919 








1927, 1938, 1946 








* Rt. Em. Kt. R. W. Reed 1934 
f Em. Kt. H. R. Henry 1935 

V. Em. Kt. G. H. Mulvagh 1936, 1937 

V. Em. Kt. E. A. Johnston 1939 

f Em. Kt. G. E. Liddell 1940 

Em. Kt. W. M. Hall 1941 

Em. Kt. J. E. O. Nelson 1942 

Rt. Em. Kt. H. J. Moffatt 1943 

Em. Kt. S. A. Belmont 1944, 1945 

f Em. Kt. W. Eaves 1947 

* Rt. Em. Kt. W. J. Edwards 1948 

Em. Kt. G. B. Newman 1949 

Rt. Em. Kt. H. S. Pye 1950, 1951, 1963 

Rt. Em. Kt. R. E. White 1952, 1953 

Rt. Em. Kt. W. F. H. Lambert 1954 

* Em. Kt. D. G. Timmons 1955 
Rt. Em. Kt. E. L. Gilbert 1956 
V. Em. Kt. B. Woolgar 1957 

Em. Kt. D. H. Galbraith 1958 

Em. Kt. G. R. Lessard 1959 

Rt. Em. Kt. C. J. Jarjour 1960 

Em. Kt. W. J. Ross 1961 

V. Em. Kt. D. C. Bloomfield 1962 

Em. Kt. E. N. Fidler 1964 

Em. Kt. J. R. Beattie 1965, 1966 

Em. Kt. A. Rowat 1967 

* - deceased f - suspended - withdrawn 

The Moral Code of Knight Templarism 

It encompasses the highest moral law and will bear the test of 
any system of ethics or philosophy ever devised for the uplift of man. 

Its requisites are the things which are right, and its restraints 
are the things which are wrong. 

Inculcating the principles of Justice, Truth and Liberty, enjoying 
sentiments of exalted benevolence, encouraging all that is good, 
kind and charitable, condemning all that is cruel and oppressive, 
its observance will elevate and enhance everyone under its influence. 

To do good to others, to forgive antagonists, to love neighbours, 
to restrain passions, to honour parents, to respect authority and the 
property of others, to return good for evil; to refrain from causing 
anger, bearing false witness, lying or stealing — these are ihe 
essential elements of the moral law. 


Grand Chancellor: 

M. Em. Kt. C. E. Wells 

Captain of the Guard: 

Sir Kt. L. Gregory 


Sir Kt. G. Kandalaft 

1st Standard Bearer: 
Sir Kt. J. McCabe 

2nd Standard Bearer: 

Sir Kt. E. Wray 

Supreme Grand Master: 

M. Em. Kt. W. E. Montgomery 

Deputy Grand Master: 

Rt. Em. Kt. Dr. C. A. Bell 

Presiding Preceptor: 

Em. Kt. A. Rowat 


Em. Kt. J. R. Beattie 


Sir Kt. C. Gower 


Sir Kt. I. Richards 


Sir Kt. Rev. J. D. R. Franklin 


Sir Kt. H. A. McCullough 


Em. Kt. E. N. Fidler, Jr. 


V. Em. Kt. D. C. Bloomfield 


V. Em. Kt. B. Woolgar 
Em. Kt. W. J. Ross 

— 1544— 

Provincial Grand Prior: 

Rt. Em. Kt. C. J. Jarjour 

Sword Bearer: 

Sir Kt. M. Salvas 


Sir Kt. U Richards 


Sir Kt. H. Richards 



No. 86 


Lodge "Glittering Star" 

No. 322 (Irish) 
(1759 - 1966) 


The Beginning of Knight 
Templary in Canada 

Reginald V. Harris, P.S.G.M. (Can.) 




The Knight Templar degree or order was undoubt- 
edly conferred for the first time in North America, 
in Halifax, in Nova Scotia, by a Lodge in the 29th Regi- 
ment of Foot of the British Army. 

Here is the story: 

The 29th Regiment of Foot (now known as the Wor- 
cestershire Regiment) was originally raised by Col. Thomas 
Farrington of the Coldstream Guards under a Royal Warrant 
dated February 16th, 1694, and was known as "Farrington's 
Regiment" in accordance with the existing practice of calling 
regiments after their Colonel. In 1698 the regiment was 
disbanded and many of the men were drafted into the 2nd 
"Queen's," and the officers being placed on half-pay. 

In March 1702 the Regiment was re-formed under its 
first Colonel (Farrington) and in August was transferred to 
Ireland. In 1704, the Regiment landed in Flanders where it 
formed part of the Army of the Duke of Marlborough, taking 
part in the great victory of Ramillies, giving to it its first 
battle honour. From 1711-13 it was stationed at Gibraltar; 
from 1713-28 the Regiment was again in Ireland and from 
1727-45 it was again stationed at Gibraltar. 

Louisbourg and Halifax: 

In October 1745 the Regiment, then known as "Fuller's 
was ordered to Louisbourg in Cape Breton for garrison duty. 
Stormy weather obliged the transports to stop at the Leeward 
Islands, and afterwards in Virginia, where they were stationed 
from December 1745 to April, 1746, the Regiment eventually 
reaching Louisbourg in May. Here it remained until 1749, 
when Cape Breton was returned to France under the Treaty 
of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) and the Regiment was transferred 
to the new settlement of Halifax, where the men were employed 
in cutting down trees and clearing the ground. In 1750 the 
Regiment returned to Ireland. 

In Ireland: 

The Regiment remained in Ireland from 1750 to 1765. 
During the summer of 1758, the Regiment was encamped with 
the 10th Foot at Kilkenny, after which it marched to Dublin. 
In 1759 the 29th returned to Kilkenny, and joined the camp 
formed at Bennett's Bridge, after which it took up quarters 
at Clonmel, Cashel and Athy. 


Lodge No. 322. (Ireland): 

While at Kilkenny, a Warrant, No. 322, from the Grand 
Lodge of Ireland, dated the 3rd of May, 1759, was issued for 
a Masonic lodge in the regiment. This Warrant was issued 
to George Macartney as Master and Alexander Wilson and 
Joseph Alcock, Wardens, and it is under this same warrant 
that Freemasonry has continued with one interruption, to work 
from that date, May 3rd, 1759, to this present date. Between 
1759 and April 1763 no less than 54 brethren were registered 
in the books of the Grand Lodge of Ireland. 

The principal officers of the Lodge, according to the 
Grand Lodge of Ireland records during this period were: 


May 3, 1759 

Geo. Macartney 
June 24, 1760 

Alex Wilson 
Dec. 25, 1760 

Joseph Alcock 
June 24, 1762 

James Hooton 
June 6, 1762 

June 24, 1764 
Alex Daniel 

S. W. 

Alex Wilson 
John Lesson 

Thos. Nevill 

J. W. 

Joseph Alcock 
James Hooton 

Wm Clinton 

Lt. K. A. Price Alex Daniel 

In Nova Scotia: 

On the 16th of January, 1761, George, Lord Forbes 
(afterwards the Earl of Granard) was appointed to command 
the Regiment, vice Major-General Boscawen, transferred to the 
23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers. New colors were that year present- 
ed to the 29th. In 1762 the Regiment left Galway for London- 
derry and Belfast, and, in the following year, it was quartered 
at Dublin. 

Leaving Dublin in May 1765, the Regiment marched to 
Cork, where on the 5th of June it embarked on board H. M. S, 
"Thunderer" (74 guns, Captain Hood) for transfer to Halifax 
where the headquarters were established, detachments being 
sent to Annapolis Royal and Fort Cumberland. The regi- 
ment was placed on the British establishment from 17th July, 
1765, the day after its landing in Nova Scotia, and consisted 
of nine companies, each of two sergeants, two corporals, one 
drummer and 47 privates. 


To New England: 

On account of apprehended disturbances in New Eng- 
land, orders were sent to General Gage, the Commander- 
in-Chief for North America, to dispatch troops from Halifax 
to Boston. These reinforcements, which consisted of the 
14th and 29th regiments, the grenadier and one company of 
the 59th, and a company of Artillery, disembarked at the 
Long Wharf, Boston, on the 5th of October, 1768, and marched 
with drums beating, fifes playing and colours flying by King 
Street to the Common, where the 29th, having brought their 
field equipage with them, encamped with the Artillery, the 
14th being lodged for the night in Faneuil Hall. On the 15th, 
His Excellency General Gage, having arrived from New York, 
was received by the troops under arms on the Common, and 
reviewed the 14th and 29th regiments. On the 29th of Octo- 
ber the regiment broke up its encampment and took up quar- 
ters in a large store by Green's Lane, belonging to Major 
Green, distiller, and in a house in New Boston belonging to Mr. 
Forest. Early in the year 1769, the regiment was quartered 
at Castle William, at the entrance to the harbour. 

14th Regiment: 

The first Masonic Lodge formed in the 14th Regiment 
than known as Herbert's Foot, was No. 211 (Irish) warranted 
in 1750. In 1759 the brethren in the Regiment obtained a 
second warrant No. 58 from the Grand Lodge of England 

In June 1766, the Regiment was transferred from Eng- 
land to Halifax, where it remained for the next two years, 
fraternizing with the three local lodges on the Provincial roll, 
and the military lodges in the 29th, 59th and other regiments. 

64th Regiment: 

In Boston these two regiments (the 14th and 29th) were 
joined by the 64th Regiment, raised in 1756 as a second bat- 
talion for the 11th Regiment but formed as a separate corps 
as the 64th Foot in 1758. While in Guadaloupe from 1759- 
62, the Grand Lodge of Scotland issued a warrant for a Lodge 
No. 106, 1763 to 1768, when it was also transferred to Boston, 
spending a short time in Halifax on the way. 

Thus we find all three regiments in Boston at one time: 
14th Regiment with two lodges, 211 (Irish) 1750, and 
No. 58 (Ancients) 1759. 


29th Regiment with Lodge No. 322 (Irish) 1759; 

64th Regiment with Lodge No. 106 (Scot.) 1761; 
along with two companies of the 59th Regiment, in which 
regiment we find at this time Lodge No. 243 (Irish) 1754. 

The first indication of resentment on the part of the 
populace occurred eleven days after the arrival of the 29th 
Regiment, when a guard-house on the Neck was destroyed by 
a mob. From that time on there were perpetual quarrels be- 
tween the soldiers and the people, the so-called "Boston Mas- 
sacre" taking place March 5th, 1770. A sentry on duty in 
front of the Customs House on King Street, (now State Street) 
was assailed by a party of men and boys who pelted him with 
lumps of ice and coal and threatened him with clubs. Being 
forbidden by the rules of the service to quit his post, he called 
for the "Main Guard," and a corporal and seven soldiers of 
the 29th regiment were sent to his relief, followed by Capt. 
Thomas Preston. The situation rapidly grew threatening, 
as the crowd increased and were harangued by their leaders. 
Eventually one of the crowd, Crispus Attucks, a half breed, 
bolder than the rest, attacked one of the soldiers, knocking 
him down and seizing his musket. The other soldiers fired, 
killing Attucks and two others, and fatally wounding two more. 
Capt. Preston and six of his men were tried for manslaughter 
and acquitted. Two others were convicted of manslaughter 
and branded on the hand and released. The soldiers were 
defended by John Adams and Josiah Quincy, Jr., both of the 
popular party. 

Masonic Activity: 

Notwithstanding the intense excitement during the 
period between their arrival in October 1768 and this occur- 
rence, the members of St. Andrew's Lodge, Boston (Scottish 
authority) saw an opportunity of forming a Provincial Grand 
Lodge under the authority of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 
In December, 1768, the representatives of St. Andrew's Lodge 
No. 82 (Scotland); Lodge No. 106 in the 64th Regiment; Lodge 
No. 58 in the 14th Regiment, and Lodge No. 322 in the 29th 
Regiment petitioned the Grand Lodge of Scotland for the 
appointment of Dr. Joseph Warren as Provincial Grand Mas- 
ter, and Capt. Jeremiah French and Capt. Ponsonby Moles- 
worth of Lodge No. 322 as Grand Wardens. The signers 
of this petition on behalf of Lodge No. 322 were James 
Brown, Master, Charles Chambers, S.W., and Jas. Smith, 
J.W., (1 Mass. 454-5). 


? 4- •«*'.<*..'« 

j si I** 


















Pursuant to this request a commission was granted in 
May, 1769, by the Grand Master of Scotland appointing Dr. 
Joseph Warren as Provincial Grand Master, and he was duly 
installed at a meeting of the Massachusetts Grand Lodge held 
in Boston, December 27th, 1769, when we find the Master 
and Wardens of Lodge No. 322 present, also those of Lodge 
No. 58, (E. Reg.) in the 14th Regiment. At the election 
which took place on that date, Capt. Jeremiah French of Lodge 
No. 322, was elected S.G.W. and Capt. Ponsonby Molesworth 
of the 29th Regiment, J.G.W. At the meetings of Grand 
Lodge, January 12th and March 2nd, 1770, Chas. Chambers, 
Master, James Brown, S.W., and Wm. McMullin, J.W., of 
Lodge No. 322 were recorded as present. At the March 
meeting we find Bros. French, S.G.W. , and Molesworth, 
J.G.W., being granted letters of recommendation. 

The Royal Arch Degree: 

This degree was undoubtedly conferred in Halifax in the 
year 1760 and possibly also within the previous ten years. 
In 1750, Lascelles' Regiment which apparently had the author- 
ity and knowledge of the degree was in Halifax. The date 
1760 is that given by Frederick Sterling as the date when he 
received the degree in Halifax. In the period 1765-68, there 
was much activity in the Royal Arch degree due principally 
to the presence here of the military lodges in the 14th, 29th, 
59th and 64th Regiments. A considerable number of civilian 
brethren in Halifax received the degree in these military lodges, 
including John George Pyke, later Grand Master of Masons. 

The Knight Templar degree : 

The most interesting and significant fact, however, in 
connection with the sojourn of these lodges in Boston is the 
record in the minutes of St. Andrew's Royal Arch Lodge of 
August 28th, 1769, when it is recorded that William Davis, 
P. M. of Lodge No. 58 in the 14th Regiment received the 
four degrees of Excellent, Super-Excellent, Royal Arch and 
Knight Templar, these being "the four steps of a Royal 
Arch Mason." 

At this meeting, there were present three brethren of 
Lodge No. 322 in the 29th, two others of Lodge No. 58 in the 
14th Regiment, also three others, members of St. Andrew's 
Lodge and Chapter, Boston, undoubtedly already in possession 
of these degrees. 


These minutes are the first record of the conferring 
of the Knight Templar degree in North America. 

Sir Charles A. Cameron, C. B. expresses the opinion that 
Lodge No. 322 "was by far the most likely source of these 
degrees. (A.Q.C. XIII p. 156.) 

In a letter to the writer the late Philip Crossle, the dis- 
tinguished Masonic historian and writer of Dublin, said "I am 
confident that Lodge No. 322 must have worked all the R. A. 
and K. T. degrees when in Halifax between 1765 and the year 
it left for Boston as the K. T. and R. A. are known to have 
been worked in Ireland from about 1740. 

It is submitted that the Knight Templar degree having 
been conferred by these military brethren in Boston in 1769, 
it is an irresistible inference that the degree was conferred in 
Halifax in the previous three years, 1765-68, by these 
Lodges, all of which had come directly to Halifax from Ireland 
where they all received their warrants and must have conferred 
the degree. 

In a letter from the Recorder of Boston Commandery 
to the Secretary of Lodge No. 322, he writes: 

"According to our earliest records the introduction of 
"Templar Masonry in this hemisphere and its develop- 
"ment to its present form and ritual is traceable to 
"Glittering Star" Lodge No. 322." 

The letter goes on — 

"On Oct. 1, 1768, several Regiments of British soldiers 
arrived in Boston, among them the 14th Regiment in which 
Army Lodge No. 58 (English-Ancients) was held and the 29th 
Regiment in which Army Lodge No. 322 (Irish) was held. 
In the second week of November 1768, the 64th Regiment in 
which was held Army Lodge No. 106 (Scottish) also arrived. 
These Army Lodges brought to Boston a knowledge of the 
Temple. They readily held Masonic intercourse with the 
Lodge of Saint Andrew of Boston. Aug. 28, 1769, almost a 
year after the arrival of the British troops, a Royal Arch Lodge 
was formed and worked under the supposed authority of the 
charter of the Lodge of Saint Andrew. The record of its first 
meeting is preserved, and from it we learn that ten Brothers 
were then present, of whom six were soldiers and four were 
members of the Lodge of Saint Andrew. British soldiers were 
chosen as the first three officers of the Lodge which seems to 
imply that soldiers were its moving spirits and were best en- 
abled to do the work." 


The letter states ten brothers were present. The photo- 
stat copy of the minutes shows eight, plus the candidate — the 
candidate was a soldier of the Army Lodge No. 58 (Eng. Reg- 

"As the 14th Regt. Army Lodge No. 58 (Ancients) came 
to Boston from Halifax at the same time as Lodge No. 322, it 
supports the probability that these Lodges worked the K.T. 
degree in Halifax and felt they should confer the degree on 
Bro. Davis, a P.M. of Lodge 58 — No doubt it was the inten- 
tion to confer it before the Lodges left Halifax but they left 
for Boston in a hurry to deal with a political emergency." 

As it is clear that the two senior officers of the R. A. 
Chapter — the Master and Senior Warden — were members 
"Glittering Star" Lodge No. 322 (Irish) which Lodge had 
been operating in Halifax, N. S. from 1765 to Oct. 1768 — they 
were also Master and Senior Warden of No. 322 in Halifax 
in 1768 and in Boston in 1769, it is fair to assume that they 
had worked the K. T. degree in Halifax, for it was the prac- 
tice in the early days to work all degrees under the same war- 

The fact that the Royal Arch Chapter of Saint Andrew's 
worked under the supposed authority of their craft warrant is 
further evidence that in Ireland all degrees were worked under 
the same warrant, for the six soldiers of the Irish Lodges evi- 
dently convinced the Boston Masons of the Lodge of Saint 
Andrew that such was the case — three of the six belonging 
to Lodge No. 322. 

The 29th was again in Halifax with its Masonic Lodge 
No. 322 from 1802 to July 1807 and in our archives we have a 
complete record of their proceedings during that period, in- 
cluding their activities in the Royal Arch degree. The Lodge 
was dormant from 1831 until 1859, when it was revived under 
the name "Glittering Star" No. 322, and is still active Mason- 

The Regiment and its Lodge served in Canada from 1867 
at Montreal, Kingston and London, later in Toronto and 
finally in Halifax, from which it embarked in October 1868 
for Jamaica. 

The Regiment has since served with great distinction 
in various parts of the Empire and Commonwealth. The two 
Great Wars added imperishable laurels to those already won. 


Following that, it was stationed in India, where Lodge No. 
322 carried on the glorious traditions of the apron and the 

The Tower of London 

On June 3, 1938, Glittering Star Lodge No. 322 held the 
first and only Masonic lodge meeting in the Tower of London. 
The First Battalion of the Worcestershire Regiment was then 
in garrison in the Tower. At that time Field Marshal Sir 
Claud Jacob, G.C.B., was Constable of the Tower and Colonal 
of the Regiment. He was also a Past Senior Grand Warden 
of the Grand Lodge of England, and an Honorary Member of 
"Glittering Star" Lodge. A special^nedal was struck to com- 
memorate the lodge meeting. On that occasion Bro. Rt. 
Hon. the Earl of Donoughmore, M.W. Grand Master of Ire- 
land, opened the Lodge, and was supported by the presence 
of Bro. Rt. Hon. Lord Saltoun, P.G.M.M. of Scotland, and 
Bro. General Sir Francis Davies, Deputy Grand Master of 


In June 1959 Lodge "Glittering Star" No. 322 celebrated 
its Bicentenary at an installation meeting attended by the 
Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, the 
Assistant Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land and a Past Grand Master Mason of Scotland. Some 
350 Brethren were present. 

The Installation meeting was held at Norton Barracks, 
Worcester, Bro. Capt. T. J. W. Seabrook receiving the benefit 
of Installation at the hands of Bro. Frank A. Lowe, R. W. 
Deputy Grand Master, Ireland. The smoothness with which 
the ceremonies were performed reflected great credit upon 
the D.C., Bro. Lt. Col. Parkes and the Secretary, Bro. Major 
Newman, the Master-elect, Capt. Seabrook. To mark the 
Bicentenary it was resolved to raise a sum of money to endow 
an Annuity under The Victoria Jubilee Masonic Annuity Fund 
of Ireland. 

From April 1963 to August 1964, Lodge No. 322 was with 
the Regiment at Minden, Western Germany and during that 
period was invited by their German brethren to use their lodge 
room for all meetings. 


On one occasion when no Past Master of the Lodge was 
able to be present due to military duties, a Past Master of the 
German lodge occupied the Chair and conducted the 
proceedings in the English language, and thus enabled a degree 
to be worked. At every meeting German brethren were 
present to witness some very good work. 

The Regiment with its Lodge is at present stationed in 
Gibraltar and on the 18th February 1966, the Deputy Grand 
Master of Ireland, Bro. Dr. J. W. Wallace, flew over from 
Dublin and installed the Master for the year, C.S.M. Gordon 
Parkin. A total of 105 brethren attended this meeting. 

Among those present were: — R. W. Bro. A. Mena, D.G.M. 
Western Mediterranean (E. C.) R. W. Bro. W. Baker, 
D.G.M. Western Mediterranean (S.C.) and several British 
Masons resident in Spain and Morocco. 

August 1st, 1966 R.V.H. 



-Mi " 11 O i M « < ^ < 

No. 87 





An Overview of their Formation 

P.D.D.G.M., Niagara B District 

-•• ••— •»- 

■ ■■ ■■ m ■■- 


The Grand Lodges of Canada 

By R. W. Bro. Cyril C. Martin, P.D.D.G.M., Niagara District 

The story of the Grand Lodges of Canada begins at the same time that 
the "red-coats" of the British Army first established bases in our fair 
country. Military units were granted travelling warrants from the various 
Grand Lodges of England, Scotland and Ireland, and wherever they went 
they practised Masonry, making Masons and teaching the principles of our 

While it is true that the military personnel were in the vanguard of 
Masonic progress in the New World, it must not be inferred that civilians did 
not participate. In fact the more prominent men were substantially active 
in spreading the principles and teachings of the Craft, and these were disse- 
minated through their efforts among the best settlers of those primitive days. 
When military units moved on, they left behind those, who, finding them- 
selves without a Masonic home, often sought permission to organize them- 
selves into a lodge. 

As advances were made by settlement and by conquest, Masonry was also 
spreading throughout the country. Only in the provinces of Saskatchewan 
and Alberta was it true that lodges were not formed primarily through those 
interested and devoted members of the Military. 

It should be borne in mind that in the beginning of our story the major 
part of North America was held largely by two European powers who were 
intermittently at war. When the Seven Years War came to a close in 1763 
the French lost their possessions abroad to the English and North America 
thus became British territory. With this in mind we may comprehend more 
readily the significance of the warrants issued to lodges in territory, which 
to most of us has always been United States, to Lodges in territory which we 
have always known as Canada. 

Beginnings in New England 

As early as 1730, just thirteen years after the founding in England of the 
world's first Grand Lodge in 1717, Daniel Coxe of New Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania received authority from that Grand Lodge to "assemble Masons in 
his territory," although there seems to be no record that he exercised this 
privilege. In 1733 Henry Price of Boston was named Provincial Grand 
Master of New England, and St. John's Lodge of Boston was warranted. 
Herein lies the establishment of Masonry in the United States of America 
and Canada. 

No doubt you can appreciate the fact that in attempting to outline the 
story of the founding of the nine Grand Lodges and the two District Grand 


Lodges in the Dominion of Canada one must necessarily omit most of the 
detail of the struggles and heartbreaks, of the obstacles and the sacrifices, of 
the patience and the perseverence, and of the romance experienced by those 
who carried the banner of Masonry ever forward and onward. Some careful 
reading of those details and some careful reflection on the part of most 
of us' who bear the title, Freemason, would enable us to appreciate more 
fully the great heritage handed down to us in our Grand Lodges of the 
present day. 

We have arbitrarily divided this account into two sections ; the first part 
concerns the Grand Lodges formed about or before Confederation except New- 
foundland, which is a District Grand Lodge, and the second part deals with the 
formation of the Grand Lodges in the remaining provinces and territories. 


As might well be expected Masonry in all Canada was born in Nova 
Scotia. It came in 1738 with the military, specifically Philipps, later the 
Fortieth Foot, stationed at Annapolis Royal. Major Erasmus James Philipps, 
of that regiment, was the first Worshipful Master, and was almost immediately 
appointed Provincial Grand Master for Nova Scotia. 

We are not aware of any significant progress in Masonry in Nova Scotia 
until 1757, when the First Lodge in Halifax, established in 1750, was granted 
a charter directly from the 'Ancients" Grand Lodge of England. 

The story of this Lodge begins in 1750, when the founders of Halifax 
applied to P.G.M. Philipps for a charter ; their petition reads as follows : 

Halifax the 12th June 1750. 

Sir: — -At a meeting of true and Lawfull brothers and Master Masons 
assembled at Halifax in order to Consult on proper measures for holding and 
Establishing a Lodge at this Place It was unanimously resolved on that a 
Petition should be sent to You who we are informed is Grand Master for the 
Province of Nova Scotia in Order to obtain Your Warrant or Deputation 
to hold and Establish a lodge at this Place according to the Antient Laws & 
Customs of Masonry & that said Petition should be signed by any five of the 
Brethren then Assembled. 

We. therefore, the undersigned Subscribers pursuant to the above resolution 
do most humbly Crave and desire Your Warrant to hold and Establish a 
Lodge as aforesaid according to the Antient Laws and Customs of Masonry 
as practised among true and Lawfull Brethren and this we Crave with the 
utmost dispatch and beg leave to subscribe ourselves Your true and Loving 

"Ed. Cornwallis 
"Copy P "Wm. Steele 

"Eras. Jas. Philipps, "Robert Campbell 

"P.G.M. "Willm. Nesbitt 

"David Haldane." 


Hon. Edward Cornwallis, Governor of Nova Scotia, one of the signators 
to the petition and founder of the City of Halifax, became the first Worship- 
ful Master. Such was the beginning of what to-day is known as St. Andrew's 
No. G.R.N. S., the oldest lodge not only on Canadian soil, but in the Over- 
seas Commonwealth, having met continuously since July 19, 1750. 

From a concise account of the Rise and Progress of Freemasonry in 
Nova Scotia contained in a rare volume in the library of the Grand Lodge 
of Massachusetts entitled 'Ahiman Rezon of the Provincial Grand Lodge 
of Nova Scotia (Ancients) we find it stated: 

"From Europe the Royal Art crossed the Atlantic with the first emi- 
grants and settled in the various parts of America. It is said to have been 
known in Nova Scotia, while in the hands of the French. But, however this 
may be, it is certain that as soon as the English took possession of it, they 
took care to encourage this charitable institution. They saw that it had a 
tendency to relieve distress and to promote good order. By this early atten- 
tion to it, discovered in the first planters, it had the happiness to rise into 
repute with the rising Province as the ivy climbs around the oak contributing 
to its beauty, shade, and magnificence. 

"As early as the year 1750, which was almost as soon as there were 
any houses erected in Halifax, we find a number of the Brethren met to- 
gether with Governor Cornwallis at their head, 'deeming it,' as they ex- 
pressed it, 'for the good of the fraternity that Masonry should be propagated 
in the province, and that there was a necessity of encouraging it in this 

"Erasmus James Philipps, Esq. of Annapolis Royal was Provincial 
Grand Master at that time, and they agreed to petition him for a Warrant 
to hold a Lodge at Halifax, and that his Excellency might be Master of it. 
This warrant was received on the 19th of July ; and on the same evening 
Lord Colville and a number of Navy Gentlemen were Entered Apprentices 
in this lodge. It had also the honour of making many of the principal in- 
habitants, and most of the Gentlemen holding considerable offices in the 
Province ; and it was in this Lodge that our present Grand Senior Warden, 
the Right Worshipful and Honourable Richard Bulkeley, Esq., was made a 
Master Mason. 

In the light of the present day efforts of our Grand Master of the 
Grand Lodge of "Canada"' in the Province of Ontario in appealing to the 
brethren to "improve the image of Masonry in the public eye," we may well 
take a leaf from the pages of the story of Lord Colville who was made an 
Entered Apprentice in the First Lodge in Halifax and later transferred to 
Boston where he was voted a member of the First Lodge in Boston, passed 
and raised on the 24th of October and 2nd of November 1750 respectively, 
was appointed Deputy Grand Master 24th June, 1752 by Right Wor. Bro. 
Thos. Oxnard, Provincial Grand Master, and who seems to have "won the 
hearts of the Profane as well as those of his Brethren. On the 12th of 
May 1752 the inhabitants of Boston, in a Public Meeting Assembled at 


Faneuil Hall, passed a vote of thanks to him as Commodore of His Majesty's 
Ship 'Success" for his Conduct and Good Services which had given great 
satisfaction to the Town." 

Again quoting from "Ahiman Rezon of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, 

"Governor Cornwallis, indeed while he resided in the Province was 
Master of this Lodge and governed it by a Deputy, according to the custom 
prevailing in Scotland. He was succeeded in the Government and in the 
Chair by Governor Lawrence, who enjoyed both till his death . . . 

"On March the 18th, 1751, the second Lodge was formed at Halifax. 
On this occasion Brother Murray acted as Deputy Grand Master, and 
Brother Nesbitt, the late Attorney-General, as Senior Grand Warden, in in- 
stalling officers . . . 

"At this time our Right Worshipful Brother Philipps probably acted 
only under a deputation : For we find a Grand Warrant dated seven years 
after this, from the Right Worshipful and Honourable William Stewart, Earl 
of Blesinton, Grand Master of England, constituting Erasmus James Philipps, 
Esq., Provincial Grand Master of Nova Scotia, and of the territories there- 
unto belonging. 

"Grand Master Philipps was succeeded in his high office by his Honour 
Jonathan Belcher, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor of the Province. But the 
Province being in its infancy, and having to struggle with many difficulties 
unfavourable to the cultivation of the Arts, the Grand Warrant, after the 
death (1776) of the Right Worshipful Brother Belcher, lay dormant for 
many years ; a misfortune severely felt by the Craft." 

By 1757, two lodges had been chartered by the "Moderns" Grand Lodge 
of England, but when it came to seeking permission to form a Provincial 
Grand Lodge, the petition was directed to the "Ancients" Grand Lodge of 
England. It was the first such document ever issued by them and was, in 
all likelihood, thrust upon Brother Philipps without any request on his part 
and probably never used by him. 

Current events had a dampening effect on the enthusiasm for Free- 
masonry among the civil population. The siege of Louisbourg in 1758, the 
capture of Quebec (1759) and Montreal (1760), the War of Independence — 
all contributed to this condition, and following the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence in 1776, the Provincial Grand Lodge apparently ceased to exist. 

Provincial Grand Lodge 1784 

Of thirteen military units participating in the second siege of Louisbourg 
in 1758 all but four are known to have had Lodges attached to them. This 
interest in Masonry on the part of the military kept it alive during that 
period between 1776 and September 1784 at which time a new Provincial Grand 
Lodge (Ancients) was formed. By 1820 no less than thirty-four new Lodges 
had been warranted, some of them located beyond what is now the provincial 
boundary lines. 


The Provincial Grand Lodge in Nova Scotia seemed little affected by 
the union in England of the two Grand Lodges in 1813. Only two Lodges 
in Nova Scotia were carried forward by the unified Grand Lodges in England 
and the Provincial Grand Lodge carried on as usual, but in 1822 its pro- 
ceedings were termed "irregular" because it had exceeded its authority. 

Cape Breton : Here we should mention that Cape Breton Island was 
set off as a separate Province in 1785, and that its first Lodge was formed in 
Sydney in 1786, (now St. Andrew's No. 7) and a second Lodge, Harmony 
No. 28, in 1800. In 1820 the Island gave up its separate political and 
Masonic existence and merged with Nova Scotia. 

In 1829, John Albro was appointed by the Grand Lodge of England as 
Provincial Grand Master for Nova Scotia, being succeeded on his death in 
1839 by the Hon. Alexander Keith, with jurisdiction over the three Maritime 
Provinces and Newfoundland. 

Provincial Grand Lodge qf Scotland: Meanwhile in 1826, the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland had established a new Lodge in Halifax known as Thistle 
Lodge. This was followed by others in New Brunswick and in Nova Scotia, 
and the appointment in 1843 of John Leander Starr as Provincial Grand 
Master. He was shortly afterwards succeeded by Alexander Keith, who thus 
became Provincial Grand Master of two rival Provincial Grand Lodges. 

Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia : In 1866, the eleven Scottish Lodges in 
Nova Scotia declared their independence, with Dr. William H. Davies as 
Grand Master. 

In 1869, eighteen English Lodges united with the Grand Lodge of 
Nova Scotia, only one English Lodge, Royal Standard, (now No. 398 E.C.) 
remaining out. Such is the origin of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia. 


This part of Nova Scotia then known as Sunbury County became the 
Province of New Brunswick in 1784. Masonry in this area had its beginning 
with the arrival of the United Empire Loyalists starting in the year 1783 
and steadily increased year by year. 

The first request came from Jared Betts U.E.L., who bore a warrant from 
the Grand Lodge of Ireland, and was directed to one, Joseph Peters, Secretary 
of St. John's Lodge No. 211 Halifax. Such request was denied but on 
September 7, 1784, Hiram Lodge, the first Lodge, located at Parr Town, now 
Saint John, was issued a Dispensation by the "Ancients" in Halifax. Two 
more Lodges were warranted, St. George's at Maugerville in 1788, and New 
Brunswick in 1789. It should be noted that all the Lodges working in 
New Brunswick up until 1827 received their authority from the Provincial 
Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, England, Scotland, or Ireland. 


The Provincial Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia suspended the Warrant of 
Hiram Lodge in 1796, and its twenty-two members were expelled for 

Initial steps were taken in 1827 to form a Grand Lodge of New Bruns- 
wick, but not until two years later was its organization completed with the 
Rev. B. G. Gray as Grand Master-elect by three of the Lodges warranted by 
the Grand Lodge of England. For unknown reasons this body did not meet 

No further action to form a Grand Lodge was taken until 1855, but in 
that year the Lodges holding Warrants from England organized a Deputy 
Provincial Grand Lodge "for the better care of their own interests" and four 
years later this status was raised to that of a Provincial Grand Lodge and in 
1865 to a District Grand Lodge. 

As in other provinces, Confederation gave a great impetus to Masonry. 
A number of meetings in that year culminated in a final assembly on October 
9th and 10th at which time independence was proclaimed, uniting all Lodges 
in the Province under Right Wor. Bro. Robert T. Clinch as Grand Master. 
On account of his position as District Grand Master of England he declined 
to be installed. In consequence Wor. Bro. B. Lester Peters was elected and 
installed as the first Grand Master on January 22, 1868. 

In 1870 the Grand Lodge of England officially recognized the new 
Grand Lodge of New Brunswick. This was followed by a similar action 
on the part of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1872. 

* * * 


A petition for a warrant of Constitution for a Masonic lodge from a 
number of Masons, resident on the Island of St. John, to the Secretary of 
the Provincial Grand Lodge at Halifax by Ebenezer Nicholson on the 9th of 
October 1797 was granted to St. John's Lodge No. 26 Nova Scotia, and it 
was the only Lodge on the Island until 1827. 

In 1798 the name of the Island was changed to Prince Edward Island 
in honour of the Duke of Kent, sent to Halifax as Commander of the 
Forces. The growth of this Province at this time was, in no small measure, 
due to the influx of the United Empire Loyalists some of whom were Masons 
in their former country. 

The first initiate in the Lodge was Lieutenant-Governor, Edmund Fan- 
ning, admitted on November 14, 1797. He was Worshipful Master of his 
Lodge in 1801. A Bible presented to the Lodge two years before his instal- 
lation is still in its possession. 

Although there was a marked revival of interest in things Masonic in 
1842, no new Lodges were formed until 1858 when Victoria Lodge in Char- 


lottetown was warranted by the Grand Lodge of Scotland. Shortly after- 
wards the Provincial Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia became more active and six 
new Lodges were chartered between 1860 and 1869. 

On the organization of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia in 1869, Prince 
Edward Island was left without a "head" for its Masonic fraternity until 
1871 when the gap was filled by the Grand Lodge of England creating it a 
District under Right Wor. Adam Murray. This arrangement continued until 

On June 23, 1875, delegates representing the eight Lodges in that Pro- 
vince met at Charlottetown and organized the Grand Lodge of Prince Edward 
Island and on June 24th the Hon. John V. Ellis, Grand Master of New 
Brunswick, installed Most Wor. John Yeo as its first Grand Master. 


As has already been pointed out, Freemasonry in Canada in its early 
days owes a great deal to the system of "travelling warrants" issued to the 
military authorizing them to practise Masonry in whatever territory they 
should be stationed. The Grand Lodge of Ireland was the first to issue such 
warrants as early as 1737. England followed several years later. 

During 1756-58 the Grand Lodge in Boston authorized warrants for lodges 
in the expedition against Crown Point and other places in Canada. About 
the same time the Grand Lodge of Scotland appointed Col. Young of the 
60th Regiment as its Provincial Grand Master over the lodges in America 

After the capitulation of Quebec in 1759, eight lodges holding field war- 
rants, five Irish, one Scottish, two English, celebrated St. John Festival in 
December. This was followed by a discussion on the formation of a Pro- 
vincial Grand Lodge in Quebec. Lieut. Guinnett of the 47th Regiment was 
elected Provincial Grand Master and he was succeeded by Col. Simon 
Fraser of the 78th Regiment in the following year. 

The Provincial Grand Lodge thus formed operated for about thirty-three 
years under the "Moderns" of England. About forty lodges were chartered 
by this Provincial Grand Lodge, four of them being in the city of Quebec. 
Other Lodges warranted up until 1791 included locations in Montreal, Lake 
Champlain, Cornwall, Ogdensburg, Kingston, Niagara and Detroit. 

When Upper and Lower Canada were formed by the Constitutional Act 
of 1791, Masonic division was also defined and in 1792 Provincial Grand 
Masters for each of the Provinces were agreed upon. The Duke of Kent, 
Queen Victoria's father was initiated in Switzerland and allied with the "Mod- 
erns" Grand Lodge of England. Following his appointment to the military 
command in Lower Canada, the Grand Lodge of England, "Ancients," issued 
a patent deputing the Prince "Provincial Grand Master of Lower Canada" 
and on the 22nd of June 1792 he was duly installed. 


Included in the ceremony was a religious service and procession to the 
Recollet Roman Catholic Church where the Grand Chaplain delivered the 
sermon. It is interesting to note that this service was repeated annually 
for several years. In 1813 His Royal Highness was succeeded by the Hon. 
Claude Denechau, a Catholic, who held office until 1832. 

The year 1823 marked another era in the history of the Craft in Quebec. 
Lodges in Montreal and elsewhere forwarded their Canadian Charters to the 
recently formed United Grand Lodge of England and exchanged them for 
English warrants and then petitioned to have two (Provincial) Grand Lodges 
under that Grand Body, one for Montreal and William Tenry (Sorel) and the 
other for Quebec and Three Rivers. This arrangement continued until 1855 when 
the Grand Lodge of Canada was formed. It included in its membership thir- 
teen lodges Canada East (Quebec) besides forty-one lodges in Canada West 
(Ontario). This seemed to give a new impetus to Masonry in Quebec so 
that some thirty new lodges were formed. 

But when Confederation took place an agitation for a separate Grand 
Lodge for each province appeared and in 1869 several meetings were held 
in Montreal which resulted in the Provincial Grand Lodge of Quebec being 
dissolved in 1870. As might be expected unpleasantness developed. The 
Grand Lodge of Canada opposed the idea, but in 1874 withdrew its objections. 
Twenty lodges in Quebec which had held aloof from the controversy then 
affiliated with the new Grand Lodge of Quebec. 

In June 1878 the Grand Lodge of Scotland instituted two new lodges in 
the city of Montreal, which, together with Elgin Lodge already of its obe- 
dience, formed a Provincial Grand Lodge. This act was opposed most 
strenuously until 1881 when the rift was mended and the three lodges joined 
the Grand Lodge of Quebec. 

It should be noted that two English lodges in Montreal, St. Paul's No. 
374 and St. George's No. 440 still remain outside, and hold their warrants 
from the Grand Lodge of England. 


The story of Masonry in Ontario in its early days is closely tied to that 
of Quebec. Not until 1792 were these two provinces identified as two distinct 
areas (Upper and Lower Canada), and their boundaries defined. Canada 
had been known as Canada East (East of the Ottawa River) and Canada 
West (West of the Ottawa). 

Masonry's birthplace in Ontario was in the Niagara area in what is now 
United States territory, Fort Niagara. A military lodge No. 156, attached 
to the 8th or King's Regiment of Foot, worked from 1773 to 1785 meeting 
regularly. It drew its members from both sides of the river. 


In 1792, the Grand Lodge of England appointed Captain William Jarvis, 
who was Provincial Secretary to John Graves Simcoe, the first Governor of 
the Province, as "Substitute Grand Master." Under Jarvis the existing 
lodges were re-numbered and twenty-six others were warranted. It was at 
this time that St. John's was re-named St. John's Lodge of Friendship No. 2, 
but no other record later than 1810 is known of its history. This together with 
other evidence of loose records leads us to conclude that there may have 
been some grounds for the report that Right Wor. Bro. Jarvis exceeded the 
authority conferred on him by the Grand Lodge of England. 

Following the successful American Revolution in 1776 Colonel Simcoe, in 
1793, moved his troops from Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake) to York 
(now Toronto) where Rawdon Lodge had been set up in 1790. In 1797 Right 
Wor. Bro. Jarvis removed the seat of the Provincial Grand Lodge to York, 
together with Provincial Grand Lodge paraphenalia. This action was re- 
sented by the brethren at Newark, and in 1802 they founded a schismatic 
Grand Lodge of Niagara and so informed Jarvis. They continued to act 
as a legitimate Grand Lodge, performing all the functions of the same, even 
to forwarding reports and fees to the Grand Lodge of England. The War 
of 1812-14 further disrupted Masonry in Ontario. Thus in 1817 when 
Grand Master Jarvis died, the condition of Masonry here was at a very low 

In 1822, Right Wor. Bro. Simon McGillivary arrived in Ontario armed 
with a warrant of appointment as Provincial Grand Master for the Province. 
It was his responsibility to heal the breaches and restore order out of chaos 
and confusion. He performed his task with effectiveness, but his business 
connections took so much of his time, and his trips abroad were so extensive 
and frequent that his Masonic duties were delegated to deputies not endowed 
with wisdom which he possessed. So, the best that can be said is that they 
kept the fires of Masonry alive during this period until the death of Provin- 
cial Grand Master McGillivary in 1840. No doubt the Morgan incident which 
occurred during this interval was a contributing factor to the lull in en- 
thusiasm for Masonry at this time. 

Revival under the Third Provincial Grand Lodge was initiated in 1840 
under the leadership of Right Wor. Ziba Phillips, a Deputy Provincial Grand 
Master under Simon McGillivary. About this time Sir Allan McNab, on a 
visit to Scotland in 1842, was appointed Provincial Grand Master by the 
Grand Lodge of Scotland. He did not reveal this until after he had received 
word that St. Andrew's Lodge had petitioned the Grand Lodge of England 
in 1845 to appoint Wor. Bro. Thomas Gibbs Ridout as Provincial Grand Master. 
It was then also revealed that McNab already held a warrant which he re- 
ceived from the Grand Lodge of England in 1844. It is interesting to note 
that his first appointment as a Provincial Grand Master was received while 
he was still a Fellowcraft. 

Disquiet and irritation still prevailed in Masonic ranks, and although 
Provincial Grand Master McNab had two valued and faithful lieutenants in 


the persons of Right Wor. Bro. Thomas Gibbs Ridout, Deputy, and Right 
Wor. Bro. Francis Richardson, Secretary, he apparently did not take a great 
interest in the Craft, as he was absent from many meetings. This, together 
with the seeming indifference adopted by the Grand Lodge of England to the 
petitions and correspondence forwarded by this Provincial Grand Lodge, 
finally forced the brethren to take steps to organize an independent Grand 
Lodge. Lodges holding under the Grand Lodge of Ireland took similar action. 
Following many meetings at which long and heated discussions took place, 
a meeting in Hamilton was convened on October 10, 1855. Forty-one lodges 
from as far East as Montreal and as far West as Windsor, sent delegates. 
Resolutions had been pre-prepared for presentation. Lively discussions ensued. 
The resolutions were specific, respectful, and logical. The final one was 
brief and to the point ; "therefore be it resolved that in order to apply remedy 
to the evils, to form perfect fraternal union and harmony, to establish order, 
ensure tranquility, to provide for and promote the general welfare of the Craft, 
and to secure to the Fraternity of Canada all the blessings of Masonic privi- 
leges, it is expedient, right, and our bounden duty to form a Grand Lodge of 

This resolution carried by forty to one. Step by step the work of organ- 
ization proceeded. The evening session concluded with the appointment of a 
committee, headed by William Mercer Wilson to prepare a constitution for the 
newly-formed Grand Lodge. 

Wilson was elected the first Grand Master and was installed on November 
2, 1855, by Bro. H. T. Backus, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of 

For a time the new Grand Lodge of Canada was not recognized as such 
by other Grand Lodges including England, New York and other states and 
countries. In 1857 the Provincial Grand Lodge met for the last time. Forty- 
seven lodges surrendered their warrants and were issued with the necessary 
documentary authority to proceed under the new regime, titled "Ancient Grand 
Lodge of Canada" and replacing the Provincial Grand Lodge of Canada 

On July 14, 1858, the Ancient Grand Lodge under McNab was declared 
dissolved, and threw in its lot with the Grand Lodge of Canada, which now 
became the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Canada. One 
must realize that this Grand Body held jurisdiction only over what had 
been Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Not all lodges joined the new 
Grand Lodge at this time. Indeed, a dispute in London, Ontario, about 
twenty years later led to the formation of a Grand Lodge of Ontario. This 
body was short-lived as the rift was soon healed. 

Following Confederation in 1867, and the formation of the Grand Lodge 
of Quebec in 1869, the name of the Grand Lodge in Ontario was altered again 
by adding the words "in the Province of Ontario" to the official name 
adopted in 1858. A note of explanation for this name may be of interest to 
Masonic students. Through Confederation in 1867 and by the time the 


controversy over recognition of the new Grand Lodge in Ontario had con- 
cluded in 1874 by the official recognition of that new body by other Grand 
Lodge jurisdictions, Canada had grown by extending its boundaries to include 
the Provinces of Manitoba, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island. It 
now reached from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the United States 
border to the Arctic. In the meantime some brethren, having or believing 
they had grievances, established a clandestine body and took the territorial 
name. Further, a number of lodges had been formed by the coloured brethern, 
and these lodges organized a Grand Lodge of their own giving it the same 
name. They further fortified their claim to the name by obtaining an act 
of incorporation through the legislature. It seemed prudent, therefore, in 
order not to confuse the various bodies in the minds of the people, and to 
avoid the possibility of embarrassment in the future, to name the legitimate 
body, the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario. 

I cannot close this brief outline without recommending in the most 
emphatic terms possible that all Masons, especially in this Grand Jurisdiction, 
should read the inspirational address delivered by our first Grand Master, 
Most Wor. Bro. William Mercer Wilson, at his installation in November 


Masonry in British Columbia had its "ups and downs" like the adventurers 
and the gold-diggers who risked their very lives to explore the unknown. 
Always among these indominitable spirits there were Masons far from their 
Lodges, yet desirous of that fellowship to be realized in the associations of a 
Masonic lodge. 

Thus it was that a preliminary meeting was held in the new store oper- 
ated by Southgate & Mitchell at the corner of Yates and Langley Streets on 
July 12, 1858. Later a petition was forwarded to the Grand Lodge of England 
and a charter was granted and signed by the Grand Master, the Earl of 
Zetland on March 19, 1859. The warrant for the new Lodge arrived on 
March 14, 1860 but dedication did not take place until August 1860 under 
the direction of R. W. Bro. Robert Burnaby P.M. of Royal Somerset and 
Inverness Lodge No. 4. The new Lodge was named Victoria and numbered 
1085 E.C. Its first Worshipful Master was Bro. Joseph J. Southgate. 

About this time the discovery of coal and gold stimulated the influx 
of many more people. A number of brethren hailing from the U.S.A. being 
unfamiliar with the work under the English Constitution attempted to organize 
a lodge under the jurisdiction of the State of Washington. This move was 
most strenuously opposed by the members of Victoria Lodge who stated very 
definitely their objections to the formation of any Lodges except those who 
received their charters from the Mother country. 

The differences were resolved when R. W. Bro. Dr. I. W. Powell, 
recently arrived in the district, suggested an application be made to the Grand 


Lodge of Scotland for a charter. A warrant was issued and on October 20, 
1862 a formal meeting was held in Victoria Lodge hall at which time the 
new lodge designated Vancouver Lodge and numbered 421 S.C. was organized. 

Masonry lay somewhat dormant for a time, but in May 1867 the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland commissioned W. Bro. Powell as Provincial Grand 
Master. On September 10th of the same year W. Bro. Robert Burnaby was 
appointed District Grand Master by the Grand Lodge of England. By 1871 
five Scottish and four English lodges had been warranted. 

As early as 1868, Vancouver Lodge had initiated steps to form an in- 
dependent Grand Lodge. All the lodges under Scottish Constitution sup- 
ported the action except one, and all the lodges under English Constitution 
opposed the move except Victoria Lodge. Appeals to the Grand Lodge of 
England and the Grand Lodge of Scotland, through their District Grand 
Master and Provincial Grand Master respectively, met with a reprimand 
from the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of England expressing, — 
"the fear that a Grand Lodge of such limited membership would simply be 
the laughing-stock of the Masonic world" — and if there was a reply from 
the Grand Lodge of Scotland, no record was kept of it. 

Undaunted by this turn of events, Vancouver Lodge submitted the idea 
of an independent Grand Lodge to a number of Canadian and foreign Grand 
Lodges, soliciting their reaction to such a move. As a result a meeting was 
called for 18th of January 1871 to announce the results. Further steps were 
taken in the appointment of a committee from that meeting to arrange for a 
Convention in Victoria on March 18th, 1871. 

On the advice of the District Board of General Purposes the District 
Grand Master refused to permit the lodges under his jurisdiction to attend 
the Convention. Notwithstanding, the Scottish lodges proceeded. There is no 
record of the attendance at the meeting, but R. W. Bro. I. W. Powell, who 
was absent from the colony at the time, was elected Grand Master. 

An invitation to attend and install the officers of the new Grand Lodge 
was sent to M. W. Bro. Hon. Elwood Evans, Past Grand Master of Washing- 
ton, and accepted by him. An invitation was also sent to R. W. Bro. Burn- 
aby, but he instructed the District Grand Secretary to attend and make for- 
mal objection. This was done so effectively that formation of the new 
Grand Lodge was postponed indefinitely. 

Feelings ran high in the two sections of the Craft. When R. W. Bro. 
Powell returned, he found a great deal of dissension and discord. Following 
several consultations between R. W. Bro. Powell and R. W. Bro. Burnaby 
whose deep-rooted friendship and respect, one for the other, it was agreed 
that the formation of an independent Grand Lodge was advisable. They 
further agreed to submit the question to a vote of all the brethren in their 
respective jurisdictions. The result was seven to one in favour. 

A second Convention was called to meet in Victoria 21st of October, 
1871. Representatives from all the lodges were present except Union Lodge 


No. 1201 E.C. which declined to join. A resolution declaring it expedient 
to form a Grand Lodge in and for the Province of British Columbia was 
carried unanimously. A second resolution declaring the Grand Lodge of 
British Columbia to be formed was likewise carried unanimously. R. W. Bro. 
Dr. I. W. Powell was elected Grand Master, and R. W. Bro. Robert Burnaby 
was made an Honorary Past Grand Master. The necessary business having 
been concluded, the Convention adjourned until December 26, 1871 at which 
time it was re-convened in the Masonic hall on Government Street in Victoria, 
and the new independent Grand Lodge was organized and the officers installed 
and invested by R. W. Bro. Burnaby. A grand ball was subsequently held in 
honour of the occasion at which Grand Lodge officers and members of subor- 
dinate lodges were granted dispensation to wear full regalia. 

In 1872 Union Lodge transferred its allegiance from the Grand Lodge of 
England to the Grand Lodge of British Columbia. At the Annual Commu- 
nication of Grand Lodge on December 7th, 1872 M. W. Bro. Powell in his 
address reported that all the Grand Lodges in the Dominion and all those in the 
U.S.A. except Indiana had "extended a hearty recognition and a warm wel- 
come" to the new Grand Lodge. 

On October 21st, 1874, at a ceremony laying the corner-stone of Ashlar 
Lodge, an announcement was made that the Grand Lodge of England had 
extended recognition to the new Grand Lodge of British Columbia, but not 
until nine years after its formation and in the year 1880 did the Grand Lodge 
of Scotland do so, and then only with certain specific reservations. 


Probably the formation of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba presents one 
of the most unique stories ever told of the establishment of any Grand 
Lodge in the world. 

Masonry in Manitoba was born of foreign parentage. In 1864, a detach- 
ment of U.S. cavalry was dispatched to Fort Pembina near the Canadian 
border in Dakotah. It contained a number of enthusiastic Masons who peti- 
tioned the Grand Lodge of Minnesota for a dispensation to open and work 
a Lodge in Pembina. Their petition was granted on September 15, 1863. 

During January 1864, Lieutenant Mix, an officer serving under Major 
Hatch, officer commanding the United States cavalry, paid a visit to the Red 
River Settlement to enlist the good offices of the Governor of the Settlement 
in connection with the pursuit of a band of Sioux Indians by the U.S. Cavalry 
into Canadian Territory. The meeting was cordial and co-operative. Subse- 
quent recorded events indicate that Masonry was not overlooked in the discus- 
sions. An item appeared in the Nor' wester, the only paper published in the 
colony, under date of March 17, 1864 that a party from the settlement jour- 
neyed to Pembina with a view of being admitted at the Lodge instituted 
in that place. It would seem that all the requisite degrees were conferred at 
the one time as a petition for a dispensation to form a lodge in the Red River 


Settlement, and dated April 27th, 1864, was signed by a number of the brethren 
who made the journey to Fort Pembina. 

Grand Master A. T. C. Pierson, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of 
Minnesota, was pleased to grant the necessary Dispensation for the new 
Lodge, named Northern Light Lodge, on 20th of May 1864. About this time 
the U.S. cavalry detachment was permanently transferred to Fort Amber- 
crombie. Inasmuch as it was basically a military lodge, and its officers trans- 
ferred, Masonic activities were suspended. It is not surprising, therefore, to 
read in Grand Master Pierson's address to the Grand Lodge of Minnesota 
in St. Paul on October 25th, 1864, 'During the year I renewed the dispensa- 
tion of Northern Light Lodge, removing it to the Red River Settlement". 
It should be noted that a second dispensation was issued although substantially 
to the same lodge. 

The inaugural meeting of the new lodge was held on Thursday, November 
8, 1864. Officers were elected, petitions were received and committees ap- 
pointed. The initiation fee was set at five pounds sterling. 

At a regular meeting of the Lodge on April 18th, 1865, a resolution 
was passed unanimously authorizing Brother T. Bunn, ("who is going to 
Canada") to assist Bro. Schultz, who was the Worshipful Master of the 
Lodge, to procure a Charter from the Grand Lodge of Canada. The minutes 
of this meeting are the last recorded for Northern Light Lodge U.D. The 
Grand Lodge of Canada does not record having received any application from 
Northern Light Lodge for a Charter. There is, however, a minute in the 
records of the Grand Lodge of Minnesota which indicates that the Grand 
Master of the Grand Lodge of Minnesota granted a Charter numbered 68 
G.R.M. dated October 24th, 1867. We do not know whether or not this 
Charter was ever delivered, but there is a closing record and reference to 
Northern Light Lodge No. 68 G.R.M., very brief but very definite and con- 
clusive "Charter revoked 1870". 

The passing of the Manitoba Act by the Dominion government created 
the Province of Manitoba following an uprising of the Metis under the 
leadership of Louis Riel. Sir John A. Macdonald's government despatched a 
military expedition to the new province to restore order and authority assumed 
by Riel. The Military were supplemented by a number of voyageurs and 
guides. The whole numbering some 1431 set out from Collingwood on 
May 21st, 1870 on a journey lasting three months. Some of the soldiers were 
Masons and as might be expected they petitioned the Grand Lodge of Canada 
for a Dispensation which was granted to Winnipeg Lodge on 21st of Novem- 
ber 1870. Institution took place on 10th of December 1870 and a Charter 
was granted on July 13th, 1871 and the name of the Lodge changed to 
Prince Rupert's Lodge No. 240 G.R.C. 

Although the original petitioners were of the military, within a few 
weeks of its institution the Lodge was admitting civilians. Meetings were 
held practically every week for the first six months. Membership in the 
Lodge was depleted when the troops were ordered to return to Eastern 


Canada. However, two new lodges, "Manitoban," whose name was later 
changed to "Lisgar No. 244 G.R.C., was constituted on 13th July, 1871, and 
Ancient Landmark Lodge No. 288 G.R.C. was granted a Charter on 9th of 
July, 1873. 

On April 28th, 1875, preliminary steps were taken to form a Grand Lodge 
of Manitoba. A circular letter was directed to Worshipful Masters, Past 
Masters, Wardens, Officers, and other brethren of the several Lodges 
calling for a meeting in the Masonic Hall, City of Winnipeg on May 12th, 
1875 at 3 :00 p.m. to "take into consideration the present state of Masonry in 
this Province and to proceed, if decided, to form a Grand Lodge for the 
Province of Manitoba." 

On its face this would appear to be quite an undertaking for three lodges, 
whose membership amounted to some two hundred ten, to sever connection with 
such a strong Grand Lodge as that of Canada and carry their project to a 
successful conclusion. But the decision was made and the Grand Lodge of 
Canada so notified, and expressing gratitude for consideration and attention 
in the past. The Grand Lodge of Canada extended its recognition and con- 
gratulations in a letter dated July 14th, 1875. 

The newly- formed Grand Lodge of Manitoba adopted the Constitution 
of the Grand Lodge of Canada as a basis for their own. The three founding 
lodges were re-numbered as follows: Prince Rupert's No. 1, Lisgar No. 2 
and Ancient Landmark No. 3. The first Annual Communication of the 
Grand Lodge of Manitoba was held on June 14th, 1876. At this time M. W. 
Bro. the Rev. W. C. Clarke, who had been elected the first Grand Master at 
the founding meeting in May, presided. Jurisdiction was extended over the 
Districts of Alberta, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, and the Yukon Territories. 

Thus was Masonry launched with enthusiasm, courage, and foresight in our 
great Central Western Canada. 


Prior to its formation as a province, Alberta was a District and a part 
of that vast territory known as the North-West Territories. The first war- 
ranted Masonic lodge in this area was Saskatchewan Lodge No. 17 in Edmon- 
ton in 1882. Its charter was subsequently surrendered about 1890. 

In Calgary the spark of Masonry was first struck early in 1883. In 
May of that same year, a meeting was arranged in Bro. George Murdock's 
store situated on the east bank of the Elbow River. Only five Masons at- 
tended this meeting and it was agreed that any further action at this time 
was unwise. However, on August 15th, the C.P.R. tracks were laid through 
the site of what is now the City of Calgary. With the advent of the railway, 
people began to arrive in great numbers. Very shortly the first freight arrived 
bringing with it the first printing press for the Calgary Herald. In its first 
edition there appeared a notice calling all interested Masons to a meeting in 
George Murdock's shack. 


Application was made to the Grand Lodge of British Columbia for a 
dispensation to form a Masonic lodge which, after considerable delay was 
granted. In the meantime application was made to the Grand Lodge of 
Manitoba for a dispensation for the same purpose. This too was granted 
about the same time. It seemed advisable on account of the terrain and the 
proximity of Winnipeg to cast their lot with the Grand Lodge of Manitoba. 
Accordingly, Bow River Lodge No. 28 obtained a dispensation from the 
Grand Lodge of Manitoba, dated January 10, 1884. Bro. N. J. Lindsay was 
elected its first Worshipful Master, but there is no record of his ever assuming 
that office. He was, however, elected Grand Junior Warden of the Grand 
Lodge of Manitoba on February 11, 1884. 

The first meeting of Bow River Lodge was held on January 28th, 1884, 
its dispensation surrendered on February 11, 1884, and its charter arrived and 
was read in open lodge on 14th of April 1884. The officers were installed 
and invested on May 5, 1884. One must agree that seventeen days operation 
under a dispensation is some sort of a short-time record. It is interesting to 
note that in the first written records of this lodge (which were not dated) 
some forty brethren agreed to subscribe five to twenty dollars each to assist 
in its organization. Some paid cash, others part cash and part lumber material. 
A refund of subscriptions was part of the proposal. 

The prompt action taken by the Masons in initiating steps to form a 
Lodge is indicative of the interest in the Craft displayed by the brethren in 
this territory. Further evidence of their sincerity and zeal is demonstrated in 
that on the occasion of the visit of M. W. Bro. G. M. Clark, Grand Master, 
one brother had walked forty miles just to be present on that evening. 

The first public Masonic ceremony was held on July 21, 1890 to lay the 
corner-stone for the Water Works Building. 

Among the unusual is recorded an application for initiation by telegram 
from Rev. M. Brashier, Innisfail. The record shows that a committee was 
appointed to investigate. It reportetd favourably and the Reverend Brashier 
was duly initiated on December 20th, 1892. 

Steps were taken as early as 1888 to form a Grand Lodge of the North- 
west Territories, but in each instance action was deferred until after the 
formation of the two provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan on July 1st, 1905. 

At the request of Medicine Hat Lodge No. 31 in the District of Assini- 
boia, Bow River Lodge in Calgary sponsored a Convention that was held on 
May 24th, 1905. Nine lodges sent representatives to this meeting. After a 
full discussion a resolution was passed "that we proceed to form a Grand 
Lodge as soon as possible after July 1st, 1905." 

M. W. Bro. W. G. Scott, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba 
undertook the long journey to Calgary to install and invest the officers of the 
new Grand Lodge on October 12, 1905. 


A unique problem which involved the territory to the west of Manitoba 
developed following the meeting of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba in 1893 
when Dr. Goggin of Winnipeg was elected Grand Master for the ensuing term. 
During the year, Dr. Goggin was appointed Superintendent of Education for 
the Northwest Territories and moved to the capital, Regina. The Deputy 
Grand Master was Thomas Tweed, of Medicine Hat, District of Assiniboia. 
Now, both ranking officers resided outside the jurisdiction of the Grand 
Lodge of Manitoba. To further complicate matters the Grand Lodge had 
decided to hold the Communication of 1894 at Banff. 

To meet this situation an amendment to the Constitution was proposed 
wherein the Grand Lodge would add the Territories to its Jurisdiction, thereby 
making it the largest Masonic Jurisdiction in America, and the only Grand 
Lodge that ever extended its boundaries after being constituted. 


Saskatchewan was the last of the Canadian provinces into which Free- 
masonry was introduced. The first steps were taken when a number of 
interested Masons in the District surrounding Prince Albert met in a Hudson 
Bay store on March 28th, 1879 to discuss the formation of a Masonic lodge. 

It was a big undertaking. Communication was slow and uncertain. Travel 
was restricted to horse and canoe as the day of the railroad had not yet 
arrived. The nearest Grand Lodge was located in the city of Winnipeg. 
Obstacles were encountered, difficulties overcome, and because some of the 
brethren in the Prince Albert District knew of a schism which existed in the 
Craft within the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, that Grand Lodge was by-passed 
in favour of the Grand Lodge of Canada. 

A petition for a dispensation for the formation of Kinistino Lodge was 
forwarded to the Grand Lodge of Canada and the Dispensation was granted 
on 22nd of May 1879. The first W.M. was Major Charles F. Young, a retired 
Imperial Army officer. A Warrant of Constitution was granted to the Lodge 
on 14th of July 1880, and numbered 381. Shortly afterward negotiations were 
initiated which resulted in the transfer of Kinistino Lodge from the jurisdic- 
tion of the Grand Lodge of Canada to the Grand Lodge of Manitoba in 
1883. At this time its number was also changed to 16 G.R.M. 

Enthusiasm for Masonry ran high in those days. An outstanding illustra- 
tion is recorded in the report of the Grand Master of Manitoba on his visit 
to Qu'Appelle Valley Lodge in 1891 — "I witnessed the conferring of the 
First degree in a most impressive manner. The candidate, a rancher, had 
ridden sixty-two miles to be present. He had to leave for home immediately 
after being initiated. He thus undertook a journey, by saddle horse, of one 
hundred twenty-four miles to receive his First degree." 

The only purely military lodge was formed at Regina in October 1894 
and was designated North West Mounted Police lodge. The Lodge was 


established by the members of the force who were stationed at headquarters 
in Regina. A prerequisite for membership in the Lodge was a membership in 
the Force. Later when officers were transferrd to other stations and assigned 
to areas outside of the jurisdiction of the Lodge, their numbers became so 
depleted that they were constrained to admit civilians. Their meeting place 
was also moved from the barracks to the City of Regina. 

September 1st, 1905, saw the establishment of two new provinces, Alberta 
and Saskatchewan. This naturally suggested the formation of two new Grand 
Lodges. Accordingly, following a meeting on April 3rd, 1906, convened by 
the brethren of Wascana Lodge No. 23, at which time a committee was ap- 
pointed to enquire into proper procedure, a request was telegraphed to 
Kinistino Lodge No. 16 Prince Albert inviting them as the oldest Lodge to 
call a Convention at some central point, that action might be taken before 
the June meeting of Grand Lodge. 

The Convention was held in Prince Albert on May 25, 1906. A unani- 
mous decision was made to proceed in a regular manner with the establish- 
ment of a Grand Lodge. R. W. Bro. W. B. Tate and R. W. Bro. Wm. 
Fawcett were charged with the responsibility of approaching the Grand 
Lodge of Manitoba for their permission, and also with the arrangements at 
the proper time. 

The move received the whole-hearted support of the Grand Lodge of 
Manitoba. Prominent among those who worked for the consumation of this 
project was M. W. Bro. G. B. Murphy, P.G.M. who later was made an honor- 
ary P. G. M. of the Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan. 

On August 9th, 1906, twenty nine lodges including five working under 
dipensation with a total membership of approximately nine hundred were 
formed into the Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan in Regina. The first Grand 
Master, M. W. Bro. H. H. Campkin, and the other officers of the new 
Grand Lodge were installed and invested by M. W. Bro. John McKecknie 
and M. W. Bro. Jas. A. Ovas who with M. W. Bro. G. B. Murphy repre- 
sented the Grand Lodge of Manitoba. 


In Newfoundland the organization of Masonry assumes a different form 
than in the other provinces of Canada. Instead of a Grand Lodge to adminis- 
ter the affairs of the Order, there are two District Grand Lodges, one under 
the authority of the United Grand Lodge of England and the other owing 
allegiance to the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 

Although there are few records, there is evidence that Masonry in New- 
foundland is almost as old as it is in Nova Scotia. An item appears in the 
files of Thomas Oxnard, newly appointed 'Provincial Grand Master of New 
England and Territories and Dominion thereunto belonging," dated December 
24, 1746, granting a Constitution for a Lodge to be held, and naming its first 


Master. The location of this Lodge and its records have been lost, but from 
time to time evidence of its existence appears in various records. 

St. John's Lodge No. 186, St. John's, was warranted on March 24, 1774 
by the Atholl Grand Lodge of England and for years it met at the London 
Tavern. In 1813 at the Union of the Grand Lodge of England it was re- 
numbered 226, and again in 1832 as No. 159. Two other lodges in St. Johns 
were warranted by the Atholl Grand Lodge, namely, Benevolent St. John's 
No. 247, and Town and Garrison No. 249, both in 1788. 

Effects of the "Morgan incident" were felt even in this distant island. 
Masonry experienced a definte lull in its activity in the 1820's. 

The Honourable Alexander Keith was appointed Provincial Grand Master 
of Nova Scotia English Constitution in 1839. His jurisdiction was extended 
to Newfoundland in 1848. 

After the final formation of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia in 1869, direct 
connection was made by the Lodges in Newfoundland with the Grand Lodge 
of England. A District Grand Lodge was established and James Shannon 
Clift was appointed the first District Grand Master. 

The Grand Lodge of Scotland issued its first charter for a Lodge in 
1866 in Newfoundland. Since that time there have been nine other charters 
issued for lodges in Newfoundland. The first Provincial Grand Master under 
the Scottish Jurisdiction was Brother Alex M. MacKay who was appointed 
May 4th, 1868. 

The two District Grand Lodges have worked together in the true spirit 
of Freemasonry for a century. There is ample evidence of this, if any were 
required, in the exchange of visits among the members of the two bodies at 
Masonic functions including installations and regular lodge meetings. Their 
co-operation in promoting an unusual number of organizations within the 
fraternity is, to say the least, extraordinary. The following are so sponsored : 

The Patrick Tasker Educational Fund 

The St. John's Masonic Benevolent Fund 

Masonic Insurance Co. 

The Masonic Club 

The Masonic Hall Joint Stock Co. 

The Past Masters Association 


| A—— ■»■■■■■« II > — ■■ ■ ■ ■ 11 ■ ■ — 1 ■ ■ — — | m | J> 1 



No. 88 








Written by V. W. Bro. J. T. Marshall ! f 

Grand Historian of the Grand Lodge j 1 

of British Columbia 

Printed by courtesy of Canadian Masonic 

Research Association j 

1967 I 


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l|l • aa — . aa _ a( ._ H ^_ aa _ aa ^_ > ^_ aa ^_ aa ^_ aa _ aa __ aa __ aa _,, I ■ M M~* M 4N H "~* a '*" ■«*■■■ ■■— •«|l 



An Episode in the Annals of 

The Story of Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, 
Holding under the Grand Lodge of Scotland 


Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, 
Under the Grand Lodge of British Columbia. 

'There were giants in the earth in those days". 

Genesis VI, 4. 


"They had their Picture 'took' on the roof of Jonathan's biggin' ". 



See yonder shanty on the hill, 

'Tis but a humble biggin', 

Some ten by six within the wa's — 

Your head may touch the riggin' — 

The door stands open to the south, 

The fire, outside the door; 

The logs are chinket close wi' fog — 

And nocht but mud the floor — 

A knife an' fork, a pewter plate, 

An' cup o' the same metal, 

A teaspoon an' a sugar bowl, 

A f ryin' pan an' kettle ; 

The bakin' board hangs on the wa', 

Its purposes are twa-fold — 

For mixing bread wi' yeast or dough, 

Or pannin' oot the braw gold ! 

A log or twa in place o' stools, 

A bed withoot a hangin', 

Are feckly a' the furnishin's 

This little house belangin' ; 

The laird and tenant o' this sty, 

I canna name it finer, 

Lives free and easy as a lord, 

Tho' but an "honest miner." 


"Poet Laureate of Cariboo" 



This history of events in the life of a Masonic lodge built in the wilder- 
ness of Central British Columbia represents a symposium of facts gathered 
from many sources : 

(a) The Minute Books of Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, Grand Registry of 
Scotland, F. and A.M., and Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, Grand Registry 
of British Columbia, A.F. & A.M. ; 

(b) The research and writings of such Masonic Historians as Robie 
Reid, P.G.M., Rupert W. Haggen, P.D.D.G.M., Louis LeBourdais, 
P.D.D.G.M., Norman McFee, P.M., G. Hollis Slater, M.M., and 
Harold Turner, P.M. ; 

(c) The Annual Proceedings of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of 
Antient, Free and Accepted Masons of British Columbia; and 

(d) from personal knowledge and study of the events, over a number 
of years. 

The assistance of Colin Campbell, P.D.D.G.M. of District No. 4, 
G.R.B.C, and Secretary of Cariboo Lodge No. 4, and Miss Inez Mitchell and 
staff of the British Columbia Provincial Archives, is gratefully acknowledged. 

Through these sources this story is dedicated to those men of Craft Masonry : 
who built and sustained Cariboo Lodge No. 469, G.R. Scot., and Cariboo 
Lodge No. 4, G.R.B.C. ; who played their own individual parts in this epic 
in the early life of British Columbia ; and, who have been called to the 
Grand Lodge Above. 

Victoria, B.C. J. T. Marshall, P.M., 

January 1967. Grand Historian. 

Grand Lodge of British Columbia. 


In The Beginning — The Fur Trade 

The history of British Columbia during the 19th and 20th Centuries, 
as in other parts of Canada, has followed the migration of people from many 
parts of the world who sought settlement throughout the country in their 
desire to obtain a better means of livelihood and a higher standard of living. 
In the North and West of the American Continent, the chief and initial 
attraction was promoted by the Fur Trade. The demand for furs in Europe, 
and the potential wealth that lay everywhere in the land that is now Wash- 
ington, Oregon and British Columbia, led to the establishment of several Fur 
Companies, such as : Astors, the North West and the Hudson Bay Companies. 

At first, in the area now known as British Columbia, the trade was 
carried on in an atmosphere of great rivalry by two rival companies, the 
North West and the Hudson Bay, which companies in 1821 were amalga- 
mated by an Act of Parliament. The Fur Trade followed the explorations of 
Captain Cook, who was sent out by the British Government in 1771 and who, 
two years later entered Nootka Sound, on the West Coast of Vancouver 
Island. Cook after he had repaired his ships and traded with the Indians, left 
with a cargo of furs which he sold in China, which is said to have been the 
start of the Fur Trade on the American Continent. 

But what has been known generally as the Fur Trade era came to an 
end in 1858. Fur trading did not come to an end but it did cease to be the 
governing economic factor in the Territory. The setting for the present 
story, is an area which while situated in the very centre of the most bounteous 
of the trapping lands, had a far greater lure than the skins of animals — 
it was a product of Mother Earth — GOLD. 

"Then Ho ! Brothers Ho ! 
To the northlands go ; 
There's plenty of gold you know ; 
In the Creeks of the Cariboo ! 

Apologies to Jesse Hutchinson, Jr. 

The Migration Reaches Flood Tide 

By the end of the "Fifties," the comparatively small settlements on or 
near the Coast — Victoria, New Westminster, and Nanaimo — were well 
supplied with Masonic Lodges. There were none, however, among that extra- 
ordinary aggregation of people, far in the mountains of the wild interior, in 
what was known as the Cariboo Country. The lure of "Gold" was to call 
thither gold seekers from all parts of the World, and the "Rush" followed 
very much the pattern of the "Rush" to California, some twenty years pre- 
vious. Access to the riches of the Cariboo was far more difficult and the 
climate, especially in the winter months, much more severe. To reach Cariboo, 
one had to go to Victoria, and thence via the Gulf of Georgia and the Fraser 
River to New Westminster. River steamers plied between that city and Port 
Douglas, at the head of Harrison Lake; thence the gold seeker travelled alter- 


nately by trails and boats on the intervening lakes to Lillooet, on the Fraser 
River. From the "Flat" on the eastern bank of the Fraser, there were two 
trails to Williams Lake. The shorter, along the east bank of the Fraser, 
was almost impassable ; the other, the old Brigade trail of the Hudson Bay 
Company, and used by it for many years, was longer, but in much better 
condition. From Williams Lake a trail ran to the mouth of the Quesnelle 
River, and up that stream to the rich creeks of the Cariboo. 

One weary traveller, whose name is lost in the passage of time, told of 
his journey in the following verse: 

"Four hundred miles to travel, 
Where nought but mosses grew, 
To cheer the weary pilgrim 
On the road to Cariboo." — Anon. 

The fabulous Cariboo Gold Rush started in 1858, when news leaked out 
that gold had been discovered in the sand bars of the mighty Fraser River. 
Until then British Columbia's rugged interior had been known only to the 
Indians, and the Fur Traders of the Hudson Bay Company. It was a remote, 
forbidding country, but the news of the Gold started a stampede, and within 
a year over 30,000 people swarmed up the Fraser River. The Fraser dis- 
covery soon washed out and the tide of fortune-seekers receded. But hardier 
souls pressed north into the Cariboo, and in 1860 parties exploring the creeks 
of the Quesnel River, struck pay-dirt : Horsefly, Antler, Keithley, Williams 
— the name of gold-bearing creeks — flashed around the world. Then came 
the news of Billy Barker's strike and the rush to the gold-fields swelled 
into flood again. 

The town that was destined to pave the way for the settlement of a 
great Canadian Province grew around a hole in the ground — a crude mine 
shaft sunk by a stubborn woolly-bearded Cornishman, in the bedrock of 
Williams Creek. 

On August 21st, 1862, Billy Barker's shaft was 40 feet down and still 
barren of gold. Billy was almost broke and ready to quit. The gold was said 
to be above the Canyon, where 4,000 men were working furiously on claims 
that had already yielded over $2,000,000. in gold, but Barker dug on and two 
feet lower struck the richest pay-dirt yet — dirt that was to reap Barker and 
his crew, a $600,000. fortune, from a strip of ground only 600 feet long. The 
miners streamed down through the Canyon to pound claim stakes around 
Barker's shaft. Almost over-night a town sprang up, a cramped huddle of log 
shanties, saloons and false-front stores, built on stilts along a narrow and 
mud-mired street (the bed of Williams Creek). Within a few years it had 
become the largest town, then west of Chicago, and north of San Francisco. 
They named it Barkerville — in honour of Billy. 

During the Spring of 1862, 4,000 miners pushed up the Douglas Road 
and the Fraser River Trail to Cariboo, while some 1,000 others travelled the 


old Brigade Route through the Okanagan Valley to Alexandria. Most of 
them were on their way to Williams Creek. At Stout's Gulch, Ned Stout 
had found, near the surface water-worn Gold, and, in deep diggings, the 
bright yellow gold which made the vicinity so famous. 

Around Billy Barker's shaft below Richfield Canyon, miners were exca- 
vating holes and tunnels, and erecting water wheels, twenty feet in diameter, 
to work the pumps and remove the water from the mines. The hillside was 
becoming denuded of trees and an ugly little village, perched high on logs 
was beginning to take shape. In actual fact, three towns strung for five 
miles along Williams Creek were merging: Richfield above the Canyon; 
Barkerville below the Canyon; and Camerontown, where in December 
"Cariboo" Cameron struck gravel so rich, that twelve one-gallon kegs yielded 
$155. Two other towns were close by — Van Winkle and Lightning. As 
yet, none of the five had an appearance of permanency, but during the winter, 
when it was found possible to continue operations in the deep diggings, log 
cabins were improved by adding fireplaces, and in some instances, windows. 
Judge Begbie, whom history has called the "Hanging Judge," because of the 
swiftness of his Justice, noted that the miners, who had taken up residence in 
the shanties along the gulches and creeks, were of a different type : it appear- 
ed to him, he wrote, judging from the men he had met in Cariboo, "as though 
every good family of the East and of Great Britain had sent the best son 
they possessed for the development of the gold-mines of Cariboo." 

All through 1862 work was vigorously prosecuted on the Great North 
Road. In May of that year Captain Grant, of the Royal Engineers, was 
ordered by Governor Douglas to commence work on the most difficult stretches 
of the Cariboo Highway — a six mile section along and through the Gorge 
of the Eraser River, from Yale towards Boston Bar, and nine miles, from 
Cook's Eerry (Spence's Bridge) along the Thompson River. Here, solid 
rock walls had to be blasted out, and cribbing to carry the road around the 
bends above the racing waters had to be constructed. In early autumn the 
Governor was very impressed, on inspecting the season's work, with what 
had been accomplished; "In smoothness and solidity (the roads) surpass 
expectation — Jackass Mountain ; 'The Cleft ;' The Great Slides ; The Rocky 
Bridges and other passes of ominous fame — so notorious in the history of 
the country — have lost their terrors. They now exist only in name being 
rendered alike safe and pleasant by the broad and graceful windings of the 
Queen's Highway." 

At the diggings some miners made fortunes but others, who had staked 
adjoining claims, had indifferent success. For those who were disappointed 
there was ample opportunity to earn good wages at the road construction. 
Work on other sections of the Great Highway got under way to make the 
interior reaches of the Colony, more readily accessible to those journeying 
towards the mining areas, and to the fertile valleys and plateaus for per- 
manent agricultural settlement. It would, also, provide the key to the great 
cattle ranches, destined later to open up the vast grazing areas lying to its 


"They went around the Fraser River Mountains — on the Road to Cariboo 

built by the Royal Engineers." 

In order to complete the road into the gold mines of Barkerville, a band 
of Royal Engineers had to cut a trail from Quesnel on the banks of the 
Fraser River, some 63 miles along the Cottonwood River, and around the 
shores of the Jack O'Clubs Lake. Along this route would pass many thousands 
of people, including the men who for the most part had been mining in the 
California diggings, all of whom followed the Ghost of Billy Barker and His 
Gold. In 1864, there were probably over ten thousand gold seekers and others 
in the Barkerville District alone. In that year the Cariboo Road was com- 
pleted, by the Royal Engineers and the independent contractors, from Yale, 
at the foot of the Fraser River Canyon to the main mining centre of Barker- 
ville. By that time the main access to those parts was by steamer from Fort 
Victoria and the West Coast to Yale, thence by horse drawn stages of the 
Barnard Express, to Barkerville — a drive of over three hundred and ninety 

In the year 1862, Cariboo alone was reported to have produced gold to 
the value of $2,656,903. and in 1863, by official returns, the total yield was 
$3,913,563. but in actuality no one really knew how much gold had been "taken 
out of the ground." The claims along the Creeks, were then 100 feet square, 
or about the size of a good town lot. Today it is hard to imagine the hive 
of industry the Creeks must have presented when the mines were at their 
peak in yielding the rich yellow metal. On Williams Creek, alone, the 
channel yielded an average of $1,000. per foot, while other Creeks were also 


exceedingly rich in gold yield. There is an authentic record of a production 
in gold over the years, in excess of the value of Thirty-Five Million Dollars. 

The Gold lured all kinds into Cariboo — clerks and card-sharpers, 
bankers and barbers, doctors and merchants, poets and priests, dudes and 
dancing girls. They came from Eastern Canada, from the United States, 
from Europe and the Middle East, and from the Orient. They toiled up the 
treacherous Fraser Canyon, or through the wilderness of the Harrison Trail. 
Some, the intrepid Overlanders — even trekked across the Prairies, and 
through the wild gorges of the Rocky Mountains. Naturally, among the 
thousands who came seeking the yellow dust, there were Freemasons — 
from many jurisdictions, from many creeds, and with a considerable variation 
in their memories as to the ritualistic practices of their Masonic craft. 

Origins of Cariboo Freemasonry 

It is quite likely that some steps were taken in the early days of the 
"Rush" to form a Masonic Lodge, although there is no record extant for the 
date of such efforts. But, by 1866, it must have been realized that Barkerville 
had taken on an air of permancy and that the separation of the gold from 
the gravel of the creeks was going to take much longer that had at first been 
estimated. History records that among the first to realize this were the Free- 
masons en Williams Creek. The movement to form a Masonic Lodge is 
credited to Jonathan Nutt, an Englishman, at that time foreman on the 
Aurora claim on Conklin's Gulch, who called a meeting on October 13th, 
1866, which was attended by thirteen Masons. No mention is made of where 
the meeting took place, but those present were Jonathan Nutt, who is said 
to have presided, W. W. Hill, George Grant, J. Spencer Thompson, A. C. 
Campbell, W. M. Cochrane, John R. Price, George Duff, C. Strouss, John 
Patterson, John B. Lovell, W. E. Boone and William Bennett. 

At this meeting it was decided to establish a Masonic Lodge in Cariboo, 
and to build a Masonic Hall, and each person present pledged so much a 
week towards this end — the amounts ranged from 50c to $1.00. To the 
names of the first 13 were shortly added 20 others. 

To bqild a hall in Barkerville at that time meant that each of the 33 
must pledge himself to pay $100. Many of these men were working miners; 
some, it is true, with substantial interests in paying claims, but the majority 
were men of modest means. This is born out by the entries in a small fabric- 
covered note book in which are inscribed all minutes, cash-book entries and 
other transactions of the Barkerville Masonic Lodge from October 13, 1866 
to August 17, 1867. 

The back pages of the book, on the fly leaf of which is written "Secre- 
tary's Book," contain the weekly amounts paid by the 33 members. Appar- 
ently, only a few were sufficiently affluent to permit their paying more than 
the pledged dollar or fifty cents at a time. These, however, were weekly. 
J. Patterson started out by paying his ten weeks in a lump sum. W. M. 
Cochrane is down for $5. a number of times, likewise J. Spencer Thompson, 
J. Strouss and A. C. Campbell. 


W. M. Cochrane, who is spoken of as "An Irish Gentleman," was appar- 
ently a man who had money. He subsequently loaned the Lodge a con- 
siderable sum. J. Spencer Thompson was, at that time, a clerk in the store 
of Buie Bros. He later became Cariboo's first representative in the Parliament 
of Canada, at Ottawa. J. Strouss conducted a general merchandising business 
in Barkerville, and A. C. Campbell, a cousin of John A. (Cariboo) Cameron 
and owner in the Foster-Campbell claim on Williams Creek, was a blacksmith. 

Four meetings were held in October, 1866. No record is made of what 
took place at the first three, and the only mention of anything in the 4th is 
that a communication was read from Vancouver Lodge No. 421, G. R. Scot- 
land, at Victoria, B.C. At the November 3rd meeting, a second communi- 
cation from Vancouver Lodge was read. While the Minutes ignore the content 
of these letters, it probably had reference to the endorsation by Vancouver 
Lodge of the application of Cariboo Lodge for a Charter under the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland, because on September 19, 1866 a letter was read in 
Vancouver Lodge "from Brother J. Spencer Thompson of Williams Creek, 
Cariboo, a member of San Francisco Lodge, No. 7, California, asking the 
Lodge to endorse the opening of a Lodge at Williams Creek or Richfield, 
under the Jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of the Washington Territory, and 
stating also that Union Lodge at New Westminster had refused such recom- 
mendation, and had advised the Cariboo Brethren to seek a charter from the 
Grand Lodge of England. This Lodge expressed its sympathy but pointed 
out the irregularity of the proposed proceeding." 

At a meeting held on November 10th, 1866, a motion that "the stove 
be paid for at once" was one entry recorded, while the other called for an 
advance of dues to meet debts. The November 17 meeting entry is confined 
to two words : "No Business," and on November 24 appears the first mention 
of officers : "Brothers Grant and Boone 'supplying the places' of the absent 
Senior and Junior Deacons." The petition for a Charter from the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland was signed on December 8, 1866 and at a meeting the 
following evening, at which 21 members were present, Jonathan Nutt was 
officially thanked for his zeal in establishing "A Lodge on this Creek." 

Holding Under The Grand Lodge of Scotland 

It was decided to petition the Grand Lodge of Scotland for a Charter, 
when it was learned that the Grand Lodge of England insisted on a specific 
form (Emulation) of Ritual, that did not conform with the California practice, 
whereas the Grand Lodge of Scotland demanded only that the Ancient Land- 
marks be observed. Signed by 14 members of Craft Freemasonry domiciled in 
Cariboo, the Petition was carried personally by Brother Nutt to Victoria, 
for endorsation by Vancouver Lodge, No. 421, Scot. He left Barkerville on 
December 8, 1866, and returned to his home in mid-April, 1867. 

The Minutes of Vancouver Lodge record that on January 16, 1867, 
Brother Jonathan Nutt, attended that Lodge, and presented a Petition to 
the Grand Lodge of Scotland, praying for the establishment of a Masonic 
Lodge at Barkerville, Williams Creek, B.C., to be named "Cariboo Lodge." 


The Petition was signed by the following Brethren, with the offices which 
they were presumed to take, and where possible, the Lodges to which they 
belonged before coming to British Columbia : Jonathan Nutt, R.W.M., 
Western Star Lodge, No. 2, Shasta, Calif. ; B. P. Anderson, W.S.M., Olympia 
Lodge, No. 1, Washington Territory; D. McNaughton, W.D.M., Durham 
Lodge, No. 66, Newcastle, G.R. Can. (in Ontario) ; W. E. Boone, W.S.W., 
Hennepin Lodge, No. 4, Minneapolis, Minn. ; Geo. G. Ruby, W.J.W., Kircaldie 
Lodge, No. 72, Kircaldie, G.L. Scot. ; John Patterson, Treasurer, Manzanita 
Lodge, No. 102, Calif. ; J. M. Cochrane, Secretary, United Lodge, No. 998, 
Welchpool, Welshport, G.L. Eng. ; John Muir, S.D., St. Andrew's Lodge, 
No. 126, Kilmarnock, G.L. Scot.; J. C. Campbell, J.D., Doric Lodge, No. 58, 
Ottawa, G.L. Can. (in Ontario) ; William Bennett, I.G., Glasgow Star Lodge, 
No. 219, Glasgow, G.L. Scot.; William H. Hill, Aylmer Lodge, No. 138, 
William H. Fitzgerald, Albion Lodge, No. 17, G.L. Que.; and J. Spencer 
Thompson, San Francisco Lodge, No. 7, G.L. Calif. 

The Petition was endorsed by the three principal officers of Vancouver 
Lodge, and shortly after a Dispensation was granted by the Provincial Grand 
Lodge of Scotland, under Right Worshipful Brother Israel Powell, to 
Cariboo Lodge. The Lodge later received the No. 469, S.C. Cariboo Lodge 
has continued its connection with her older Sister, Vancouver Lodge (now 
Vancouver and Quadra No. 2) throughout the years. 

Late August mails brought the Dispensation for Cariboo Lodge to open, 
signed by the Provincial Grand Master Powell, together with the Books of 
Constitutions and Ceremonies, under which Cariboo was to operate. Taking 
a couple of weeks to digest the material and to select men for two offices, 
for which the California Ritual did not outline any duties, the first recorded 
meeting of the Lodge (under Dispensation) was held on September 2, 1867, 
with Jonathan Nutt in the East. The Dispensation, from the Provincial 
Grand Master of British Columbia, under the Grand Lodge of Scotland was 
read authorizing Cariboo Lodge No. 469 to open and transact Masonic business. 
At the meeting, a Committee was appointed to draft By-Laws ; and later, 
that same evening, the Committee reported and the By-Laws were passed. 
Committees were also appointed to consider applications for admission to 
Cariboo Lodge by degrees and by affiliation. Unfortunately, the only By-Laws 
preserved in the Minutes, were those which evoked discussion among the 
Brethren. One stipulated that a black ball would reject a candidate. The 
fees were set out at: Fifty Dollars for the E.A. ; Thirty Dollars for the 
F.C. ; Twenty Dollars for the M.M. ; and the dues were set at Two Dollars 
per month. In addition, to the present day officers required under the Con- 
stitution of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia, the Grand Lodge of 
Scotland, called for the election annually, of a Deputy Master and a Sub- 
stitute Master, both to rank ahead of the Senior Warden. 

December 7th, 1867, was another great day in the history of Cariboo 
Lodge. For on that day, the Charter from the Grand Lodge of Scotland was 
received from the Provincial Grand Master, Israel W. Powell, and read. 


There was at that time, neither ceremony of Institution nor Constitution, 
but work went right ahead, with meetings being held weekly. 

The Charter was signed by the Earl of Dalhousie, Grand Master ; the 
Earl of Haddington, Deputy Grand Master; the Duke of Athol, Senior Grand 
Warden; the Earl of Dunmore, Junior Grand Warden; and William A. 
Laurie, Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. It is interesting to note 
that a record preserved in the Grand Lodge of Scotland, lists the following 
as Charter Members of Cariboo Lodge, No. 469 : Jonathan Nutt, Worshipful 
Master ; Victor Jones, Henry E. Salye ; Ralph Borthwick ; George C. Webster ; 
W. Muester; I. W. Powell, P. P. Anderson; W. H. Fitzgerald and N. F. 

Thus was born into the "Cradle of Cariboo" and to the Craft of Ancient 
Free and Accepted Masons, Cariboo Lodge, ritually a descendent of California 


Freemasonry, but constituted under the Grand Lodge of Scotland as "Cariboo, 

"The morn' was bright and clear — a hard frosi teas on the sluice boxes." 

Vancouver's Island, Holding of (Seal of the Grand Lodge of Scotland) No. 
469." For thus were stamped the book titles (Porch Book, Minute Book, 
etc.) into the green morocco leather of their bindings. Evidently no one had 
thought to explain to the authorities in Scotland, that although the application 
had come from Victoria, in the Colony of Vancouver's Island, the Lodge was 
actually situated in another Colony altogether, viz. British Columbia. 

They Built a Temple in the Wilderness 

No mention is made anywhere in the Minutes, as to who built the first 
Masonic Temple at Barkerville, but there is ample proof, particularly from 


entries in the Cash Book, that it was John Bruce and James Mann, who were 
among the Lodge's earliest candidates — the former having been admitted 
on September 14th, 1867, and the latter, two months later. The minutes do 
indicate that all the fittings and furnishings were donated by the Brethren, 
individually. The first Initiate, Brother J. Bruce, for instance, presented his 
Mother Lodge, with a pair of Pillars and other Articles. 

But on September 16, 1868, disaster struck, when the entire town of 
Barkerville was destroyed by fire, only one house being saved. The records 
show that the fire started some 200 yards from the Temple, but nothing therein 
was saved except the "Grand Lodge Books." Efforts were made to save the 
building by the use of wet blankets, but without avail. The old Temple had 
been fitted up very nicely, at a cost around $3,000. Subsequent meetings were 
held in the Court House at Richfield, and then in a building loaned by Brother 

" 'Twas the kiss of a 'hurdy' (dance hall gal) that caused Barkerville to burn." 

E. C. Parsons in Barkerville, while the new temple was being built. The first 
meeting was held in the new hall on February 20, 1869. 

A unique device in the Temple was the "Silent Tyler." Perhaps as a 
safeguard, when Barkerville contained some wild men, and some equally wild 
women, the stairway immediately inside the side entrance of the building, and 
leading to the floor above which contained the Lodge Room, was hinged at 
the top, so that when the Brethren were assembled, it could be raised. This 
was done by means of a wheel in the Tyler's room, and it cut off all access 
from the lower floor. 

The new Temple was Consecrated and the officers were Installed on 


June 24, 1869: donations towards the cost of the building are reported at 
$511. Brothers Bruce and Mann, also built the second Lodge building within 
18 months and at a cost of $3,000. 

Fire Strikes Again 

On December 28, 1936, disaster struck again, when Freemasonry in 
British Columbia suffered a further great loss with the destruction of the 
Old Masonic Temple at Barkerville, B.C. It was the same building con- 
structed in 1869, following the great fire that had practically destroyed the 
entire village. This Landmark was one of the outstanding memorials of the 
early days of the Province, being a self-made monument to the Brethren of 
the roaring days of the Gold Rush and to the olden days along the Canyon 
of Williams Creek. It was of flimsy wooden construction, as were all the 
buildings of that time and locality, its speedy destruction was only a matter of 
minutes and the lodge room on the upper story, with its precious contents, 
was consumed without its being possible to rescue anything therein. Gone 
were the various articles of furniture, lovingly carved in detail by the patient 
and skilful hands of the elder Brethren ; and gone, too, was the unique mech- 
anical Tyler, which has often been described as one of the most interesting 
appliances ever used by any portion of the Craft. The old books, and a few 
papers were in the old safe on the lower floor. The safe was more or less 
destroyed and its contents damaged, but the contents are still "readable." 

The District Deputy Grand Master, of District No. 4, said in his report 
to Grand Lodge for 1937 : 

"It is sad to think that this old building, which has seen so many Brethren 
come and go, and which had been visited by pilgrims from far and wide, 
is no more. Barkerville will not seem the same. Fortunately, the financial 
loss was offset by insurance, and many of the old records were saved, 
but there is much that cannot be replaced. The most expensive and ornate 
of new fittings and furnishings cannot compare with the original furniture, 
hand made from tree to finished article, by those old Craftsmen within 
the Lodge itself, who built into their work sound material, skill and 
beauty, and a great love for the Craft and the Lodge they had established 
in tht wilderness." 

The loss of the old Temple was not only a severe loss to the Brethren of 
Cariboo Lodge, who had carried on the work of the Craft therein under many 
difficulties and dangers, but to all those Freemasons, including this Historian, 
who had been privileged to meet with the Brethren within its hospitable walls. 
However, much of the old spirit survived and Cariboo Lodge proceeded with 
the building of a third Temple. The newly arisen prosperity in the district 
at that time, enabled the Brethren to erect another, and probably finer build- 
ing, but however superior it may be, the new building will never have the 
memories that gathered around the old Masonic Temple that housed Barkerville 
Freemasonry. Barely had the ashes grown cold, ere plans were under way 
to rebuild on the old site, and in May, 1937, the members of Cariboo Lodge 
No. 4, met in the Temple of Quesnel Lodge, No. 69, to open tenders on the 
new building, and on September 4, 1937, the Brethren of Cariboo Lodge, held 


the first meeting in the new hall. The "lifting staircase" has been preserved, 
in memory of the old pioneers of Williams Creek. 

Unfortunately, the new building was not a replica of the old one, as are 
many of the buildings now being built and restored under the plans for the 
"Restoration of Barkerville," but it is understood that arrangements have 
been made for the necessary corrections to the building erected in 1937. 

There being no other building, in Barkerville, suitable for Masonic pur- 
poses, and even before the site had really cooled, the Brethren of Quesnel 
Lodge offered the use of their fine Temple to their Cariboo Brethren. This 
offer was accepted with deep appreciation, but unfortunately road conditions 
prevented the Brethren of Cariboo from accepting it until the evening of 
May 15, 1937, when they journeyed the sixty odd miles to Quesnel, to hold 
their first meeting following the fire. Strangely enough, there is no mention 
of the fire in the Minute Book, except for the fact that the last recorded 
meeting was held on December 8, 1936, when the Officers for the ensuing 
Masonic year were Installed and the next entry in the Minutes was the 
meeting held in Quesnel Lodge. 

Notes from the Minutes Books — to 1870 

The first Masonic banquet, ever held in the interior of British Columbia, 
took place on Saint John's Day, December 27th, 1867. Invitations were ex- 
tended to "All Brethren on the Creek," and those residing in the surrounding 

On January 2nd, 1868, the first "Tyee"* appeared on the scene, there 
being a "called meeting," to meet Brother James A. Grahame, Past Deputy 
Grand Master of the Washington Territory — destined to be the second 
Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia. 

On February 1st, 1868, the first request to shorten the time between 
Degrees, made its appearance. To indicate the difference in usage between 
that day, and the present, the following extract from the Minutes is given : 

"An application was filed by Bros. Grant and Sullivan, recommenders of 
Mr. St. Laurent's petition, that an emergency meeting should be called 
and that he should be ballotted for and initiated at such meeting, as it 
would interfere with his business to return to be initiated, etc. 

The reasons stated being considered by the W.M. sufficient, an emer- 
gency meeting was ordered to be convened on February 8. (1868)." 

At this emergent meeting the Petitioner was initiated, but he evidently 
changed his mind about leaving the "Creek," for he became one of the best 
known "Old Timers" of Cariboo. His memory is still green — his children 
and his children's children having been among the most respected citizens of 
the Cariboo country. 

The Lodge was not fully constituted until June 24th, 1868, the Festival 

'In the Chinook tongue "Tyee" means "Big Chief." 


of Saint John the Baptist. The note for that day in the Minute Book of 

the Lodge reads : 

"Met at 3 P.M. Nutt presiding as representative of the Prov. G.M. 
The inauguration of Cariboo Lodge, No. 469 then took place, according 
to the Ceremonial laid down on page 71 of the Laws and Constitutions of 
the Grand Lodge of Scotland. After the inauguration, the officers were 
installed. The festival was celebrated by a banquet according to Masonic 

After the Lodge was closed in the afternoon, the officers and members 
went to a partially built cabin (Nutt's biggin') near by, placed themselves on 
the timbers and had a group photograph taken. After the true facts connected 
with this picture were forgotten, a legend arose that it had been taken at a 
Masonic meeting held, according to ancient tradition, on one of the mountains 
near Barkerville, and it is often referred to as "The Lodge on the Mountain." 
Like many other legends the story has no foundation in fact. 

The Minute Book, also discloses that instead of the formal opening and 
closing of the Lodge for each meeting — it was quite usual to "Call On" and 
to "Call Off," between certain dates — thus on occasion the Lodge was 
"In Session," but "At Ease" for several weeks at a time. 

When the second Temple was opened on February 20th, 1869, up the 
flag-pole went Senior Warden Hill's "Canadian Flag." Being a painter by 
trade and an ardent "Unionist," he had designed the flag with a Union Jack 
in the fly, and a beaver surrounded by a wreath of Maple Leafs, on a white 
background — in anticipation of the United Colonies (Vancouver Island 
and British Columbia) union with the rest of Canada. Unfortunately, Brother 
Hill did not see his dream fulfilled — he passed away at Cottonwood House 
on October 23, 1869. 

The first Masonic funeral in the Cariboo Country was that of Brother 
Stobb, foreman at the Caledonia Mine — drowned in the diggings : burial 
being made in Camerontown Cemetery on May 1, 1869. A committee was 
appointed to administer the Estate of the late Brother. It would appear from 
the minutes, to have been quite common for the Lodge, particularly in those 
early days, to administer the Estate of a Mason, and in some cases the Lodge 
would be made a beneficiary under the Will. 

The melodeon, which furnished music on all "proper occasions" until it 
was destroyed in the fire of 1936, was purchased in 1869 from Saint Andrew's 
Church, Victoria — for $101. 

On August 6, 1870, appears a Resolution, expressing the Lodge's deepest 
regret at the death of Brother W. M. Cochrane — the first Secretary, and 
subsequently the Treasurer of Cariboo Lodge — he was among those lost 
on the Steamer "City of Boston." She had sailed for England from New 
York, on January 28, 1870. 

Another unique case, occurred early in 187.1. A Petitioner had been re- 
jected — by unanimous ballot, the Lodge asked the Provincial Grand Master 


for a dispensation to re-ballot. The re-ballot was taken on February 4, 1871, 
and the Worshipful Master gave notice that he would announce the results 
at the next Regular Communication. At the two subsequent Communications, 
he deferred the declaration, and is not surprising that, when finally declared, 
it was unfavourable. 

The Going Gets Rough 

Following the loss by fire, Cariboo Lodge found herself in a precarious 
financial position. During 1869 over $2,000. had been paid on account of the 
building; calls had been made for charity and had been met; the Provincial 
Grand Lodge had been asked to extend time for the payment of Grand 
Lodge dues, or to remit them — the request was not granted ; Vancouver 
Lodge had been appealed to for a loan of $1,000. — she failed to reply to the 
appeal ; the builders seems to have taken a mortgage on the balance ; and a 
loan was negotiated for $800. 

Times were very bad on the "Creek" at that time ; the fear was abroad 
that the Gold had petered out ; there were a number of funerals for which 
the Lodge seems to have defrayed the expenses and paid off any debts left by 
the deceased brethren ; no doubt, because of the continuing calls for donations, 
"Peace and Harmony" seem to have suffered, for there were a number of 
Masonic trials — one member was expelled from the Lodge. 

But the spirit of the men of Cariboo Lodge, was undimmed by all these 
adversities : to cut cash expenditures local Brother artisans made the pedestals, 
the Altar, the candle holders, the Cariboo chairs, etc., of local materials ; the 
women of the Lodge were busy making aprons, curtains, drapes and the like; 
even the first Past Master's jewel, presented by Cariboo Lodge and paid for 
by private subscription, was made by a Barkerville jeweller — beautifully 
worked into a design, with square and quadrant, after the pattern of the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland. So these were busy days for the Masons of the Cariboo, 
and practically all the local leadership fell on the shoulders of members of 
the Lodge. New discoveries on Lightning Creek, were helping to bolster up 
the economy of the area, as the Barkerville diggings slowed in production. 

Mason'ically also, the winds of change were blowing in from the Coast, 
bringing with them the desire for an independent Grand Lodge, within easy 
means of communication, which was associated with another equally fervent 
desire for the United Colonies to become a Province, in union with the rest of 
Canada. The proposal was to join the Lodges under the jurisdiction of Scot- 
land, and later those under the jurisdiction of England, in forming a Grand 
Lodge of British Columbia. Cariboo Lodge favoured the principle, but their 
Minutes indicated fear of a possible interference with the autonomy enjoyed 
in respect to their Ritual. The expense and travel arrangments precluded 
their personal attendance at the Conventions so Cariboo placed their proxies 
in the hands of Victoria Brethren — stipulating that practices be conformable 
to "Scotch rites." Here again we find the start of another "legend," because 
in actual fact it was intended that the Lodges, chartered under the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland, be allowed to retain the right to use the Ritual of their 


own choice. Cariboo's two great ritualists, Jonathan Nutt and J. Spencer 
Thompson, knew only the California ways of 1850 — they were bolstering their 
memory with Mackey's "Manual of the Lodge." This book still in the 
possession of the Lodge bears the name of Wellington D. Moses, the immor- 
talized "Barber of Barkerville," a Jamaican colored man, born in England — 
he was neither a member of Cariboo Lodge, nor even a visitor. 

Some idea of the loyalty of \he Barkerville community towards the 
proposal for Confederation with Canada, may be gleaned from the following 
passages taken from Margaret A. Ormsby's : "British Columbia : A History" 
in which is related the arduous journey of Governor Anthony Musgrave in 
his attempt to win the support of the Colonists to union with a country, 3,000 
miles distant. A country in which there had been little interest since the days 
of the North West (Fur) Company: 

"At Barkerville, he ended his journey. From the appearance of the 
town, it was difficult to gauge the true state of the mining industry. 
With its new buildings — the Theatre Royal, where performances were 
given by troupes of actors from San Francisco, the library, the restaurants 
and the saloons — Barkerville had an air of prosperity and gaiety. The 
reports concerning the wealth of the mines were conflicting ; some said 
that Lightning Creek was just coming into its own; others that they were 
planning to move off to Germansen or other creeks in Omineca ; and still 
others that Cariboo was finished and that the Peace River country would 
be the El Dorado of the future. 

All along the way, the Governor's welcome had been warm, but Barkerville 
gave him his most enthusiastic reception. The town was en fete. Ever- 
green arches spanned the streets ; the firemen had constructed an arch of 
ladders and buckets, the Chinese had festooned another with fire-crackers. 
Banners lettered 'Union Forever' and 'Success to the Dominion,' pro- 
claimed the political sentiments of the citizens." 

Such, also, was the zeal of the men of Cariboo Lodge for the Institution 
of Freemasonry and for the establishment of a Grand Lodge of British 
Columbia — under which they were destined to demonstrate that the will to 
survive, required, not the incentives of Gold, or the Furs of Animals, but a 
belief in the principal Tenets of the Craft. 

The Regular Communication of February 3, 1871, was the final meeting 
of the Lodge, under the authority of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, as holding 
of Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, F. & A.M. 


Cariboo Lodge, No. 4 — G.R.B.C. 

In 1871, the Minutes deal largely with business relative to the formation 
of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia. Cariboo Lodge was whole-heartedly 
behind and in favour of the proposal. She urged that such a step be taken, 
but she "stipulated that the work be, as nearly as possible, conformable to 
the Scotch Rite." But it is also, well-known that her members felt that all 
the established Lodges be allowed to retain their own identity as to ritualistic 


practice, provided the Ancient Landmarks were retained. Although, "The 
Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of 
British Columbia," was organized at a Convention held in the City of Victoria, 
on March 18-20, 1871, when Worshipful Brother Jonathan Nutt, was 
appointed Grand Chaplain — in absentia ; because none of the Lodges char- 
tered under the Grand Lodge of England were represented, the Proceedings 
were declared "Null and Void." At another Convention held on October 21, 
1871, with the "English" and the "Scotch" represented, the formation of the 
Grand Lodge was "legalized." 

Official notification was duly received of the formation of the Grand 
Lodge of British Columbia ; the old Charter "Holding under the Grand Lodge 
of Scotland" was surrendered to the new Grand Master for delivery to Scot- 
land ; and in due time, came the new Charter to Cariboo Lodge. The Con- 
vention had ordered that the number and status of each Lodge, under the new 
Grand Registry, should be determined by the date of the Warrant or Charter, 
under which they had been working — thus, was born "Cariboo Lodge — 
F. & A.M. — No. 4 — B.C.R." 

Due to the primitive conditions still existing, and to the poor means of 
transportation and communication, it was March 2, 1872, before Cariboo Lodge 
transacted any business under its new Title. On October 5, of that year the 
By-Laws were amended and worded to conform to the rules and regulations 
of the new union ; to reduce the fees for membership from $2 to $1 per 
month; to halve the dues for Brethren residing beyond a 20-mile limit; and 
to abolish the offices of Deputy Worshipful Master and Substitute Wor- 
shipful Master. It is of interest to note that Cariboo Lodge did not use the 
letters A.F. & A.M. until July 3rd, 1875. 

The original 14 members by this time had reached the low fifties, but 
by the time. Grand Master William Downie, was to make the first visit of 
a Grand Master to Cariboo Lodge in 1892, the number of members was to 
drop back to 20. 

To The Turn of the Century 

In 1871, Worshipful Brother J. Spencer Thompson, succeeded Worshipful 
Brother Nutt, as the Master of Cariboo Lodge and under his able guidance 
the affairs of Cariboo Lodge progressed through many vicissitudes for the 
problems of survival had become legion. 

On December 9, 1871, a young Barkerville clerk, in the person of Marcus 
Wolfe was initiated and he subsequently became a well-known Mason in 
British Columbia — becoming Grand Master twenty years later — in 1891. 
However, he seems never to have attended Cariboo Lodge after he was 
raised, nor does his name appear in the Minute Book as being "demitted," 
though he was afterwards Master of Ashlar Lodge, No. 3, at Nanaimo, B.C. 
— dual membership was not permitted in those days. As Grand Master, he 
wrote Cariboo Lodge, asking for the dates of his initiation, passing and 
raising; presented Cariboo Lodge with a photograph of himself, as a token 


of the esteem in which he held his Mother Lodge. (Actually M. W. Brother 
Wolfe petitioned for membership in Cariboo Lodge on November 4, 1871 ; 
demitted on August 7, 1882, from Cariboo to join Ashlar Lodge in Nanaimo ; 
he was the Thirteenth Grand Master). In 1896, a record in the Minute Book, 
expresses regret — at the tragic death of P.G.M. Wolfe. The Grand Lodge 
Proceedings carry the name Marcus Wolfe as a Master Mason under Cariboo 
Lodge No. 4, until the returns of the Masonic Year 1882, when he is shown 
as "Demitted" from Cariboo Lodge and as a Master Mason under Ashlar 
Lodge No. 3, Nanaimo, B.C. In actual fact he is believed to have been 
quite an active member of the Craft outside Barkerville, after he left the 

During the "seventies," there was a diminution in the work, which had 
heretofore been brisk : many members were demitting ; there were continual 
reports from San Francisco of the illness and death of Brethren ; members 
in San Francisco being thanked for the many kindnesses shown to their Cariboo 

By the end of the "eighties," the shining metal was becoming very scarce 
on the creeks ; the exodus was on ; as the richest deposits of gold were being 
worked out ; even the newer finds of lesser value, beyond the perimeter of 
Williams Creek were dropping their yields. As most of the economy of British 
Columbia, at that time, was dependent upon mining, there was a severe business 
depression. The work of Cariboo Lodge had become very routine; the two 
great Ritualists — Worshipful Brothers Thompson in 1880, and Nutt in 1887, 
had been called to the Grand Lodge above ; while Brothers Kelly and Henry 
McDermott, with a few able assistants, kept the Ritual alive. These were 
indeed very trying times, and the Brethren of Cariboo Lodge were temporarily 
overcome by the adversities. But the Lodge had acquired a good library and 
it was customary to have "Masonic Chats," at each meeting, under the 
appelation "the Good of the Order," and it was still the days of "liquid" 
refreshments. At one point the usually clear script of Brother Henry Mc- 
Dermott, then Secretary, became progressively irregular and almost unin- 
telligible. Subsequently, suffering from remorse, he proposed "no more 
spirituous liquors within the ante-room," and six of the ten members being 
present, such a resolution was duly entered in the Minutes. However, the 
Minutes were not accepted, at the next Regular Communication, until the 
Worshipful Master Stone expunged the resolution — but not without, how- 
ever, reprimanding the Junior Warden for "being delinquent at his Post." 

Brother Eli Harrison, Jr., the Grand Junior Warden, inspected Cariboo 
Lodge in 1879 and 1880; he also visited again in 1886 and 1887, reporting: 
"Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, in efficient working condition due to the exertions of 
its energetic members, and when one is acquainted with the locality, history 
and the Lodge in Cariboo, he is struck with admiration of those who founded, 
sustained and carried on Masonry there — they mourn the days of departed 
greatness, but are hopeful of the future." On his visit to Cariboo Lodge in 
1885, Right Worshipful Brother Eli Harrison, Jr., was accompanied by Right 
Reverend Brother Acton Windeyer Sillitoe, who was consecrated Lord Bishop 


of the Anglican Diocese of New Westminster in 1879; where he resided until 
his death in 1894; he was made a member of Honor Lodge, No. 526, Wolver- 
hampton, G.R. Eng., and affiliated with Union Lodge, No. 9, at New West- 
minster, B.C. 

In 1880, the Temple had another narrow escape from fire. A donation 
of $25., and a resolution of thanks being passed to the Williams Creek Fire 
Brigade, "for the efficient manner in which they protected the building, 
during the recent fire." 

Donations made by the Lodge around this time, included subscriptions to 
aid sufferers from an explosion at Nanaimo, and to a Masonic Hospital at 
Morden, Man. 


By 1892, rumours seemed to indicate internal trouble, and the Roll of 
Members had dropped from 54 to 21, when on November 4, 1892, there stepped 
from the stagecoach, no less a person than the Grand Master himself, Most 
Worshipful Brother William Downie, to pay the first official visit of a 
Grand Master to Cariboo Lodge. The Records show : 

"The First Degree was exemplified, and the Grand Master then exem- 
plified the work as done in the Canadian Rite, which was new to most 
of the Brethren present. 

The Lodge was then closed in Form, and the table spread, when the 
'K'. and 'F\ degree was exemplified, all brethren taking an active part 
therein. The health of the G.M. was proposed by Bro. Stone, which was 
drank by the brethren, and they all gave expression to the opinion that 
'He's a Jolly Good Fellow.' After an hour had passed by the brethren in 
sampling the viands, etc., so amply provided by Bro. Kelly, the caterer 
for the event, and the rendering of some good songs, a short address by 
the G.M., responded to by Bro. Stone, the proceeding was closed at 12 
p.m. by singing 'Auld Lang Syne' and 'God Save the Queen,' when the 
brethren escorted the M.W.G.M. to his hotel and took leave of him." 

It is reported that eleven members were all that could be rounded up, and 
six of them had "horse-backed" the fifteen miles to Barkerville. But the 
Lodge Room looked very nice ; and then the entire building and lot were 
owned by the Lodge — the lower hall was bringing in revenue, as a school- 
room. The members had rolled out the "Royal Carpet" and "turned on that 
Cariboo Personality, with renowned Cariboo Hospitality, our . . . visiting 
Grand Master could make only one suggestion — 'that hereafter, both Secre- 
tary and Master sign the Minutes.' " The Grand Master reported on his Visit 
to Barkerville : "I had to travel 200 miles by rail, and 300 miles by stage- 
coach to reach Barkerville ; but I would not have missed the opportunity of 
meeting the Brethren of that far-famed district, had the distance been much 

Actually, this era was the most critical in the history of Cariboo Lodge. 
Just as surely as the completion of a Cathedral terminates the existence of a 
Lodge of Operative Masons; so does the depletion of man's livelihood, with 


its drain on the population, limit or terminate the existence of the Lodge of 
Speculative Masons. The Barkerville home of Cariboo Lodge was probably- 
saved only because placer-gold was located in nearby areas, but not in 
quantities sufficient to warrent in any one place the building of a settlement 
larger than Barkerville. The average attendance had reached a low of 7, 
with the Treasurer working a more active chair as well. The mechaniical 
device for lifting the stairs, known as the "Silent Tyler," enabled the elected 
Tyler to be Inner Guard, to which station no member was appointed for over 
ten years. With no new applicants — the Treasury was empty and repairs 
were required to the building. Worshipful Brother Stone reported that he 
had the P.M.'s jewel of the late W. Brother Nutt for safekeeping and it was 
decided to convert it into cash, in aid of the coffers ; he had also found a 
tenant for the late Brother's cabin at $2. per month. Barkerville, by then 
was "just a quiet little family town with a theatre and public auditorium; 
a firehall, post office, and a telegraph office, two hotels, several liquor stores, 
Hudson's Bay and Roger's General Stores, with a number of small shops 
huddled between the larger buildings." The Andrew Kellys' owned and ran 
Kelly Hotel, they were outstanding for good citizenship and charitable under- 
takings. The Kelleys' also baked good Scotch Bread for the whole com- 
munity and invited the whole town for hte celebration at New Year, Burns' 
Night and Hallowe'en. 

The daughter of Brother C. P. O'Neill recalled in later years, it was 
about this time, that having got from the schoolroom up to the lodge room 
"I got my first and last glimpse of that beautiful room — heavy blue drapes 
hung at the two large windows facing the street ; and the matching luxurious 
carpet of the same blue. A huge brass chandelier hung from the ceiling and 
the furniture was of the best ; a large open Bible lay on the reading-desk in 
the centre of the room. It was the nearest thing to 'Royalty' I had even seen, 
but strange to say I was expecting to find the mythical goat I had heard 

But, once again, the spirit was more important to Barkerville because the 
members of the Craft were dedicated enough, to snowshoe or ride horse-back 
over 20 miles and back, for a Lodge meeting. 

The appointment of District Deputy Grand Masters under the Grand 
Lodge of British Columbia, dates from the Annual Communication of that 
body in 1888, when Brother Henry McDermott was appointed for District No. 
4, which encompassed only the Lodge at Barkerville, until July 18, 1913, when 
Quesnel Lodge No. 69 was warranted ; it now consists of Nechako Lodge, No. 
86 at Prince George — warranted in June, 1920; Centre Lodge, No. 113, at 
Williams Lake — warranted on June 26, 1926; Vanderhoof Lodge, No. 119 
at Vanderhoof — warranted on June 19, 1930 ; and Tweedsmuir Lodge, No. 
152 at Burns Lake — warranted on June 18, 1954. Brother McDermott appears 
to have been reappointed D.D.G.M. for a number of years and in his report 
to the Grand Lodge in 1895, he stated: 

"I can truly say, a change is, or seems to be, coming over old Cariboo, 
which recalls, in a manner, diminished of course, the palmy days of the 


"They built their Tozvn in the bed of a Creek (Williams) — called it Main 

Street, Barkerville." 

60's. The hillsides are again becoming" dotted with tents of the pros- 
pectors, etc. Even Cariboo Lodge seems to be stirred with new life, 
much needed, as may be seen by the annual returns ..." 

He went on to urge on Grand Lodge, the necessity of sending a competent 
person as Grand Lecturer to reward the resident Brethren : "for the assiduity 
of their attendance and very apparent desire for Masonic knowledge." Grand 
Lodge found it was not possible to comply with this request, for very many 
reasons, but did retain R. W. Bro. McDermott in office until the Annual 
Communication of 1900, in which year he passed to the Grand Lodge above. 

Brother James Wilson, the Superintendent of the C.P.R. Telegraphs, 
visited in 1888, and shortly thereafter presented the Lodge with a carpet, 
as a slight memorial of the pleasant hours spent with the Brethren. 

When the "shafting and tunnelling" method failed to produce gold 
economically in the Cariboo, many of the less affluent or more adventurous 
sought their fortunes elsewhere : in Omineca, in Cassiar ; in Big Bend and in 
ort Steele prospects. Some even searched the far Northern areas in the 
Klondyke and the Yukon. New techniques utilizing hydraulic monitors, for 
removing huge quantities of gold-bearing material at relatively low cost, had 
come into being and as the unrenewable mineral was almost completely 
extracted from the earth, many of the miners recalled Cariboo. They headed 
back to the old diggings. 

— 1600— 

The First Master — Jonathan Nutt, Miner and Master Mason 

On December 11, 1887, Jonathan Nutt, the first Master of Cariboo Lodge, 
and virtually the founder and sustainer of the Lodge during the first twenty 
years of its existence, was called to his rest in the Grand Lodge above. It is 
only fitting that before we close this phase in the history of Cariboo Lodge, 
we pause and reflect on this man, one of the strongest pillars in the early 
day of Freemasonry, in British Cloumbia. There is little doubt that this man 
did more to hold the Lodge together through its earliest adversities, than 
any other member, from the beginning until he was forced by age and failing 
health to give up active participation in the work. 

Old Timers outside the Lodge spoke of Jonathan Nutt, as "The Boss 
of the Lodge for many years." He did not appear to do anything else of 
particular note ; he was foreman of the Aurora Claim ; he built an hotel in 
Barkerville — evidence of his skill and ability, as a "Builder," was to be 
found in the "House Hotel," which was still in active use over 60 years later. 

Brother Nutt had been frequently installed as Master ; he was a man 
"who ruled and governed his Lodge;" and in 1882 the Lodge conferred upon 
him Honorary Membership. He must have been a man of great moral fibre ; 
strong in character and determination ; a most eminent ritualist in the Scotch 
(American) rites; he was given the rank of Past Senior Grand Warden, in 
1877, by the Grand Lodge of British Columbia "on account of his services 
in Freemasonry." 

In later years he was in failing health ; his financial circumstances were 
not of the best ; he bceame an inmate of the Royal Cariboo Hospital, where 
he was cared for by the Brethren for several years ; he left Cariboo early in 
1887 ; he passed away in Yale in December of that year ; and was moved to 
New Westminster, where he was interred by Union Lodge, No. 7. 

After his death, there was a good deal of unpleasantness and misunder- 
standing over the funeral expenses and other debts that had been incurred by 
Brother Nutt. This was reconciled after much correspondence and argument, 
when some nine months later "the Cariboo Brethren learned with amaze- 
ment, had been paid by the Grand Lodge. By unanimous vote, One Hundred 
Dollars was sent to the Grand Lodge Charity Fund as an appreciation of this 
Masonic act." 

While this was the last contribution made by the Lodge to the man who 
"by his conduct, assiduity and zeal," had done so much toward the establish- 
ment of Freemasonry on Williams Creek, Brother Nutt was, though dead, 
still to come to the assistance of the Lodge, through the sale of his Past 
Master's Jewel, which the Secretary recorded on April 1, 1893, "had been 
turned into cash and the proceeds to be added to the Lodge Funds." 

A year later this final entry appeared in the Minutes, "Tenant obtained 
for Brother Nutt's cabin at $2. a month." 

— 1601 — 

The Grand Lodge Proceedings for 1889 at page 117, carries an engraved 
plate : 


Jonathan Nutt 
Past Master 

Cariboo Lodge No. 4 

"able, zealous and faithful" 

From Peace to War — 1901 to 1920 

On June 21, 1900, W. Brother James Stone was appointed D.D.G.M., 
to succeed R. W. Brother McDermott ; he had already served from 1892 to 
1894, and was re-appointed each year until 1908. In his report for 1906 he 
said: "I think that only three (members) reside in the vicinity of the 'Tall 
Building', which holds aloft in letters three feet high "Masonic Hall, 1869." 
Some are out in various outlying Creeks, hunting gold ; some resident in 
Quesnel ; other down in Coast Cities ; one in the cold Klondyke ; one in Fair 
London Town ; some in Eastern States. Verily we are 'dispersed around the 
Globe.' Notwithstanding, we have kept our meetings up pretty good. One 
Brother in Pennsylvania, writes 'On my way out and at this place, I have 
visited several Lodges and am surprised to find so little difference in the work; 
we compare favourably.' " 

Brother P. F. McGregor, was appointed D.D.G.M. in 1908, and in his 
report for 1912 stated that : "There are quite a number of Master Masons 
coming into Cariboo, and no doubt the Most Worshipful Grand Master will 
be asked for one or two dispensations to start new Lodges," and that "Cariboo 
Lodge, No. 4, granted a permit to the Brethren of Fort George District (now 
Prince George) to open a Lodge of Instruction." 

During the Masonic Year, 190405, Brother William J. Bowser, Grand 
Master, visited every Lodge in British Columbia, except Cariboo, but he 
commissioned W. Brother Charles Wilson of Cascade Lodge, No. 12, and 
then Attorney General of the Province, to make a visit on his behalf. W. 
Brother Wilson praised the work in his report to Grand Lodge, but pointed 
out that : "It is a matter of regret that the Board of Installed Masters does 
not sit and the Degree is not conferred. I would suggest that means to impart 
this knowledge be adopted at the first opportunity, and I may add that all the 
Brethren entitled to sit on the Board are most anxious to receive the infor- 
mation, ?nd that the Board should sit at the proper time and for the proper 

At the turn of the century, many of the new members of Cariboo Lodge 
were domiciled in Quesnel, and one on occasion in 1904, when a request was 
made for Cariboo Lodge to conduct the funeral and pay its last respects to 
Brother James Reid, 'Our Oldest Member," who died in Quesnel, prior to the 
Institution of Quesnel Lodge, No. 69, joined with the Brethren who came 
from Barkerville. Later in the same year, they joined in the same way for the 
funeral cf Brother William Albert Johnston, for whom the Chinese Free- 

— 1602— 

masons, had performed the final Rites in Barkerville, the previous day. In 
each case, Lodge was opened in Barkerville ; those Brethren then proceeded 
the sixty odd miles by road to Quesnel ; the last sad rites were conducted in 
Quesnel ; the Brethren then returned to Barkerville where the Lodge was 
closed on the evening of the third day. 

Even then Cariboo remained the "Lodge of Isolation." Many of the old 
ritualists had passed on to the Grand Lodge above, but they had passed on 
the old Ritual of Cariboo to several very keen and fine ritualistic proteges, 
one of whom visited California in 1903. He reported that a number of devi- 
ations were being practised in that State ; much having been forgotten or left 
out ; he strongly advocated that No. 4, retain her working of the American 
rites, in full. It would appear that his urging had full effect upon the 
Brethren of Cariboo Lodge, because no changes appear to have been made in 
the Ritual, for thus it has remained until the present time, faithful to the 
Rites as they came to her as Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, G.R. Scot. 

Generally speaking the "gold economy" of the Province was holding up 
too in the Cariboo, although the mining activity seemed to be more lively 
along Lightning Creek, and around such places at Stanley, rather than along 
Williams Creek and in Barkerville proper. The general prosperity continued 
unimpaired until just before the First Great War and Cariboo Lodge had been 
gaining a reputation as "The Old Mother Lodge of Northern British Col- 
umbia. " She began receiving requests from groups of Freemasons living at 
great distances for support in the creation of a Lodge in several localities. 
It was to Cariboo Lodge that the following Lodges applied for recommen- 
dations of their dispensations and she endorsed petitions for Lodges of 
Instruction to be held at : 

Atlin: 1,110 odd miles away — Atlinto Lodge, No. 42, was Instituted 
on December 30, 1904 and Warranted on June 1, 1906; 

Prince Rupert : 606 miles away — Tsimpsean Lodge, No. 58, was In- 
stituted on January 15, 1910 and Warranted on July 23, 1910; 

Quesnel : 62 miles away — Quesnel Lodge, No. 69, was Instituted on 
September 22, 1912, and Warranted on June 20, 1913 ; 

Prince George (formerly Fort George) : 138 miles away — Nechako 
Lodge, No. 86, was Warranted in June, 1920 ; and 

Smithers : 375 miles away — Omineca Lodge, No. 92, was Instituted 
on September 9, 1920 and Warranted on June 24, 1921. 

It was during 1911, that some very marked changes were noted in the 
Cariboo country. In Barkerville, for instance, the banks had closed during 
the "seventies," and thereafter the bank in Ashcroft had carried the Lodge 
account as being the nearest such facility. The horse-drawn stages along the 
Cariboo Road were being replaced by "Winton Six" motor-cars and it was 
50 years later Cariboo Lodge received a visit from Gustaf Pherson, a 
"California" Mason, who was one of the first driver-mechanics serving the 
stages. The state of the Road in those days, with its long stretches of 
gumbo topping, required much more than driving skill alone. In 1912 a 

— 1603- 

gasoline light plant was installed in the town and a fireproof safe was pur- 
chased to guard the Lodge records. 

On September 23, 1913, Brother William Henderson, Grand Master, 
paid an Official Visit to Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, following his "Constituting 
and Dedicating" of Quesnel Lodge, No. 69, the previous day. He was accom- 
panied by the Deputy Grand Master. Brother James Stark. Brother John 
McCallum, the D.D.G.M., at that time, failed to make an Official Visit to 
Cariboo Lodge, but in his report to Grand Lodge remarked upon : "One of 
the pleasing features of the Brotherhood in this District is the frequent 
interchange of visits between the members of Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, one of 
the oldest Lodges on the Grand Registry, and Quesnel Lodge, No. 69, one 
of the youngest. This practice is more commendable when it is remembered 
that these Lodges are 60 miles apart." 

It should be noted that many Cariboo Brethren held dual membership 
and there was usually an atmosphere of light banter and horse-play in evi- 
dence. When the Lodge of Instruction was in Quesnel, the men of No. 4, 
criticized them for "too much publicity" and for posing for a photo with 
three prominent "intendants" wearing ladies kitchen aprons. Brother Don 
McCallum, then Secretary, drew the matter to the attention of No. 4, Brethren 
and there in the very centre of the picture was his "blood brother," John 
McCallum, a Member and a Past Master of No. 4. In 1915, the Brethren 
at Quesnel got back at Barkerville group, when Brother Kepner, P.M., a 
member of both Lodges, charged No. 4, with wearing "cotton aprons," which 
were unconstitutional. Worshipful Master Thompson requested the Secretary 
to read what "Mackey" had to say, adding that "Mackey's Manual" had always 
"been our authority." Past Master Bell agreed with the Master, but diplo- 
matically suggested that Brother Kepner's point and merit, "as somewhere or 
somehow the Grand Lodge of British Columbia, way down south, had made 
a ruling on aprons and it might be advisable to wear aprons of the style as 
laid down in the Constitutions until such time as we ascertained definitely, 
as to whether the cotton aprons now worn were in order or not." 

By 1914, when hostilities broke out in Europe, the "gold economy" had 
shown a vast improvement and the attendance at Regular Meetings of Cariboo 
Lodge often reached 16 to 18, as the Membership Roll neared the 40 mark. 
By this time "Daughter Quesnel" had slightly outgrown her older parent. 
With money in the bank, Cariboo bought War Bonds ; and exempted all 
Brethren who enlisted in the Armed Forces from the "payment of dues." 
But the Great War continued and increased in its intensity ; gold sank lower 
and lower on the list of "needed minerals ;" more and more of the Brethren 
enlisted; and the economy of the entire country suffered. Regular Communi- 
cations dropped to 8 per year and on many occasions no business could be 
carried on for "lack of a quorum". The D.D.G.M.'s still reported what little 
work was possible, exemplified in an outstanding manner, and the "Old 
Timers" managed to keep the Lodge alive. But as Brother Harold Turner 
summed up the situation "the dark clouds gather not only on the 'Western 
Front,' for Barkerville is gaining the aspects of a 'ghost town' as Cariboo 


Lodge passes its 50th anniversary unsung, constantly in mourning, from the 
passing of our first Grand Master Powell in 1915, and then for local Brethren 
sacrificed at the altar of the War God." 

In his report to Grand Lodge of May 12, 1915, Brother Melbourne 
Bailey, D.D.G.M., regretted the inability of the Grand Master to visit the 
Lodges in the District, but said that all "look forward to the early com- 
pletion of the P.G.E. Railroad, as a means of bringing this District in closer 
touch with the outside, thus doing away, to a large extent, with the present 
great expense and loss of time necessary when Grand Lodge officials visit 
our Lodges." 

Nearing the close of this period in the history of ancient Cariboo Lodge, 
we find appointed as D.D.G.M., one of her able historians, in the person of 
Brother Rupert W. Haggen, who on September 6, 1919, officially visited 
Cariboo Lodge, No. 4. Exerpts from his report in detail, present an interesting 
story outlinging some of the difficulties that have beset this Lodge : 

"... a number of Quesnel brethren had arranged to make the journey 
and pay a fraternal visit. However, the night before the meeting a heavy 
rainstorm came, making the lower end of the road almost impassable, so 
the visit was cancelled ; and I was only enabled to keep the appointment 
by reason of being near Barkerville when the storm broke. 

All the members within twenty miles of Barkerville, fifteen, were present, 
the majority travelling some distance; only three were present in the 
town itself. There was no candidate, and having seen degree work exem- 
plified previously in the Lodge by the same personnel, I did not think it 
necessary to have a degree demonstrated on a substitute ; this work has 
always been done well. 

Barkerville is the centre of an hydraulic mining camp and, during the 
water season, there is some difficulty in getting a quorum, but ten meet- 
ings were held during the year, though frequently only seven members 
signed the porch book. 

Being within four miles of Barkerville and 1,400 feet above it, on October 
4th, I 'hoofed' it down the Proserine trail . . . visiting unofficially. I was 
delighted that evening to meet that very popular and worshipful brother, 
Jack Kilmer, of Acacia No. 22; he had waded twelve miles through mud 
to attend the communication. Brothers Martin (Scotland), Parker 
(Alberta) and Elliott (Quesnel) were also present, making this, one of 
the most remote of Lodges, quite cosmopolitan. 

It is always a great source of pleasure to visit this old Lodge, warranted 
in 1867 by the Grand Lodge of Scotland. The members have always been 
the rugged men of the mining camps, and some of our P.G.M.'s can 
describe their hospitality." 


On September 25, 1920, Brother Martin L. Grimmett, the Grand Master, 
made an official visit to Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, and the D.D.G.M., Brother 
Alfred S. Vaughan, describes the trip in these words : 

"... continued his journey by motor to Barkerville, a distance of sixty 
miles, and on that evening visited Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, where he was 
warmly welcomed by the Brethren assembled . . . The visit was con- 
cluded by a very pleasant banquet. Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, is, unfortunately, 
short in numbers, but its hospitality is boundless. 

Plans had been made to take the M.W. Grand Master to see some of 
the old historic points of interest in the vicinity of the town, and also to 
view some of the neighbouring hydraulic mines, but unfortunately the boat 
schedule on the Fraser River was slightly altered, which necessitated our 
making a frantic race back to Quesnel on the following morning to 
catch the motor launch for Prince George, so that the Brethren there 
might not be disappointed. This was accomplished although the boat had 
left Quesnel and we had to chase it up the river some seven or eight 
miles, to a point where we managed to catch up with it. The distance up 
the river to Prince George is about one hundred and ten miles, and the 
accommodation on the small launch is decidedly meagre, so that the 
M.W. Grand Master and the rest of the passengers had a sleepless and 
uncomfortable night. The river was fairly high, too, and to the unitiated 
the running of the Cottonwood and Fort George canyons, China rapids, 
and other rough spots in a small launch was a novel experience, and one 
not devoid of risks." 


Peace and War Again — 1921 to 1950 

Bruce Hutchinson, in his book "The Fraser," published around this time, 
describes the town of Barkerville as "a ghost town . . . stores with false 
fronts, windowless cabins . . . Kelly's Hotel, its unused bar glistening in the 
lamplight . . . deserted saloons, stores and cabins . . . Tregillus children 
singing hymns . . . deserted opera houses, and firehall . . . ninety-one in the 
town and surrounding country." But he can have known little of "the Spirit 
of the Cariboo" which has never died. On August 21, 1921, Brother A. A. 
Belbeck, D.D.G.M., reported on his Official Visit to Cariboo Lodge; a total 
attendance of 29 Brethren : "which speaks well for the Brethren of this District, 
as the majority are absent from Barkerville during the Summer months . . . 
I left Barkerville, with a feeling of gratitude for the evidence of real Masonic 
harmony manifested in this outlying point of our Jurisdiction." 

Brother Ernest Jones, D.D.G.M., reported that "we started out on the 
morning of 7 September, 1922, on an interesting journey of about 60 miles 
into the mountains, which was made by motor car over the Cariboo Road 
. . . there were twenty-five Brethren present (at Historic Cariboo Lodge 
No. 4), many of them coming long distances to attend. The second part of 
the Degree of a Master Mason was exemplified in the Scotch work, and 
Worshipful Master M. W. Schilling and his officers deserve great credit . . . 

— 1606— 

have in Dominion of Canada Bonds and cash over $1,100.00, and the approxi- 
mate wealth of $74.00 per capita. The splendid traditions of the Lodge are 
being maintained ... I am of the opinion that the future will see steady- 
progress made." 

In 1923, Brother John Hopp desired to mine the Temple site and was 
granted permission on condition that he moved the building intact to a satis- 
factory site — apparently the plan fell through. 

Business in the Cariboo Country generally, began to pick up again about 
this time, and Brother Jack Gardner, provided enough enthusiasm in 1924 to 
hold 12 meetings of the Lodge. The Pacific Great Eastern Railway had 
become a "fait accompli," from Squamish to Quesnel, and it was possible to 
transport heavy equipment over most of the Route ; somehow steam draglines 
and dredging equipment was "wrastled" over the muddy, hilly, stagecoach 
road to the gold-fields. 

In his report to Grand Lodge in 1925, Brother E. J. Avison, D.D.G.M., 
makes many interesting comments on the affairs of Cariboo Lodge No. 4 : 
"has continued her splendid career, and the loyalty of the members and their 
pride in their Lodge remain as high as ever. Every visitor to the Lodge 
notices and remarks its veneration for tradition and its maintenance of its 
own long established customs. These remarks are well illustrated in W. Bro. 
Gardner, Immediate Past Master ; by team or sleigh, sometimes automobile, 
he travelled, rain, snow or shine, twenty miles of mountain road to Lodge, 
miner and farmer. Well skilled in and enthusiastic for our teachings he 
exemplified them both by precept and example and gave himself a very long 
Cable Tow. Fortunate it is this year in having as its Master, George F. 
Turner, known to big game hunters throughout the world for his knowledge 
of the country, his photographs of wild life, his ability as a guide, and his 
unfailing courtesy and helpfulness ; a Brother splendidly equipped to be 
Master of such a Lodge. The secretary is Thomas Nicol, formerly a banker 
and now a merchant, and it is superfluous to say that in his hands the secre- 
tarial work is all that could be desired, and before leaving Cariboo Lodge 
I should like to place on formal record a note of the distinctive services 
rendered to this Lodge by Bro. Laurent Muller, a splendidly equipped Mason, 
instantly ready to take office, a competent teacher, declining honours when 
tendered, a regular attendant at Lodge and intensely proud of it, year after 
year he gives instruction, guidance and active help to younger Brethren, 
accepting as his only reward the knowledge of Masonic work well done." 

In the same report to Grand Lodge, the Grand Master Worshipful Brother 
Stephen Jones, states that he visited the Lodge in Barkerville, accompanied 
by M. W. Bro. William Astly, R. W. Bro. Robert Baird, and Bro. H. H. Scott. 

Brother A. Wimbles, D.D.G.M., reported that on his visit to Cariboo No. 
4, on August 22, 1925 : "The membership ... is very scattered, but distance 
is no obstacle to the Brethren, who travel many miles . . . impresses every 
visitor, is its veneration for tradition and its maintenance of its old estab- 
lished customs ... a good attendance . . . exceptionally pleasing to note 
the harmony and fellowship that prevails among the members ..." 

— 1607— 

A banner year in the life of Cariboo Lodge No. 4, was 1926, with 
Worshipful Brother Jack Gardner as D.D.G.M., and with the Grand Master 
Brother W. H. Sutherland and his suite making an Official Visit on August 
20, 1926. The visit was a notable one in the history of the Lodge, there being 
an almost complete complement of Grand Lodge Officers present — with 
many visiting Brethren. During the year there was a considerable increase 
in the membership. It was also the year of "admission" for two of the most 
loyal Masons ever initiated into Cariboo Lodge, who may still be seen in the 
Lodge today — forty years later; Worshipful Brother Russ McDougall and 
Worshipful Brother Johnny Leonard, who walked seven or eight miles 
through the hills from Antler to do his part ; Barkerville had a population 
of 40 resident families and two hotels. 

From 1927 to 1930, the mines of the area, had reached their lowest point 
of production since 1858 ; the Brethren became more scattered than ever. 
However, the Men of Cariboo Lodge hung on and refused to accept defeat, 
no matter how many difficulties beset their path — on many occasions it was 
difficult to muster enough Brethren to fill even the offices, but they worked 
on with a great diligence for the good of the District. 

At the instigation of Cariboo Lodge, the Historical Sites Commission of 
Canada, decided to erect a Cairn in Barkerville, to the memory of the early 
pioneers ; to commemorate and mark the northern end of the Cariboo Road. 
On August 10, 1929, Brother Louis LeBourdais — an historian of some 
authority on Cariboo Lodge — who had been appointed D.D.G.M., for 
District No. 4, on August 10, 1929 accompanied the Most Worshipful Grand 
Master Robie L. Reid to Barkerville for the purpose of unveiling the Cairn — 
describes the scene : 

"Aside from the official welcome by the Worshipful Master, Officers 
and members, and greeting tendered by Freemasons from varied parts 
of the World, it was a special privilege to be in the company of the 
Grand Master, who in private life, as well as in Masonic circles, is well 
and favourably known throughout the Cariboo. On Williams Creek, en 
fete that day in honour of its early pioneers, as in other places throughout 
District No. 4, he was warmly acclaimed. 

The Grand Master's eloquent address preceding the unveiling ceremony, 
which was held under the auspices of Cariboo Lodge, (one of the very 
early birthplaces of Freemasonry in British Columbia), No. 4, was listened 
to by hundreds who thronged the roadway and the sloping bank of Williams 
Creek, above and below the Cairn. 

His brief, well chosen remarks delivered from the platform and his 
subsequent address to the Brethren in the historic Lodge room, where two 
extra rows of chairs and benches were requisitioned from nearby buildings 
to accommodate its members and visiting Freemasons, who brought greet- 
ings from 28 different Lodges, could not have failed to further enhance 
the prestige of Freemasonry." 

— 1608— 

The Grand Master reported that : "I was particularly delighted to be 
able to visit Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, at Barkerville . . . the Cairn erected that 
day ... to mark the end of the Cariboo Road, and to preserve the memory 
of the pioneers of the Sixties, was unveiled. As the ceremony was sponsored 
by the Cariboo Lodge, I was invited, as Grand Master, to participate therein. 
The occasion brought to Barkerville practically all the survivors of the early 
days of Cariboo, and a most interesting re-union brought pleasure to all who 
attended. In the evening, at the meeting of the Lodge, there were visitors 
from all parts of the Province, and from other Jurisdictions from Montreal 
to Alaska, and a pleasant evening was spent by all." 

Then came the "Hungry Thirties," with the "Black Depression" in full 
array, stalking the Land from sea to sea, but Cariboo Lodge seems to have 
taken this additional "spectre" in its stride. For, in his address to the Grand 
Lodge of British Columbia, on June 18, 1931, Grand Master Donald E. Kerr, 
in referring to the Sixtieth Birthday of Grand Lodge and in eulogising the 
spirit and tenacity of those who had built the Province, said : 

"We see those pioneers, human as we, bringing here the old customs of 
their far-off England. Their maypoles were decked with wild red current 
blossoms, for lack of English may. We see them bringing to the immense 
task of surveying and constructing the Cariboo Road no lack of adapta- 
bility, but through it all there runs the indomitable spirit that charac- 
terized all our early pioneers. 

This Cariboo Road soon became the 'wonder and pride' of the new 
colony. To show the immediate use to which it had been put, let me 
quote an honoured New Westminster resident, one of British Columbia's 
most able historians — 

"If we look back into the past along that mighty highway, what a strange 
scene we would behold — pack animals, freight waggons, six-horse 
passenger coaches, an army of men, some going, some returning, all sorts 
and conditions of men, a motley crowd, men drunk, men sober." 

Such was the Cariboo Road in the palmy days of greatness that is past. 
Little did its builders dream that it was destined to become part of a 
great Trans-Canada Highway, attracting an ever-increasing number of 
motor tourists to scenic wonders unexcelled on this Continent. 

Gold was the lure that caused the adventurers of old to rush to the 
Cariboo, where Williams Creek was the lodestone and 'Cariboo Cameron' 
was a household word among the miners. Can we not dip into the very 
near future and visualize a highway crowded from the Mexican Border 
to the Yukon and Alaska ? The lure will not be gold but rather the 
'Midnight Sun.'" 

Most Worshipful Brother Kerr, and his suite, arrived at Barkerville on 
May 23, 1931, with a number of members from Centre Lodge, No. 113, at 
Williams Lake, and Quesnel Lodge, No. 69, at Quesnel — heavy rains pre- 
vented the attendance of many Brethren from the Lodges to the North — 


Nechako Lodge No. 86, at Prince George and Vanderhoof Lodge No. 119 at 
Vanderhoof. Let us refer to the Grand Master's own words for a description 
of that visit : 

"It was my pleasant duty to present to the Secretary of Cariboo Lodge, 
No. 4, a cheque for $500.00 being the proceeds of voluntary contributions 
from various Lodges to be used for needed repairs to the historic build- 
ing which was erected at Barkerville in 1869. 

The repairs, which were begun a few weeks previous to my visit, had 
already done much toward enhancing the appearance and usefulness of the 
building. The 'silent Tyler' — a hinged stairway leading to the hall-way 
on the ground floor, and for some years in disuse — had been included 
in the renovation plan. Pressed into service for our meeting, the uplifted 
stairway tiled so effectively that a late-arriving Brother from Nechako 
Lodge, No. 86, at Prince George, had difficulty — owing to the bell 
attachment being temporarily disconnected — in gaining admission." 

A resolution was put and carried making the Grand Master an Honorary 
Member of Cariboo Lodge, No. 4. 

The membership by 1932 had slumped to 14 resident members, but reno- 
vation of the building had been completed ; the Lodge was looking toward 
economic improvement; and to a supply of new sound (Masonic) timber. 
It was Brother George Turner, who was called upon to perform the duties 
of the D.D.G.M., in addition to carrying on his job as Secretary of Barker- 
ville No. 4. 

By the middle of 1933 and the depth of the depression, Fred M. Wells, 
had proven that "the feet of the Gold God" could be exposed by "hard-rock 
mining" practices ; although this new approach would require the backing of 
large and wealthy companies, it did stir the sleeping economy of Cariboo ; 
and thus was born the new town of Wells — built to a regular plan and 
only five miles from ancient Barkerville. During the building of Wells, Mr. 
Hutchinson's "ghost" was laid by the heels and the town of Barkerville, sprang 
into an activity reminiscent of the 60's. Brother Rod McKenzie (later the 
MLA) reported the new economy attracting bootleggers, gamblers and shar- 
pies ; Cariboo Lodge refused to rent the lower hall as a beer parlor ; but did 
consent to its use as a barbershop and a confectionery, which later installed 
a newstand and pool-tables. 

On October 28, 1934, the D.D.G.M. Brother A. A. Hutchinson paid an 
Official Visit to Cariboo Lodge, and "saw the Third Degree put on in a 
very efficient manner. The Officers are mostly young men and appear to 
have given their work much study, and know it thoroughly . . . this Lodge 
derives rent from the ground-floor building and having no rentals to pay 
out, cost of operation is low." At this meeting he had the pleasure of meeting, 
Most Worshipful Brother Sutherland, Grand Master of Saskatchewan, a 
visitor to Cariboo Lodge. 


"The 'Tall Building' — Home of Mother Cariboo for Thirty-seven 

Years — 1869 to 1936." 

By now the Second Gold Rush was in full swing and the Lodge rode 
along on the economy: with VIP visits, initiations and affiliations — the 
Roll of Members being raised to nearly 50. Brother \V. J. Pitman, appointed 
D.D.G.M. for 1935-36, paid a visit to Cariboo Lodge on June 1, 1936, accom- 
panied by a number of visiting Brethren. He noted that the Lodge was mainly 
in charge of younger Brethren "who are keen and interested, but who re- 
gretted the absence of the Senior Members, many of whom are hydraulic miners, 
and "it was high water on the Creeks, for as Shakespeare put it, 'There is 
a tide in the affairs of men which taken at the flood, leads on to fortune'." 


In 1936, destiny again intervened, when the Temple and all its priceless 
contents were consumed by fire. The D.D.G.M. Brother R. Beauchamp, paid 
his Official Visit to Cariboo No. 4, at Quesnel in a joint communication 
with No. 69, when the Brethren from Barkerville journeyed the 60 odd miles 
to Quesnel for their first meeting after the fire. 

Brother J. G. Cowan, D.D.G.M., made his Official Visit to Cariboo 
Lodge No. 4, on February 5th, 1938 — quite a number of Quesnel Brethren 
going along "although it was a snow trip, but there is something about 
Barkerville and Barkerville Brethren that always makes it worth while." 
The meeting was a very good and an enthusiastic one ; it was held in the 
newly finished Lodge Building, with its new "silent Tyler" — so interesting 
in the old building ; the Lodge was getting along very nicely ; and the pros- 
pects for the District were quite bright. 

The evening of January 28, 1939, has a very special place in the "Hearts 
of the Men of Cariboo" — a meeting had been called by Quesnel Lodge for 
the purpose of Raising four brothers by a Degree Team from each of the 
four Lodges in District No. 4. They were: Alfred Gardner, raised by the 
Officers of Quesnel Lodge, No. 69; Martin Gardner, raised by a Degree 
Team from Vanderhoof Lodge, No. 119; Harry Gardner, raised by a Degree 
Team from Nechako Lodge, No. 86; and Herbert John Gardner, Jr., raised 
by a Degree Team from Cariboo Lodge, No. 4. The Worshipful Master, in 
charge of Cariboo Lodge for the evening, was R. W. Brother Herbert John 
Gardner, father of the boys, and as Past Master of Cariboo Lodge ; who 
very nobly and under the most trying circumstances received the deepest 
attention during his wonderful performance of the Third Degree. Now this 
was the dead of Winter in Cariboo — a country of real cold and of plenty of 
snow, but still the Brethren travelled: from Vanderhoof, 150 miles — one 
way ; from Prince George, 84 miles — one way ; from Williams Lake, 80 
miles — one way ; from Barkerville, 62 miles — one way ; and two of the 
Brethren travelled over 200 miles — one way, to be there. The D.D.G.M. 
Brother F. J. Shearer felt that "it cannot help but be evident that Masonry 
is indeed very real when 37 Brothers, did travel distances of, from 125 to 
400 miles, to attend and to participate in a meeting. The work was demon- 
strated . . . was excellent and the spirit of friendliness and goodfellowship 
. . . was such as to warm and expand your heart ... it will be . . . long re- 
membered by everyone of the 81 Brethren present that evening." 

But the "Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse" were to be loosed upon 
the World again — every Country was to feel the impact — heavy was to 
be the loss of life; and it was to take its toll upon every form and avenue 
of human existence. Masonry, too, was to have its "Baptism of Fire" in 
many ways — in fact, in many countries it was to be entirely suppressed. In 
Canada, men were to be drawn from every walk of life to fight, or to move 
to an activity which in some way was connected with the War effort. But 
Cariboo Lodge, seems ever to have been blessed with Brethren who could 
carry on the work of the Craft, under almost any set of circumstances ; 
they put on the work in an able manner, and as reported by the D.D.G.M.s, 


maintained a very high standard with great credit to the Order. Even the 
Grand Masters did not forget to pay their Official Visits into the remote 
areas of the Province ; for the record shows that Cariboo Lodge, sometimes 
in joint Communications with Quesnel Lodge, received the following Most 
Worshipful Brethren: W. P. Marchant, on October 23, 1942; and J. G. 
Brown, D.D., on November 7, 1943. On August 28, 1941, Most Worshipful 
Brother G. A. Stimmel visited Barkerville, and Cariboo had provided a 
splendid attendance and a very successful meeting was enjoyed. "The stair- 
way was let down and we all partook of a very elaborate banquet and a 
couple of hours of real Masonic fraternity." 

When by 1942, the Government instituted freezing orders upon the 
"public and private avocations" of people generally, both Barkerville and 
Wells sank back, almost into the category of "Ghost Towns" — the younger 
men were gone to the Armed Forces and the D.D.G.M.s reported "owing 
to the conditions the attendance was not large but those present make up for 
it in welcome and hospitality. During the War years due to the labour 
shortage, the mines were practically shut down but with the cessation of 
hostilities there was an influx of displaced persons, especially experienced 
miners, from many parts of the world. Wells grew in population, if not in 
size, as the newcomers found homes close to the mines in the Jack O'Clubs 
Lake area ; while Barkerville became more and more a ghost town. The old 
Lodge Hall was quite a lively place, however, at least once a month. The 
"Old Timers" kept the Lodge alive — every officer being a Past Master. 
Young Colin Campbell who had visited from Twin City Lodge, No. 89, 
Sutherland, Sask., in 1943, in 1944, affiliated with Cariboo Lodge, to become 
a pillar of the Lodge, as its Worshipful Master, as the D.D.G.M., and to 
serve as Secretary, for many years — even to 1966. 

The Grand Master Worshipful Brother G. Roy Long, paid an Official 
Visit to Cariboo Lodge on October 14, 1947, "when a good attendance was 
there." On August 24, 1950, Worshipful Brother J. H. N. Morgan, the Grand 
Master (now the Grand Secretary) also visited the old Lodge. 

On August 15, 1949, Cariboo Lodge joined with Centre Lodge and Quesnel 
Lodge, at the Masonic Temple, Quesnel, B.C., to receive an Official Visit 
from the Grand Master, Most Worshipful Brother Donald McGugan. 

No story of Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, would be complete that did not make 
reference to the first Masonic funeral in Northern British Columbia, of a 
man who died on April 26, 1873, at Germansen Creek, in the Omineca District, 
and who was buried with full Masonic Honours by Freemasons from Manson's 
Creek — the grave was marked with a "headboard." J. C. Bryant, formerly 
a miner in the Cariboo and Omenica Districts is said to have reported : 

"Two weeks after my return to town, Captain Fitzstubbs and Gold Com- 
missioner W. H. Fitzgerald arrived from Fort St. James on Stewart 
Lake, where they had passed the winter. About two weeks after his 
arrival, Fitzgerald died very suddenly one morning of heart failure. For 
days before, he would warn us about burying him alive. He used to say 


to us : 'Now, boys, if anything happens to me, do not do the same as 
they did with the Indian Chief at Fort St. James last winter, and bury 
me alive ; be sure I am dead before you put me in the ground.' We obeyed 
his instructions and his body was kept at the Government Office until 
signs of decay set in. 

As the late Gold Commissioner had been a member of the A.F. & A.M., 
word went sent down to Manson's Creek, where there were a number of 
that worthy Order, and they came up in a body and took charge of his 
funeral, consigning his body to the grave with full Masonic Honours. 
His grave and coffin were made by me, and he was interred within fifty 
feet of my cabin. A neat headboard was placed over his grave, but I 
fear the elements have long since destroyed it. Fitzgerald came from 
Kingston, Ontario." 

The letters that Fitzgerald wrote "to the Hon. H. M. Ball," Gold Com- 
missioner of the Cariboo, are very interesting. They show that good returns 
were secured by many of the miners working on these northern creeks, such 
as Germansen, Omineca, Slate Creek, Vital Creek, and others. Apparently 
bench diggings were mainly mined, but nuggets up to 29 oz. of pure gold were 
found above the canyon on the French company's claim. One thing that 
militated against gold mining in those parts was the difficulty of securing 
supplies. Vinegar was said to be $5.00 a pint; flour, $1.25 a pound; bacon, 
$1.50 a pound; and tea, $3.00 a pound. Of course these prices fluctuated as 
new supplies were brought in. The price of food ; cost of travel in this 
wilderness country ; and other factors beyond his control seem to have got 
him in trouble with the authorities in far away Victoria, where prices had 
pretty well stabilized. 

Some very interesting reports were made by Fitzgerald, regarding the 
various murders that took place in his territory. There was a number of 
miners that just lost themselves in the woods and were unreported. In June. 
1872, several miners gathered luscious fungus and of nine who partook of 
them, three died the following day as a result of having eaten toadstools. 
On September 9, of that year, two Skeena Indian women were murdered at 
Kildare Gulch, by a Coast Indian, and Fitzgerald had to apprehend the 

In 1949, the Grand Historian, R. W. Brother W. G. Gamble, reported 
the placing of a monument near Manson's Creek, in the Omineca Country, to 
the memory of Brother W. H. Fitzgerald, who was one of the Charter 
Members of Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, G.L. Scot. He had been a Constable 
and Assistant Gold Commissioner in the Cariboo District, and was evidently 
transferred from Barkerville to Germansen Creek, in Omineca District — 
official appointment notice being dated April 12, 1872, confirms him as Gold 
Commissioner and Stipendiary Magistrate. 

The grave had been located by an Indian Chief, Louis Billy Prince, at 
the request of Dr. J. B. Munro, Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Past 


D.D.G.M. for District, No. 1, Victoria, B.C. It has been marked by the fol- 
lowing inscription, and one in the Indian language of the District, which 
were put between two pieces of plate-glass, framed in cement and placed 
on the grave : 










No. 469, G.R.S. 



The inscription placed over the last Remains of Brother W. H. Fitzgerald 
as written in the Carrier Indian Tongue, reads : 




1873 TAZSAI 



On May 25, 1949, R. W. Brother Munro went to Manson's Creek, about 
17C miles to the north of the town of Vanderhoof, and took with him about 
150 pounds of cement and a piece of sandstone rock, to which was affixed a 
plate with an inscription engraved by Worshipful Brother Trevett, a Past 
Master of St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 49, Victoria, B.C. 

On a plot of cleared land by the side of the road which passes by the 
Manson's Creek Hudson's Bay store, Brother Munro, with the assistance of 
Chief Louis Billy Prince, Wasse Leon and others, built a cairn, about 3 feet 
by 3 feet and 6 stones high, and to this the tablet was firmly affixed and 


cemented. It was considered best to have the cairn erected in an accessible 
place rather than at the grave, which was several miles from any trail. 

Of the Ceremony, Brother Munro reported: "The residents of the old 
town of Manson's Creek, including Mr. Baer, District Superintendent of the 
Hudson's Bay Company; Mr. Mcintosh, local Hudson Bay Stortkeeper ; 
Mr. William Steele, formerly Gold Commissioner (a resident of Manson 
Creek since 1896) ; and others, such as Mr. Batch; a Frenchman, called 'Big 
Wilfrid'; two Indians; and myself, held a brief dedication ceremony over 
the monument, which we have left there in the wilderness for every passerby 
to see." 


Cariboo Lodge Carries ox in the Ghost Town — 1951 to 1966 

From the beginning of the "fifties," Cariboo Lodge was to put on its 
social affairs in Wells ; whist drives and card parties, dances and social 
evenings, Christmas trees and parties for the children. Brother Harold 
Turner, of Quesnel, writes in his philosophical way that : "Oh, the old order 
changeth and giveth place to new . . . Somehow word got to Cariboo that 
women are enfranchised and they make their presence known. (But we love 
'em). How says Omar Khayyam — 

'The Moving Finger writes, and having writ 
Moves on. Nor all our piety and wit 
Shall lure it back to cancel half a line 
Nor shall our tears wash out a word of it." 

During the five year period following World War II, great impetus was 
given to Cariboo Lodge, No 4, with 25 new initiations and ten affiliations. 
Well indeed did these Brethren heed the teachings and words of the "Old 
Men," lor today, it is from these ranks are drawn, the very pillars which 
sustain Cariboo Lodge, without them it would not be possible to carry on the 
"Scotch (or as some now term it, the "American") Ritual," with its inherent 
love of Fraternal Fellowship for all members of the Craft ; they are the men 
who hold high the "Torch of Freemasonry," as their forebears did before 
them ; and it is they who must assume the Trust which keeps Cariboo Lodge, 
No. 4 — "Dedicated to the Holy Saints John." 

During the "Fifties," the Lodge rolls continued to climb to a total of 
86 members, with twenty new Initiates and only one Affiliate, which in Cariboo 
they say: "protects our old 'California Working,' and the old ways which 
are the Lodge's greatest assets." In the economy of the district, the lagging 
gold industry is bolstered by small forestry and logging operations, and there 
is now .i very noticeable increase in tourism. In 1968, a plan is proposed to 
restore Barkerville, as an Historic Park. 

Around the beginning of this period in the "History of Cariboo," the 
Grand Masters introduced a system of Official Visits to all the Lodges in the 
Several Masonic Districts in British Columbia ; or they held a Joint Com- 
munication of several Lodges in the same general locality. Under this system, 


the visits of the Grand Masters in which Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, was involved 

August 10, 1951. At Quesnel, with Quesnel Lodge, No. 69; and Centre Lodge, 
No. 113 — M. W. Brother J. Murray Mitchell. 

September 18, 1-52. At Quesnel, with Quesnel Lodge — M. W. Brother 
Laurence Healey. 

March 24, 1956. At Prince George, with all Lodges in District No. 4, in 
Nechako Lodge, No. 86 — M. W. Brother R. Geddes Large. 

May 31, 1957. At Prince George, with all the Lodges in District 4, in Nechako 
Lodge, No. 86 — M. W. Brother Donald A. Stewart. 

September 12, 1957. At Barkerville, with Quesnel Lodge, No. 69; and Centre 
Lodge, No. 113 — M. W. Brother Claude A. Green. 

September 18, 1958. At Williams Lake, with Quesnel Lodge, No. 69; and 
Centre Lodge, No. 113 — M. W. Brother Kenneth Reid. 

April 29, 1960. At Quesnel, with Quesnel Lodge, No. 69; and Centre Lodge, 
No. 113 — M. W. Brother M. A. R. Howard. 

April 12, 1961. At Williams Lake, with Quesnel Lodge, No. 69; and Centre 
Lodge, No. 113 — M. W. Brother C. Gordon McMynn. 

April 28, 1P62. At Barkerville, with Quesnel Lodge, No. 69 — M. W. 
Brother James R. Mitchell. 

May 14, 1963. At Quesnel, with Quesnel Lodge, No. 69; and Centre Lodge, 
No. 113 — M. W. Brother David M. Taylor. 

September 23, 1963. At Barkerville, Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, alone — M. W. 
Brother H. Percival Rutter. 

April 22, 1965. At Quesnel, with Quesnel Lodge, No. 69; and Centre Lodge, 
No. 113 — M. W. Brother James H. McKergow. 

April 29, 1966. At Quesnel, with Quesnel Lodge, No. 69 ; Nechako Lodge 
No. 86; and Centre Lodge, No. 113 — M. W. Brother J. Herbert Nordan. 

The District Deputy Grand Masters during this period reported con- 
siderable activity in Cariboo Lodge, No. 4; with proficiency in the work and 
a warm welcome to the many Brethren who accompanied them on their 
Official Visits; and there were many visitors on each occasion of Brethren 
from the Sister Lodges in the District. R. W. Brother John McK. Anderson 
reported on October 21, 1953 "the largest number to attend in Barkerville — 
seventy-three members being present, including members from Nechako Lodge, 
Quesnel Lodge, and Centre Lodge. Three Master Mason Degrees were con- 
ferred ; one by Quesnel Lodge ; one by Centre Lodge in Canadian work ; 
and one by Cariboo Lodge in American work." 

An event of very special interest took place on October 5, 1955, when 
at a Regular Communication, Brother Maynard Kerr, the District Deputy 
Grand Master of District, No. 4, invested eleven of the Brethren of Cariboo 
Lodge, with the Jewel of a Past Master. Since then, eight other Brethren, 
who were unable to attend the Investiture, have received their jewels. About 


this time Cariboo Lodge, also adopted the regular Lamb Skin Apron, with a 
personal presentation to each new member "upon his having earned his status." 

As the "sixties" come into being, the two mines were placed under one 
ownership and Barkerville is designated as a Provincial Park, and revisions 
in the American Rite, called "Ancient Work" were under contemplation. 
Right Worshipful Brother C. Gordon Greenwood, D.D.G.M., reported after 
his visit on March 2, 1960, that: 

"Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, showed keen perception (of passing events) when 
amendments of their By-Laws, permitting the Lodge to close during the 

Winter Months were made. This move will enable the many Brethren to 
visit Barkerville, during the tourist season, to attend this Lodge, which 
is so famous for its silent Tyler, and its hospitality." 

This amendment, also eased the travel arrangements of those faithful 

Brethren from Quesnel (members and others), who regularly journey the 65 

miles to attend Lodge — at least two car loads for each Regular Communi- 

It had become traditional, for Nechako Lodge to make an annual pil- 
grimage to Cariboo Lodge, and for R. W. Brother Colin Campbell and Mrs. 
Campbell to entertain them at supper, in Wells, prior to the Lodge Meeting. 
Brother Harold Allen, D.D.G.M., made his Official Visit to Cariboo Lodge 
on April 3, 1963, and in his report to Grand Lodge mentions Fraternal Visits 
between Ashlar Lodge No. 3, in Nanaimo, B.C., and Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, 
in Barkerville, B.C. : 

"In July, 1960, W. Brother George Knight, then Worshipful Master of 
Ashlar Lodge and some of his Brethren and again in July, 1962, Wor- 
shipful Master J. Allen and some of his Brethren made the second Fra- 
ternal visit to Cariboo Lodge, No. 4. And on April 12, 1963, the Wor- 
shipful Master of Cariboo Lodge, W. Bro. J. S. Nicholson, and some of 
his officers accompanied by the Worshipful Master of Quesnel Lodge, 
No. 69, returned that fraternal visit to Ashlar Lodge, No. 3, Nanaimo. 
On these three occasions fraternal friendship was most outstanding." 

These visits on alternate years appear to be a regular feature of the fraternal 
friendship that has existed between these two very old Lodges, since they 
came into being. It is a long way to travel by car for a Masonic meeting 
but such is the indomitable spirit of these two pioneer Lodges, that trips of 
486 miles — one way, are no obstacle. 

So far in the "Sixties," the Lodge has steadily increased its Roll of 
Members, but with more affiliations, than initiations. With the help of the 
ladies the Lodge Building has been painted and renovated : "The old traditions 
are still kept — flowers to the sick, letters of condolence to the bereaved, 
Christmas hampers to the unfortunate, financial donations within our means 
to worthy causes; going to Quesnel to perform last rites for our Brethren 
as requested ; and practising our inherited ritual." 


The resident members no longer reside in Barkerville, which was officially 
opened as a Provincial Historic Town in 1962. But this is no deterrent : 
to come by modern conveyance the short distance from the new town called 
"Wells :'" or to come the longer distances from Quesnel, Prince George, 
Williams Lake, and beyond. The call of Freemasonry is far stronger to men's 
hearts. When the new Temple was erected in 1937 — it was not constructed 
in the same form as the old building, even the facade was quite different, 
but it is understood that the Barkerville Restoration Advisory Committee 
has agreed to the restoration of the building, as it appeared to the Cariboo 
Brethren of "1870 Barkerville." In this way, those fortunate to have sat in 
the ancient Lodge Room before its destruction — may be ever mindful of 
the Past. 

Brother Charles D. Beath, D.D.G.M., reported in 1965 on his Official 
Visit to Cariboo Lodge, No. 4 : "The members of this Grand old Lodge, 
practice real Freemasonry in spite of the fact that their Lodge has not always 
been bl-st with prosperity and good fortune. Its ritualistic work (American), 
different from other Lodges in the District, is of high standard. I witnessed 
the Conferral, in a most efficient and impressive manner, of the Master 
Mason's Degree on two Candidates." 

Once again in 1966, on April 16th, the Brethren of Cariboo Lodge assem- 
bled in Barkerville, there to open Lodge; then to journey the sixty miles to 
Quesnel ; and there according to Ancient Custom to perform the last sad 
Rites for Brother Robert H. Mooney, Past District Deputy Grand Master, 
who had joined the great Cavalcade of Cariboo Lodge Past Masters and 
Members, into the Great Beyond. Brother Mooney was a dedicated member 
of the Craft, he affiliated with the Lodge in 1941 ; was Junior Warden in 
1942, Senior Warden in 1943 and Worshipful Master in 1944; he was appointed 
Director of Ceremonies in 1948 and was elected Treasurer from 1951 to 1952; 
and he was District Deputy Grand Master for District No. 4, in 1952-53. 
A great Ritualist, Brother Mooney is said to have believed "with Confucius 
that ritual (cultural work) of mutual respect and courtesy is imperceptible 
but does not prevent the rise of indulgent conduct beforehand and leads people 
gradually toward virtue and away from vice, even without their knowing it." 
Thus has passed one of the present day "Pillars of Cariboo Lodge, No. 4," 
who by his fidelity and fortitude had earned the respect of his fellow men. 

Thus the traditions and practices of the Craft of Freemasonry continue 
unabated, even tho' in the Town of Barkerville, only "Ghosts" and Tourists, 
are now welcome, and as we come to the close of this short History of Cariboo 
Lodge, No. 4, under the Grand Lodge of British Columbia : it is financially 
sound ; owns its own Temple, unencumbered ; meets regularly ten times in 
each year, plus Emergent Communications when required (January and Feb- 
ruary Meetings are now excluded from the By-Laws) ; and is the scene of 
frequent Masonic Re-Unions of Members throughout the District, and from 
the "Great Outside." 


It is believed that this story illustrates that the "Real Gold of Cariboo" 
was not found in the sands and gravel of Williams and the neighbouring 
Creeks, but in the Hearts of the Men who made Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, 
Holding under the Grand Lodge of Scotland ; in the Hearts of the Men who 
continued the making of Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, under the Grand Lodge of 
British Columbia; and in the Hearts of those other Men and Freemasons, 
who came to fraternize and sup with them. 

So may we close with that passage from the "Scotch" Ritual of Cariboo 
Lodge — to hear again her Ancient Past Masters, admonish us to : 

"So live that, when thy summons comes to join 
The innumerable caravan which moves 
To that mysterious realm where each shall take 
His chamber in the silent halls of death. 
Thou go not, like a quarry-slave at night, 
Scourged to his dungeon, but, sustained and soothed 
By an unaltering trust, approach thy grave, 
Like one who wraps the drapery of his coach 
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams." 

"Thanatopsis" W. C. Bryant. 





No history of a Masonic Lodge can be considered complete without a 
"Personal Note" on some of the Master Masons, who have played an impor- 
tant role in the formation, development and continuing life of that Lodge. 
This is all the more important when the Lodge is almost completely isolated 
from the larger centres of population ; from the usual means of transportation ; 
and from the usual amenities of a well established community. Cariboo Lodge 
No. 4, had to face many problems not normally experienced by Masonic 
Lodges, imposed upon her members by the very reason of her location ; the 
pains of her birth ; the unstable means of livelihood during her adolescence ; 
and the economic problems that beset the area, as she reached her maturity. 
The amazing thing about it all is that she ever survived, but she did, and 
it is to all those who travailed in her behalf, and in behalf of the communities 
in which they had their being, that all honour and reverence is due. 

These Men Gave Her Birth 

The chief promoters for the formation of Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, at 
Barkerville, and who attended the Historic Meeting on October 13, 1866, 
and which was presided over by : 

* Jonathan Nutt : he came to Barkerville from Shasta, California; he was 

originally an Englishman who went to the California diggings, where he 
entered Freemasonry in Tehama Lodge, No. 3, at Sacramento ; he later 
affiliated with Western Star Lodge, No. 2, at Shasta ; he became estab- 
lished as a mine foreman, then hotel owner, express agent, librarian, 
school trustee, and Justice of the Peace ; he was a petitioner, charter 
member, and the first and long time Right Worshipful Master of Cariboo 
Lodge, No. 469, G.R. Scot.; 

* William M. Cochrane : he acted as the Secretary ; an Irishman and the 

Mining Recorder at Lytton in 1864-65 ; evidently a man of means who 
periodically made loans to the Lodge in its infancy ; 

* Joshua Spencer Thompson : he came to the Cariboo from California, where 

he was a member of a Lodge in San Francisco, thought to be "Davy 
Crockett Lodge, No. 7," which was founded in 1849 under a Dispensation 
from an unrecognized Grand Lodge in Louisiana. M. W. Robie Reid 
says of his investigation it was : "a very active Lodge and its members 
were in good faith carrying on its Masonic work. Soon after the Grand 
Lodge of California came into existence the Lodge disbanded and the 
members as individuals applied for a Charter which was granted on 
November 27, 1850. On August 18, 1852, the name of the Lodge was 
changed to 'San Francisco Lodge, No. 7,' and demits issued to its 
members;" he was an accountant with Buie Bros, in Barkerville and 
Secretary of the Williams Creek Bedrock Flume and Ditch Company, as 
well as Editor of the bi-weekly "Sentinel," for a time; of Irish "extrac- 
tion," at his death in Victoria in January 1881, Wor. Bro. Nutt eulogized 


him thus : "We have lost a brother — a man who was all that could 
be desired as a friend ; a faithful public servant — honest in all his 
dealings, who would not willingly injure even an enemy;" he was the 
second Right Worshipful Master of Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, and the 
first Worshipful Master of Cariboo Lodge, No. 4; he was a member of 
a Committee that met with Governor Douglas at Hope to discuss the 
financing of the proposed Road to Cariboo, through the Fraser Canyon; 
was the Representative of Cariboo at the Convention at Hope, which 
asked for representative government in the Colony ; was elected the first 
Member for Cariboo, in the House of Commons in Ottawa, in 1871 ; and 
he continued as a Member of Parliament until his death in 1881 ; 

* A. C. Campbell : he apparently came from the Ottawa Valley in Ontario ; 

was a blacksmith at Barkerville ; was part owner of the Foster-Campbell 
claim on Williams Creek; a cousin of the famous John A. ("Cariboo") 
Cameron ; 

George Duff : he came from Scotland ; was a shareholder in the "Never 
Sweat Co." on Williams Creek; died in the Cariboo in 1877; 

Carl Strouss : was a merchant in Barkerville ; in 1867 bought the business 
of Oppenheimer & Co. at Yale and in the Cariboo ; sold the business in 
1871 and moved to Victoria ; became a charter member of Quadra Lodge, 
No. 8; he demitted in 1876 and left for permanent residence in England; 

* John Patterson : he came from Nevada County, California ; was a partner 

with Andrew Kelly in the "Wake-up-Jake" restaurant in Barkerville 
spoken of as "a good reliable fellow ;" 

John B. Lovell : he was the first express agent at Richfield ; moved to 
Barkerville in 1866 ; later moved to Victoria, where he became interested 
in a real estate and insurance business ; became a member of Quadra 
Lodge, No. 8; 

George Grant : he was a banker ; became manager of the Branch of the 

Bank of British North America in Barkerville ; he was evidently later 

transferred to Victoria and became a member of Quadra Lodge, No. 4, 
from which he demitted in 1874 ; 

John R. Price: no information; 

* W. E. Boone: he came from Minneapolis, Minnesota; as a contractor; 

assisted Brother (later Senator) Carrall, M.D., in the first Installation 
Ceremonies in Cariboo Lodge, No. 469 ; and, 

* William Bennett : he came from Glasgow, Scotland ; very little is known 

about him ; the "Cariboo Sentinel" says he was homeward bound to 
Scotland in 1869. 

* These men also signed the Petition addressed to the Grand Lodge of 
Scotland, requesting the issuance of a Charter to Cariboo Lodge. 


The Past Masters Who Served Grand Lodge 

The difficulties of travel and the costs thereof, imposed serious restrictions 
on the representation and participation of Cariboo Lodge at the Grand Lodge 
Communications, which in turn put a serious limitation on her members hold- 
ing important office in that august body. Her own interests seem to have 
been protected and faithfully served, for the most part, by the use of Proxies 
named from her Sister Lodges situated on the Coast. She, of course, pro- 
vided the District Deputy Grand Masters for District No. 4, from the 
inception of that office in 1888 until 1918, when Past Masters of Quesnel 
Lodge, No. 69, and later the other younger Lodges in District No. 4, peri- 
odically assumed their responsibility to the Craft in that direction. 

The records indicate that Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, was represented in an 
Office under the Provincial Grand Lodge of Scotland, by one person only : 
Right Worshipful Master Jonathan Nutt — was appointed the Grand Bible 
Bearer in 1868-69 and 1869-70. For quite obvious reasons it was up to the 
Past Masters residing on the Coast to carry out the duties of the respective 
Grand Lodge Offices. Her isolation was such that Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, had 
to wait ten years before she could receive the first visit from a Grand Lodge 
Officer (in 1880, the Grand Junior Warden) and twenty-two years for the 
first visit of a Grand Master. 

Past Masters who have served the Grand Lodge of British Columbia, as 
representatives of Cariboo Lodge No. 4, were : 

(a) In Varying Offices. 

Wor. Bro. Jonathan Nutt : was appointed Grand Chaplain, in absentia, in 
1871 at the March Convention (for the formation of the Grand Lodge of 
British Columbia), but his name does not appear on the List from the 
October, 1871 Convention ; in 1873-74 he was appointed Grand Marshal ; 
and in 1877 he was given the Honorary Rank of Past Senior Grand 
Warden in recognition of his Services to Freemasonry ; 

Wor. Bro. Joshua Spencer Thompson : was appointed a Grand Steward in 
the First Grand Lodge of British Columbia in 1871-72; Grand Senior 
Deacon in 1872-73 and 1878-79; 

Wor. Bro. W. Fraser : was appointed Grand Pursuivant in 1872-73 ; 

Wor. Bro. William Stephenson : was appointed a Grand Steward in 1875-76, 
1876-77, 1877-78 and 1878-79; 

Wor. Bro. Alex. Lindsay : was appointed Grand Steward in 1880-81 ; 

Wor. Bro. Angelo Pendola : was appointed Grand Standard Bearer in 1881-82; 

Wor. Bro. Hy McDermott : was appointed Grand Standard Bearer in 1882-83, 
and Grand Junior Deacon in 1886-87; 

Wor. Bro. James Stone: was appointed Grand Marshal in 1882-83, 1883-84, 
and a Grand Steward in 1889-90 and 1890-91, and Grand Organist in 


Wor. Bro. Christian Hagerman : was appointed a Grand Steward in 1884-85 ; 

Wor. Bro. E. C. Neufe'.der : then the Worshipful Master of Vancouver and 
Quadra Lodge, No. 2 : was elected Very Worshipful the Grand Secretary 
in 1884 and was given the Honorary Rank of Past Grand Senior Warden 
when he retired in 1888; was made a Mason on November 7th, 1874, when 
he was initiated into Cariboo Lodge No. 4 ; was listed as Grand Standard 
Bearer for the Masonic Year 1877-78 in the 1877 Proceedings of Grand 
Lodge; listed under Cariboo Lodge in 1874, 1875 and 1876 as a Master 
Mason, in 1877 as Senior Warden, in 1878 as a Master Mason, and in 
1879 as demitted ; listed under Vancouver and Quadra Lodge, No. 2, 
in 1880 as Senior Warden, in 1881 as a Master Mason, in 1882 as Senior 
Deacon, in 1883 as Junior Warden and in 1884 as Worshipful Master 
(An interesting and curious record even for those days) ; 

Wor Bro. J. G. Goodson : was appointed a Grand Steward in 1888-89 ; 

Wor. Bro. Leonard A. Dodd : was appointed Grand Standard Bearer in 
1922-23 ; 

Wor. Bro. L. D. Muller : was appointed Grand Standard Bearer in 1925-26; 

Wor. Bro. Beverly M. Adams : was appointed Grand Superintendent of Works 
in 1944-45 and 1947-48; 

Wor. Bro. Harold Allen : was appointed a Grand Steward in 1953-54 and 

(b) As District Deputy Grand Masters 
for District A T o. 4. 

Wor. Bro. Hy McDermott : for eight terms, from 1888 to 1890 and from 
1894 to 1900; 

Wor. Bro. William Stephenson: in 189192; 

Wor. Bro. James Stone: for ten terms, from 1892 to 1894 and from 1900 

to 1908; 
Wor. Bro. F. P. McGregor: for four terms, from 1908 to 1912; 
Wor. Bro. E. D. Fargo: in 1912-13; 
Wor. Bro. John McCallum : in 1913-14; 
Wor. Bro. Melbourne Bailey: for two terms, in 1914-15 and in 1916-17; 

Wor. Bro. C. H. Allison: for two terms, in 1915-16 as a Past Master of 
Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, and in 1917-18 as a Past Master of Quesnel 
Lodge, No. 69; 

Wor. Bro. Malcolm McKinnon : in 1923-24; 

Wor. Bro. Herbert J. Gardner: in 1926-27; 

Wor. Bro. George F. Turner: in 1931-32; 

Wor. Bro. Angus Maclean: in 1943-44; 

Wor. Bro. Robert H. Mooney : in 195253; 

Wor. Bro. Colin Campbell : in 1957-58. 


And These Were Her Masters 

Space does not permit the naming of all the Brethren who have served 
Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, S.R., or No. 4, B.C.R., in the various offices down 
through the years that have passed, since the first "Gold Rush" stirred her 
into Masonic life. In many instances, the very force of circumstances, might 
call a man to the Chair of Worshipful Master, one year, and the next year 
he might be found in the office of Inner Guard, Junior Deacon or even 
Tyler. Some times it was necessary to serve as a Worshipful Master for 
several years, such as Jonathan Nutt, who served as Right Worshipful 
Master of No. 469 for 3 years, then No. 4 for 3 years ; or James Stone who 
served 8 terms as Worshipful Master of Lodge No. 4, and so, while we 
cannot list all those who gave to "Mother Cariboo," those who occupied the 
noble Chair in the East, listed in the order of their first appearance in that 
Chair, Were : 

As Right Worshipful Master of Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, R.S. 

Jonathan Nutt, 1867, 1868, 1869; Joshua Spencer Thompson, 1870, 1871. 

As Worshipful Master of Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, GRBC. 

Joshua Spencer Thompson, 1871 ; W. Fraser, 1872 ; William Stephenson, 
1873, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877; Jonathan Nutt, 1878, 1879, 1881; Alexander 
Lindsay, 1880; James Stone, 1882, 1883, 1888, 1889, 1890, 1894, 1895, 
1898; George A. Dow, 1884, 1885; Christian Hagerman, 1886; Jno. C. 
Goodson, 1887; E. A. Martin, 1891; Hy McDermott, 1892; Andrew 
Kelly, 1893; James Innes, 1896; T. C. Hunter, 1897; John Lanyon, 1899; 
Peter McGregor, 1900, 1901, 1904; L. F. Champion, 1902; William Fry, 
1903; Edwin D. Fargo, 1905, 1906; John Bell, 1907; Donald McCallum, 
1908, 1909; John McCallum, 1910; Melbourne Bailey, 1911, 1912, 1913; 
Malcolm McKinnon, 1914; James Thompson, 1915; William V. Bowron, 
1916; Louis Muller, 1917; Matthew McComish, 1918; John Petterson, 
1919; Leonard A. Dodd, 1920; Martin William Schilling, 1921; Herbert 
J. Gardner, 1922, 1923; George F. Turner, 1924; Herbert Beech, 1925; 
James D. Cochran, 1927; Russell E. McDougall, 1928; Thomas Nicol, 
1926, 1929, 1930; John Robert Leonard, 1931, 1932, 1941; Gordon Alex- 
ander McArthur, 1933, 1934; David John Hawes, 1935; Thomas A. 
Chandler, 1936; Joseph Kenneth Campbell, 1937; Barclay Stuart, 1938, 
1939; Angus Mavlean, 1940; Charles H. Hughes, 1942; Harold Allen, 
1943; R. H. Mooney, 1944; Beverly M. Adams, 1945, 1946; Frank Robert 
James, 1947; Walter E. North, 1948; James A. Pike, 1949; Lionel E. 
North, 1950; James C. Forman, 1951; Colin Campbell, 1952; Nicholas 
Warawa, 1953; H. Gerald North, 1954; Knute H. Jensen, 1955; Albert 
E. Foubister, 1956; John Stone, 1957; Archibald H. White, 1958, 1959; 
Herbert S. Hadfield, 1960; Daniel Vinsel Halvorsen, 1961; Frank E. 
Campbell, 1962; James S. Nicolson, 1963; Gordon Wyse, 1964, 1965; 
Howard Arthur Aikins, 1966; Paul Pavich, 1967. 

* * * * 


C. Booth. 



No. 89 j 















— by the — 
R. W. Bro. Hon. Donald M. Fleming 

February 15, 1967 












I i | ii ■■ m ■■ ■» ■» ■ ■ i ■■ m m m m ■■ — m ■ ■■ m « »■ ■■ m nit T 

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Masonry in the Centennial Setting 

by R. W. Bro. Hon. Donald M. Fleming 

The following address was delivered by R. W. Bro. the Hon. Donald M. 
Fleming at a dinner meeting during the sessions of the Canadian Conference 
of Grand Lodges, held at the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, on February 15, 1967. 

Bro. Fleming was introduced by M. W. Bro. J. N. Allan, Grand Master 
of the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario. 

M. W. BRO. J. N. ALLAN (Ontario) Brethren: 

We are extremely fortunate tonight in having R. W. Bro. the Hon. 
Donald M. Fleming to be with us and to speak to us. Everyone knows the 
name Donald Fleming and after you have listened to him tonight you will 
have the feeling that you have known him too. 

Bro. Fleming is a member of our Board of General Purposes and, as 
such has been very active in our Masonic work. He is a tireless individual, 
he doesn't know when he gets tired, the result is that we impose upon him a 
great deal. He has visited throughout the Jurisdiction and has done a great 
deal to encourage and inspire some of our smaller lodges throughout the 

As you know he was Minister of Finance in Canada. I am not sure that 
the person who imposes taxes adheres himself to very many persons. 
(Laughter) However you could be very sure, and I speak with a little 
experience, that it isn't a matter of choice which requires a Minister of 
Finance to impose taxes. 

To us who know Donald Fleming well, he has those fine qualities of 
character which makes him a great man. It's a saying that is often repeated 
that someone is a great Canadian, and this may be very true of the person 
with whom one is speaking. But when I say that Donald Fleming is a great 
Canadian I mean every word of it. He is great in so many ways. He is a 
wonderful husband, a wonderful churchman, a wonderful parent. He has been 
interested in all sorts of community things that were good. 

I could have read a very long introduction tonight, but I think we are 
looking upon him tonight as a Brother Mason, one of whom we in this 
Province are very proud, and I am sure that you will be delighted to hear 
him and, after you have heard him, you will think it worth your while to 
have come to this Conference particularly because you have had the oppor- 
tunity of listening to the speaker that you are going to have tonight. And 
so, brethren, I am going to now introduce without any fanfare, introduce our 
Brother Donald M. Fleming, and ask him to speak to you. (Applause) 

R. W. THE HON. DONALD M. FLEMING: (Ontario) M. W. Grand 
Master, M. W. Sirs and Brethren : It's a very high privilege that I have 
tonight and I am deeply sensible of it. That was a most charitable intro- 
duction which I received from our Grand Master. There's a certain kindred 


feeling, I am sure, between Ministers of Finance and Provincial Treasurers — 
they have suffered together. (Laughter) 

It was, as I thought, a very great French Minister of Finance, the 
Minister of Finance in the Restoration period after Napoleon's days who 
said: "un ministre des finance n'a d'autre vertue que la ferocite." — now 
for Ewart Dixon's benefit I'm going to translate that; "The Minister of 
Finance has no virtue but ferocity." 

I was at the one-night sitting at dinner in Paris at the Palace de Louvre 
which is the official residence of the French Ministry of Finance, and they 
really know how to use a Minister of Finance in Paris, they give him a palace 
to live in, one of these beautiful palaces built by Napoleon III, great walls 
plastered with gilt and you have the feeling of well-being in the place. 

So we were talking to the French Minister of Finance at that time and 
I proceeded to quote this ; he said "Oh no, he didn't say that, that was Glad- 
stone." (Laughter) So I said "What did he say, then ?" He said, "Faites 
moi de bonnes politiques et je vous ferai de bonnes finances." [Again, for 
Ewart Dixon's benefit,] "Give me good policies and I'll give you good fin- 
ances." (Laughter) I think this could be the theme song of many a Provincial 
Treasurer and Minister of Finance. 

Brethren, sensible as I am of the honour that has been done to me, grateful 
as I am for the privilege of meeting with you and being invited to address 
you, I want to say that it was not easy to choose a subject for an occasion 
of this kind. But one thing I was sure I wanted to do, and that was to say to 
you who are visitors to this Jurisdiction, that we in the Grand Lodge of 
Canada in the Province of Ontario are profoundly grateful to the M. W. The 
Grand Master, and the Grand East, for the leadership which we in this Juris- 
diction have received from them. 

I am sure, brethren, that those whom you lead in the other Jurisdictions 
in this country have the same feeling about you, as we have towards the Grand 
East in this Jurisdiction. We are thankful that we have men of exemplary 
life to whom we can always look up. Life has varying dimensions to different 
people. I think the finest dimensions are those that we are conscious of only 
when he look up. And we are extremely fortunate in this Jurisdiction in the 
leadership we have had. I am not gilding any lilies when I say what I have 
said and say that these men have greatly endeared themselves to the hearts 
of the brethren. 

The subject that I have chosen, brethren, is "Masonry in the Centennial 

I do not know what subjects will be occupying your deliberations during 
these several days of your Tenth Biennial Conference, it may be that I am 
trespassing on subjects that will come under review. I can only plead my 
utter innocence if this be the case. 

"Masonry in the Centennial Setting" 

National occasions should be welcomed and cherished, they are capable 
of giving a fresh impulse for oftentimes a new impetus is required. Well 


used, they do challenge us to stop and assess situations. The present national 
occasion, the Centennial, is one that invites people and various organizations 
across this country to undertake projects. I suppose before 1967 has run its 
course the word 'project" will become so tiresome to everybody's ears that 
we won't want to hear it again the rest of our lives. But if we lose the oppor- 
tunity of harnessing some of the impetus that comes in a year like this, we 
will have sadly failed. 

It's time for us, whether as individuals or members of a great Order, to 
ask ourselves what contribution we have made to Canada, what contribution 
our Order has made to Canada, in other words what have we done and, with 
it, the inevitable sequel — what can we do ? 

I cannot pretend, my brethren, to recount here tonight the contribution 
of Masonry to Canada, to the nation, to its history, I will say that it has been 
an enormous contribution and I will say that it has been part of Canadian 
history. It's not something apart from the history of this nation because the 
history of Masonry is so completely interwoven with the history of the Cana- 
dian people. Masonry has never been withdrawn, separated or removed. 
Masonry is in the world. Masonry has been in the history of the Canadian 

Now if we think of our pioneer forebears we will be aware that unlike 
the pioneers who came to the United States, the early white settlers did not 
come to this country in search of religious liberty that was denied to them 
at home. 

Important consequences have followed from this difference. There isn't 
time to recall all of them here tonight ; but this country did not begin its 
corporate and national existence on the heels of a revolution. The predomi- 
nant thought in the minds of the early pioneers was not that they wanted a 
complete severance from the past, that they had overturned something and 
that there was no spiritual affinity of any kind between them of that day and 
what had gone before. 

No, the early white settlers in his country brought their institutions with 
them and they sought to plant in this country the institutions that they had 
known and cherished in their homelands. 

Well, there followed days of turmoil, days of unsettlement, the War of 
1812-14, the Rebellion of 1837-38, the days of political stalemate. This I sup- 
pose historians agree was about the most unhappy experience in the history 
of what is now Canada. 

The Maritime Provinces as they are today escaped some of the unhappy 
features of life in what was then Upper Canada, Lower Canada and so forth 
in pre-Confederation days. 

The history of Masonry in what is now Ontario was troubled and unhappy 
until the great events of 1855 and later 1865. But all the while, all through 
this unhappy period, Masonry was making its steady contribution to order, 
to stability, to social and governmental institutions, to faith, to charity, 
without which there would have been no base, no spiritual base for confed- 
eration of what was to come. 


Masons were in positions of responsibility, they were helping to shape 
history and, as true Masons in what they undertook to do, whether in their 
respective callings or in their public life, they expressed the ideals that were 
inculcated in the lodge. 

Confederation was almost a miracle. When we look back today and seek 
to measure the difficulties, those stubborn difficulties and obstacles that beset 
the Fathers at every turn, one wonders the more today that Confederation was 
ever achieved. By any standard, it ranks as one of the great constructive 
achievements of statesmanship of all time, and the Fathers of Confederation, 
my brethren, have never been given adequate credit for that achievement. 
More history needs to be written of that period, and more history needs to 
by read by Canadians. 

There have been several very good new books on that period that have 
been brought out ; there's Professor Creighton's work on the several pre- 
Confederation years, and there are others, and Canadians should be encouraged 
to be reading more of the history of this period — they'd be better Canadians 
for it. 

We will be reading in the circular that Ewart Dixon (Grand Secretary) 
is about to be sending out, of the part that Sir John A. Macdonald had in 
Masonry in this Province. We can be proud of the fact that it was a Mason, 
Sir Leonard P. D. Tilley, from New Brunswick, who was more responsible 
than anyone else for the fact that the name that gives this country its status 
and gives its name to the status of countries in the Commonwealth for half a 
century, came straight from Holy Writ. 

You will remember that episode ; the Fathers were locked in debate, they 
having a very difficult time in giving this country, or choosing a proper title 
for this country, Sir John A. Macdonald wanted to call it The Kingdom of 
Canada, others felt that this would be offensive to the United States, and Sir 
Leonard Tilley one morning at breakfast, as was his wont, was reading the 
Holy Scriptures, he was reading the 72nd Psalm and he came across those 
words in the 8th verse : "He shall have dominion from sea to sea and from 
the river unto the ends of the earth," and that verse leaped out of the Holy 
Page. He took its message back to the Fathers and that name was adopted as 
the name of this country. My brethren, it's a very precious name, and I 
think it is one of the glories of Confederation that the name that was given 
to this country came straight from the Volume of the Sacred Law. 

Well, there were, of course, many sacrifices and consecrated efforts. 
By faith the Fathers saw a vision and made it their goal and pursued it by 
practical means. The vision they saw, my brethren, was not one of a higher 
standard of living — that is a fetish of the 1960's. The vision that they saw 
was that of a great nation on the northern half of this continent stretching 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

Against the cynicism of our times we need to remind ourselves that Con- 
federation stands as a great landmark in world history. 

However, there were individual shortcomings, and they were human. 
The Fathers were men of faith, and I mean men of religious faith. Canadians 


have received God's providence and mercy far surpassing anything that was 
dreamt of in the Promised Land. No nation has ever had more occasion to 
be humbly thankful to Almighty God, than have Canadians. Thankful to 
God the Creator, God the Giver, God the Sustainer. If we do not acknowledge 
this, if we do not thank God on our knees, my brethren, every day for the 
privilege of being Canadians, then surely we must be the most ungrateful of 
all peoples. 

Friends in the United States, writing to Rupert Brooke in 1916 said: 
"Canada is a country without a soul." One can only hope they didn't mean 
what they said, but perhaps they meant that Canada was a country without 
any definite identity — but anyway that is what they said, "Canada is a 
country without a soul." 

Well, if Canada hadn't found its soul by 1916 — and I would doubt it — 
it certainly had by 1919. When Canada attained the international status of a 
nation marked by the signing of the Treaty of Versailles by a Canadian 
Minister, the first time that Canada had become a party to an international 
treaty over the signature of its own Minister, Sir Robert Borden who re- 
counted the experience afterwards when he said his eyes had filled with tears 
on that occasion and he thought he was signing that Treaty in the blood of 
60,000 young Canadians. 

Many things have been said about patriotism, my brethren, but in the year 
for stimulating patriotism, Dr. Samuel Johnson didn't have a very kind word 
for it, he said, "Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel." In that statue 
of Edith Cavell which stands a block or so north of Trafalgar Square near 
Canada House, those last words of her inscribed on the base of the monument 
read, "Patriotism is not enough." 

But I think the most beautiful and the truest thing that has been said 
was said by John Masefield, "Patriotism is not a song in the street and a 
flag flying from a window, but it is a burden to be borne, a thing to labour 
for and to suffer for, and to die for, a thing which gives no happiness and 
no pleasantness but hard life, an unknown grave and the respect and bowed 
heads of those who follow." 

Canadian unity is not only a goal but a matter of personal obligation on 
the part of every Canadian. Everyone must make his contribution, and I am 
thankful, my brethren, that it is instilled into every Mason that he has a 
public responsibility as a citizen to the country that affords him, for the 
time being, its protection, the benefit of its laws, is the country to which he 
owes an obligation that none else can pay. 

You don't find Masons trying to tear this country apart. We preach and 
we practice tolerance, charity, brotherhood, love of our neighbour, freedom, 
the moral law. On what other or better foundation can we hope to build 
Canada's shining destiny ? 

Brethren, let me turn now to some thoughts concerning the Craft. We 
all have causes for concern and I suppose, principally, these can be reflected 
in one word — numbers, numbers of members, numbers in attendance. We 
are concerned that we haven't enough new members and that we have too 


many resignations and too many suspensions, and all of this in a period of 
rapid growth in population and unprecedented national prosperity. 

I wish that all of you, my brethren, had been present here in this city 
in 1955 at the time that we in this Jurisdiction were celebrating the Centennial 
of the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario. It was a pro- 
foundly impressive demonstration of the power and the appeal of Masonry. 
That's just twelve years ago. Masonry literally at that moment was at the 
summit. And I trust that whatever we do we are going to take a balanced 
view of things. 

Personally I do not underestimate, nor ignore the seriousness of the decline 
in members. I am not the less concerned because other Jurisdictions both in 
Canada and the United States, many of them are experiencing the same trend, 
although that fact may assist us to find the causes. 

But let us note certain things, my brethren, and take what comfort we 
may from them. First, that these facts are not, and this experience is not 
confined to Masonry. Now, brethren, it's not many years ago that we were 
complaining that Service Clubs were making inreads on Masonry, on the 
attention of Masons, and on the numbers joining. Service Clubs today are 
encountering the same experience, problems of membership and attendance. 
But much more serious, my brethren, in terms of its extent and its national 
consequence, is the fact that the Churches are experiencing precisely the 
same problem but, I regret to say, in much more acute form. If we think 
Masonry has problems in this regard, my brethren, what should we think 
about the depopulated pews in the churches ? 

I am not concerned about the "Comfortable Pew." The people who are 
talking about the comfortable pew are people who haven't been in church 
for a long time. They are the people who are responsible for the empty pews, 
and it's high time some of these people took a sense of responsibility and 
start to pour forth their ideas in terms of the empty pews, and the national 
danger that that represents. 

There are more people today entirely outside of the Church, removed 
from any even formal association with it, and brethren, the problem that 
Churches are confronted with in relation to recruitment for the Ministry has 
become extremely serious, and this is not confined to the Protestant Churches 
alone, believe me. 

Now what are some of these factors ? Some of these factors that confront 
the Churches and confront our Order ? I don't intend to list these four in 
the order of importance but I think realistically, we must examine them. 
First is the factor of competition. I am not thinking in any narrow or com- 
mercial sense, I am talking about competition for men's time and men's 
interest, particularly in their hours of diversion, hours apart from the pursuit 
of their callings. 

I believe, and opinions on this may differ, I know that everybody doesn't 
share this opinion, but I believe that television has had an enormous respon- 
sibility in this regard, for the decline in attendance had been simultaneous, 
in this part of the world anyway, with the increasing popularity of television. 


It is a mighty force coming right into people's homes and, brethren, we can 
at least take this comfort out of the fact that it means that many of those 
absentees that we would like to see at our lodge meetings are at least at 
home and, next to lodge, where better could they be ? 

The second fact that I would like to mention is the pace of life, it grows 
quicker, and quicker and quicker. Now this was supposed to be the age of 
leisure. Machines were supposed to have so increased man's capacity for satis- 
fying his own needs that increasingly he was going to be able to devote his 
life to leisure pursuits. That has not been the case, my brethren. There could 
have been more hours spent theoretically outside the office and the workshop, 
but this pressure of leisure pursuits has resulted in a very great compression 
of activities in the weekly schedule. 

The goals of the week-end have it — people packing up and leaving the 
larger cities and going away in the country to the cottage for the week-end 
has resulted in a test to compress into five days a week what used to be done 
in six and oftentimes seven. 

This is a fact of urban life. It is very serious for the Churches, it's very 
serious for some of the churches in this city, brethren, because there are families 
in those churches that make it a weekly habit. They say it's good, we want 
to keep the family together, off they go on Friday and they come back on 
Sunday night — and they are not seen in church ever. 

The third factor, my brethren, we might as well look this factor in the 
face, it's secularization, it is the elimination of thinking about God and 
talking about God, in all relations of life. This has gone hand in hand with 
two processes that are going on all over the world. There's hardly a country 
the world over, even the underdeveloped countries, that is immune from 
urbanization and industrialization, and society becomes more complex every 
day, and it seems that as society becomes more complex there is greater and 
greater pressure to take religion out of everything, to water it down and 
denature it and certainly not to talk about it. 

The fourth, there is a factor, and I personally can take this seriously, 
we don't find any antagonism toward Masonry ! Now if there were people 
shouting from the housetops about their antagonism to Masonry, attacking us 
openly, as perhaps once was the case in certain quarters, then I am quite sure 
that Masons would have a sense of needing to rally more than they do. But 
you don't find, rarely, people exhibiting antagonism to Masonry, denouncing 
us ; rather in an atmosphere like this our enemy becomes indifferent — it's 
much worse than facing opposition. 

Now I ask for a balanced view. Let's look at some of the other con- 
siderations. Well, I talked about the word "numbers." My brethren, let's 
see this in its proper relationship. Numbers are far less important than 
quality, and I thank God that there is no evidence of any diminution in the 
quality of the men who constitute this Order. We could easily increase our 
numbers, we could do it within six months if we'd lower our standards but 
it would be a gross betrayal to do so. There are, my brethren, limits to the 
value of statistics and lessons they impart. 


This Order is more than statistics. Second, there has been no evidence 
of a loss of confidence in the ideals and the teaching of Masonry. If we had 
walk-outs on a material scale from this Order, people going out and saying 
there are things being taught here that we don't believe in, we would indeed 
have reason for a serious concern. We may well ask ourselves, my brethren, 
if we are supporting the ideals and the teachings of this Oder as we ought, 
but we may take comfort, and a little of it from the fact, that there is no 
evidence before us of any loss of confidence in the tenets of this Order. 

Third, I for one see no evidence whatever of a decline in the influence of 
this Order. I'm not speaking of the kind of influence that gets people into 
jobs, no, I'm speaking of something much more subtle. Influence of the 
kind I am speaking of is hard to measure, it shows itself usually only in an 
indirect way. I suspect that this Order, with its teachings, with the kind of 
men who are associated with it as its leaders and its members, has a great 
deal more influence on the community than any of us ever realize. 

I think the same is true of Christianity. I must say that in travels I had 
in Asia, I was impressed even in countries that are still substantially un- 
christian, with the extent to which they have borrowed Christian institutions 
— sometimes those that have commercial elements attached to them — but 
nevertheless they have adopted a great many Christian institutions, without 
even a thank you to Christianity. I refer to the Christian Sunday, Christmas 
and other institutions not to mention the institutions of healing and the 
healing arts, and education, and much that other religions of the East in 
their revival today are proclaiming have been borrowed straight from Chris- 
tianity and also from Judaism, and I recall being told in India, when I was 
there, about a speech that someone had made and he said "As Ghandi said, 
thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself." 

Well, brethren, history — if we will read it — is full of the evidence of 
the might of small numbers of people. The spirit was more important, in- 
finitely more important than the big battalion. 

Do you remember those words of Isaiah, "Except the Lord had left unto 
us a very small remnant, we should have been as Sodom, and we should have 
been like unto Gomorrah." And I remind myself, my brethren, that when the 
first Canadian missionary went forth from these shores, John Geddie, a 
Prince Edward Islander, sent out by the Presbyterian Synod of Nova Scotia 
at the time, 1846, he went by a decision taken in the Church court by a 
majority of one. He went to the New Hebrides, and it was said that when 
John Geddie and his wife went there a hundred and twenty years ago in a 
little ship of 197 tons, there were on that island no Christians and all, the 
people were cannibals, and when John Geddie's ministry was complete, there 
were no cannibals, there were only Christians. 

The fourth place, my brethren, and I think we must be careful about 
leaping to conclusions because there are so many dangers in making sweeping 
conclusions; the fact is that the experience in this matter of numbers is by 
no means uniform, some lodges are increasing, some are decreasing, the 
picture is marked by diversity. The decline that we speak of is unbalanced, 
and I think we must avoid prescribing policies that are too general. Where 


the numbers are rising I will venture to say that in most cases you will find 
an active, vigorous, devoted Worshipful Master in the Lodge. He has been 
selected with care, he's been trained carefully. He does prepare his work and 
sees that his officers prepare their work, they prepare to the last detail, 
nothing is left to chance. 

Yes, there are other things, too, the small lodges avoiding unwieldly big 
lodges where there is a lack of opportunity for fraternization. No one will 
ever convince me, brethren, that ritual keeps people away from attendance at 
lodges, or discourages numbers, if it is well done. Many people leave lodges, 
or cease to come as often as they should, because the ritual is not well done. 
That ritual is so important that any called upon to do ritual should regard it 
as a privilege and should be prepared to work at it, and that factor should be 
impressed upon everyone who has work to do. 

Fifth, my brethren, I think we should avoid taking a short view, certainly 
in this Jurisdiction our record has been one from the beginning of almost 
unbroken growth. I said "almost," well, there was a reduction in the year 
1880, and then for a ten year period from 1932 to 1941 we had ten consecutive 
years of reduction, and our membership dropped in this Jurisdiction from 
117,000 to 91,500, a decline of 25,000 in ten years, or 21%. It was very serious. 

But, brethren, we did recover; yes, we did recover, and the process of 
growth began again. I say to you, and you will perhaps say that I am like 
the ostrich, I leave my head in the sand, but I cannot accept the present trend 
as permanent. 

We deplore any losses of members by resignation, brethren, we should 
do everything in our power to combat these losses and avoid them. I suppose 
if you want to take a hard view of it, you would say that the cases of resig- 
nation are the marginal cases, the brethren who weren't very interested anyway. 

Now let me turn to something that may be a little more constructive. 
What can we do, and therefore need to do ? 

First, brethren, will you forgive me for saying that I think one thing that 
badly needs to be done is a clarification of what is meant by "improper solici- 
tation." I don't know what your experience is in this but I find that those 
words are creating a kind of a psychosis among our brethren, there's a kind 
of fear if you ever mention the word Masonry to a non-Mason you are 
somehow doing something improper. So we develop a great reticence. 

Personally, brethren, I don't think there's any occasion for Masons to be 
reticent. We have secrets and we must preserve our secrets, but that is no 
reason why we should be reticent about talking about the mission of Masonry 
and what it can mean in the lives of men and strengthening moral fiber and 
the benefits of brotherhood and fraternity. I think we might well consider 
emerging from this self-imposed undercover attitude and we can do it, I 
believe, without the slightest cheapening of our Order or its ideals — we are 
not a secret society. 

I ventured recently to endorse a suggestion made by some brethren who 
are very interested in research, that there should be an exhibit in a suitable 
place, for instance, The Royal Ontario Museum, our Masonic relics, the 


things in the history of at least this part of the country that are associated 
with the development of the country in which Masonic has played its valuable 
part. I am sure that there's a great many of these about, just as Reg. Harris 
has done his monumental service to Masonry in this regard, so there'd be 
many following up this kind of work. I am sure that if this were the United 
States and they had the opportunity of gathering up Masonic relics and 
historic artifacts, they would be in exhibitions in many important places. 

How many Canadians know that Sir John A. Macdonald was a Mason 
with the rank of Past Grand Senior Warden conferred upon him But 
George Washington, everybody in the United States knows that George 
Washington was a Mason. You go to Mount Vernon, you can see George 
Washington's apron there and it's in a very proud place in the museum. 

Now I think that we in Canada have got some lessons to learn in this 
respect. I think we have been far too reticent about this, and I think the 
Craft would benefit if we didn't have this attitude of trying to hide the light 
of Masonry under a bushel. 

The second suggestion that I'd like to make is that Masonry must serve 
ends larger than self. Among criticisms I heard of the Craft by a member of 
it, were that Masonry doesn't do anything. He'd rather belong to an organi- 
zation and give his time to an organization that does something for somebody, 
charity, but this Masonry is lacking in work for charity. But he had a point. 

A friend of mine was conversing with me on the subject of Masonry, 
he'd been a member of a lodge in England before he came out to Canada, 
his father was an active officer of Grand Lodge there, and he said "I did go 
to lodge for awhile in this country but I couldn't find that they did anything, 
why, in England think of What Masonry has done, think of our great Orph- 
anage? Well, brethren, all Jurisdictions do need something that challenges 
their members to give expression to the spirit of charity in just something 
more than self-help. 

We can talk about the way in which we help our members of the Order, 
but I am not talking about that, that can be regarded as a sort of mutual 
insurance scheme. I am thinking about Masonry reaching out to help people 
less fortunate than we are outside of Masonry. Yes, Masonry has had a fine 
record in parts of the world in this respect, and I am thankful that we in this 
Jurisdiction three years ago with splendid leadership from our Most Wor- 
shipful Grand Master, M. W. Bro. Russell Treleaven, and others, established 
The Masonic Charitable Foundation of Ontario. 

Now we were not, as I well know, the first of the Jurisdictions in this 
country to have established a charitable enterprise of this nature. But already, 
brethren, this charitable foundation although it's been in active operation for 
less than two years has some formidable achievements to its record and last 
year, Russell Treleaven can tell you a great deal more about this because he's 
the President of the Foundation, we selected as the object of our charity 
students in the universities who, apart from bursary assistance in mid-term, 
would be financially unable to carry on and would be forced to drop out. 

Now these are not scholarships, they are bursaries that are presented at 
the beginning of the year, they are retained until mid-year to take care of 


emergency cases, and last year there were over forty students, thanks to the 
assistance provided by this Foundation, who were enabled to continue with 
their courses who would have been otherwise obliged to drop out. This is a 
very worthy work, my brethren, and the beauty of it is that there are no 
strings attached to it. We do not ask if a single recipient of these bursaries 
has any connection with the Order, any connection whatever, this is true 
charity, it's a complete expression surely of the spirit of charity. 

And the third subject I'd like to mention, my brethren, where I think 
we can and need to do something, is in relation to religion. I think that we 
must combat and we must eliminate the misunderstanding that does exist, both 
within the Craft and outside the Craft, concerning the attitude of the Craft 
towards religion. 

Within the Craft you know that there are many brethren who regard 
Masonry as a sort of substitute for religion, whether the church or the 
synagogue, whatever it may be, the attitude that expresses itself 'well, if we 
have Masonry we don't need anything more'. This, my brethren, is not a true 
Masonic idea at all and consequently Masonic activities are not a complete sub- 
stitute for any responsibility for church activity. 

Brethren, I heard a strong complaint made once in my ears by a Bishop 
who is a member of the Craft who is very well disposed towards the Craft, 
who had to complain about rehearsals for degrees being called during church 
hours on Sundays in a temple very close to his church. 

Well, brethren, perhaps we can indulge in some concern about attitudes 
outside Masonry towards Masonry in this regard. There's history on this 
subject, my brethren, and it's often expressed itself in terms of hostility. By 
and large there are two things that have been said about Masonry in this 
regard. I has been said, first of all, that Masons are irreligious or the 
enemies of religion, or, in the second place that Masonry attempts to usurp 
the proper place of religion, which is meant the proper place of church or 
synagogue. All of these ideas as every one of you here tonight well knows 
are erroneous, but it remains for us to show that these ideas are in fact 
erroneous, it remains for us to eliminate them and to avoid the harmful 
misunderstandings associated with them. 

Now, just as with military messes, we bar discussion of religion and 
politics in our lodges because, of course, of the fear that the discussion might 
be of a divided nature, it might disturb the harmony of the lodge. In the 
second place, we say well there are plenty of places and plenty of opportunity 
where such discussion can be carried on without bringing these discussions 
into the lodge. 

We can say all this, brethren, it's all correct, it's all true but, the fact 
is that Masonry is related and related closely to religion. We never treat 
religion or belief with disrespect. We practise at our best tolerance, we 
admonish at our best, we admonish the brethren to be good churchmen. We 
have much in common with true religion, belief in the existence of a Supreme 
Being that He will punish vice and reward virtue, and that he has made 
Himself known, that He has declared His Will of Himself to men. We have 
the Volume of the Sacred Law in which the Almighty has revealed more of 


His divine will than he has by any other means. We have prayer by which 
we have direct access to a throne of grace. We have the moral law and, my 
brethren, to us this is not something external because we believe that the moral 
law is God's law, it is not man-made law, one of the most penetrating things 
that I have seen on this subject of the moral law, and setting aside the idea 
that the moral law is something that evolves and changes all the time because 
morals are only custom and therefore customs change and therefore the moral 
law changes. 

Well this completely erroneous idea was put down by a Dean in an 
academic institution in the United States in these words : "There is abroad 
among us the popular belief that men can think effectively and even wisely in 
practical matters without involving themselves in any religious or philosophical 
presupposition. Consequently, in our thinking, ethical standards have been 
largely divorced from religious conviction thought of in this way; ethical stan- 
dards are not rather regarded as having objective realities or as involving men 
in any absolute obligation to observe them, they are seen rather as crystalization 
of custom that are only the sanction of the past, and now transcended culture. 
Therefore, since man made them a man may break them with impugnity if it 
seems to his advantage to do so, and he can get away with it." 

And against that, this man puts what he calls "The religious convictions 
of both Jew and Christian that morals are not man-made, they are built into 
the structure of the world with the same firmness and reality as gravitation, 
and they have their sanction in the moral will of Almighty God." 

Right is right. We have charity, brethren. The instruction to love our 
neighbour and practise benevolence. Supremely we have brotherhood, and I 
have it from the lips of a very great religious leader in this city that he has 
never known anything in the Church that has taught him more of the true 
essence of Brotherhood than Masonry. 

We have conscience, conscience sovereign and majestic, conscience that 
makes cowards of some and lions of others, those who like Sir Galahad whose 
strength was as the strength of ten because his heart was pure. And again, 
my brethren, the ecumenical spirit, more and more evidence each day in 
relations of the Churches, and where is the ecumenical spirit more completely 
at home than in Masonry ? Well, brethren, it's time I was bringing these 
remarks to a conclusion. 

Masonry and religion have common folds. Think of just a few of them: 
Rationalism, strong force that it is today ; cynicism, remember Oscar Wilde 
who defined a cynic as a man who knows the price of everything and the 
value of nothing ; secularization ; materialism ; humanism, the idea that man 
is an end in himself. 

And so if one were trying to sum up the challenge of this age, I suppose 
one would say 'how big is man ?' Is he big enough to challenge God for 
first place in the universe, or to supplant God ? What is man, asks the 
Psalmist ? What is God, asks the modern forward man ? 

Is man an insignificant thing or is he big enough to judge God ? The 
Volume of the Sacred Law places God in the position of judge. It is impious 


men who are placing themselves, and blatently in some places today, in the 
position of sitting in judgment on God. 

Well, man has some wonderful and remarkable achievements in our day 
to his record, amazing scientific advances, and no one can say that we are 
anything more than on the threshold in this process of unlocking the secrets 
of nature. Many more are yet to come. But, if you think man is sufficient 
in himself, let me ask you as men if man has yet conquered himself ? 

I said rationalism was one of the common folds of the Church and the 
Craft. Well, let's take a little comfort here, my brethren. Rationalism is a 
strong force in men's thinking today, but there have been periods in the past 
when rationalism was a stronger force that it is today. It was a stronger 
force in the days of Greece and Rome, but it was not strong enough in the 
end to stand the sweep of the new religion based upon belief in the resurrection 
and utter unworldleness. 

The Eighteenth Century, the classic age of rationalism, the French Revo- 
lution where the revolutionaries facing a prositute on the throne of the Bishop 
in the Cathedral of Notre Dame and proceeding to worship her as the Goddess 
of Reason ! And yet the Eighteenth Century gave birth to the United Grand 
Lodge of England. 

Hitler sought to destroy all the inheritance of Mount Sinai, and others 
thought they were in a position to challenge God's laws — where are they 
today ? 

Finally, my brethren, there is one thing that we share with religion, it is 
supreme relevance to life. There is one thing about that Volume of the 
Sacred Law, the word "life" stands out on almost every page of it. If 
Masonry is to have relevance for our day and its problems, it must be 
true to life. 

Is Canada to be but an ample body with a meagre soul ? We have talked 
about living in an age of explosive change, and we as a Craft I am sure 
welcomed many of the changes that we have seen, but we don't welcome 
changes that effect themselves in the numeralities which is neither new, nor 
morality, and the ugly fruits of which are to be seen on all hands in alarming 
increase in venereal disease and illegitimacy. 

I heard a Professor give a picture of the life in the next century a few 
nights ago; there was going to be no need of a family, he said sex would be 
only for fun, parents would turn over their children for a State institution to 
run and, my brethren, he was able to go through this very interesting de- 
scription and the word "love" never entered into his picture of the next 
century ! 

What have we to give the world ? I hope we have much to give and 
that we are conscious of our obligation to give, for we have received much. 
We have the essential tenets of this Craft to give — doesn't the world need 
them ? Masonry's place always has been in the world, in a world not of 
saints but of men. It has survived and it has grown among practical men. 
It's tenets and its ideals have been tested and have been proved in the hardest 
of all schools. 


Masonry seeks no escape, no escape to the cloister or the shelter, it 
stands in the full stream of life where cross the crowded ways. Like Luther, 
it says : "Here I stand, I can do no otherwise." Are we overwhelmed by the 
power of physical forces, or are we unduly impressed with the knowledge 
and the intelligence of men ? I close : 

The world on world in myriad myriad roll 
Round us each with different powers, and other 
Forms of life than ours 
What know we greater than the soul ? 
Brethren, I thank you. (Continued applause.) 

BRO. E. J. A. HARNUM: (Newfoundland) Bro. Chairman and Breth- 
ren : I cannot tell you the story of the hockey game although I am in Toronto. 
I would tell you that months ago when I knew that I was coming to attend 
this Conference, I wrote the Secretary asking him for the privilege of thanking 
Bro. Fleming for the talk that I knew we were going to hear this evening. 
It was only a short while ago that he agreed to my doing this. 

Being a comparatively new Canadian, I am at last glad to find out that 
the person to whom I have been paying my excess income is a brother 
Mason. (Laughter) I am going to feel much happier from here on in if I 
find that the Minister of Finance of the other party is also a Mason, if not, 
I shall have to withdraw my contribution. (Laughter) 

Tonight we have heard one of the finest talks in Masonry that I think 
any of us have ever heard. The subject was well chosen, "Freemasonry in 
the Centennial Year." To look back upon what Freemasonry has meant for 
all of us in the past, and to realize what Freemasonry can do for the indi- 
vidual in the future, it is very proper and right for us to look back and, by 
doing so, we can correct our errors and omissions, and then whatever we 
have seen that we feel is right we shall do, and what we feel is not right we 
shall in ourselves amend. 

Now the growth of Freemasonry is apparently lagging in Ontario. We 
don't find the same situation in Newfoundland, but I agree with Bro. Fleming 
that we should not be overly anxious about this dropping off of our member- 
ship, because we will always have that backbone of Masons who will carry 
on the traditions and tenets of Freemasonry from year to year. I have never 
heard a more comprehensive survey of the problems we are facing in Free- 
masonry and it is very good that we should be asked to face what the problems 

Bro. Fleming mentioned that we should not solicit members, which is a 
very good idea. But I heard a story once that the wife of a Mason, who did 
not know her husband was a Mason until they placed his apron on his coffin, 
and that is the type of thing we want to avoid. 

We have a society of which we should feel very very proud and, if we 
are proud of something, why not tell the non-Mason of the society to which 
we belong ? 

Now, Masonry in itself is sufficient for the ardent Mason, but in this day 
and age many Masons need something else as Bro. Fleming has stated. In 


Scotland, The Grand Lodge of Scotland have two homes for the aged and 
they are now about to build another one, which indicates that a Scottish 
Mason requires this impetus for further interest in his Masonic work. 

We, in Newfoundland, have an educational fund where we educate the 
Mason's children that are either deceased or unable to work, and we also 
have a Masonic Life Insurance which helps the widow to pay the funeral 
expenses upon the death of her Masonic husband. 

We will not permit any meetings whether they are regular, or prac- 
ticing Masons, to be held in a Masonic Temple in Newfoundland on a Sun- 
day, and that is a very good point. Masonry is not the Church, it will never 
replace the Church. My District Grand Chaplain is an Anglican Minister, 
and every time I have occasion to speak on Masonic matters, he always urges 
me to bring this matter to the fore in my talks to the brethren in New- 

We feel, and I feel personally, that Bro. Fleming has bought us one of 
the finest speeches, one of the finest insights into Masonry that we in our 
lifetime will be privileged to hear, and it reminds me of a section of a part 
of a society, which is Masonic, that I have joined recently, and from that 
there is a phrase which says : "Thou shalt provide — and I am going to give 
a few words not in that ritual — from out of all people able men such as 
fear God, honest men and haters of pessimism — which is a change from the 
original text — and set them to talk to us and show us our failings," and 
such a man is Bro. Donald Fleming. And I, on behalf of the gathering, offer 
you our deepest thanks for the manner in which you have talked to us and 
shown us many things that we have been pondering in such Conferences as 
this for many many years. Thank you. Would you join me, brethren, in 
expressing our sincere thanks. 

(Continued Applause) 

R. W. BRO. HON. DONALD M. FLEMING: (Ontario) Thank you 
so much, R. W. Bro. Harnum, you have been so overwhelmingly kind. I am 
deeply grateful to you. (Applause) 

CHAIRMAN ALLAN : Bro. Fleming, I'm only going to add a very few 
words in saying that the remarks of Bro. Harnum, the applause of your 
brethren, is an indication of their appreciation of this very fine address tonight. 
And may I say also that your words as they have been uttered here tonight 
will echo through the lodge rooms from Newfoundland to the Rocky Moun- 
tains, (Hear hear) because those areas are represented here tonight, and 
although you were in court all day and you have come here when most men 
would have been tired, I am sure that the effort you have made has been 
really worthwhile and of great assistance to Masonry. (Hear, hear) 




-■•— «■ »* ■■- 

No. 90 

— ■-*" 







J. Lawrence Runnalls and John W. Pilgrim 

s t 

M ' — ■■■ ■■■ 


>■ it— ■» 



Rev. Silas Huntington 




One hundred years ago, the Dominion of Canada came into being with 
four of the central and eastern provinces joining together to form a con- 
federation. The north-west coast of the continent had been a colony of Britain 
for many years and desired to become part of new Dominion. With the 
purchase of Rupert's Land from the Hudson Bay Company, it became feasible 
to form one Dominion from 'Sea to Sea !' To effect this, it was necessary 
to connect the west and east coasts by rail. After a number of attempts and 
much politicking, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company agreed to build the 
line. Its route followed up the Ottawa Valley and skirted Lakes Huron and 
Superior to the north before setting out across the prairies and Rockies. In 
the 1880's, work gangs pushed the line over the pre-Cambrian rock and 
through virgin forest. 

The Methodist Church considered it well to have its missionaries accom- 
pany the railway workmen and to help establish settlements. The leader of 
this group was Rev. Silas Huntington, a native of Eastern Ontario. Not 
only did he help establish the Methodist Church, he did much to introduce 
Masonry to the region north of the Great Lakes. 

The Huntington Family 

The Huntington family is one of the most wide-spread in America and 
one of the few which maintains complete records of each generation and 
which holds re-unions at regular intervals throughout the United States. 
Silas Huntington was of the eighth generation in America. The family genealo- 
gist has traced back as far as 1460, thirty-two years before America was 
discovered by Columbus. For our story we go back to 1633, when Simon 
Huntington, who was born on August 7, 1583, decided to migrate with his 
family to America. He was a Puritan and desired religious freedom. His 
English home had been in Hempstead. Unfortunately, Simon did not reach 
his destination as he died at sea from smallpox. His wife and five children 
continued the journey and settled at Roxbury, Mass. Before the migration, 
the name was known as Huntingdon but records in the Roxbury Church 
show a 't' in the name and it has been spelled this way since that time. Two 
years after settling in America, Mrs. Huntington, who had been Margaret 
Baret, daughter of the Mayor of Norwich, England, remarried, her second 
husband being Thomas Stoughton. They then moved to Windsor, Conn. 

Simon, third son of Simon and Margaret, who was four years old when 
they migrated, settled in 1660 at Norwich, Conn., being one of the first settlers 
in that community. He soon became a leading figure there being for years a 
townsman. He was the father of ten children. 


Samuel, of the third generation, was born in Norwich, March 1, 1665, 
and moved to Lebanon in 1700, where he, too, became a townsman, constable 
and a large landowner. He died in 1717, the year of the formation of the 
first Grand Lodge. The next three generations represented by Caleb, (8.2.1693) ; 
Abner, (6.3.1726) ; and Silas, (April 1754) ; lived in various centres in Con- 
necticut and became known as wealthy land owners and leading citizens. 

Silas II, the seventh generation of our story, was born on August 5, 
1788 in Hartford, Conn., and as a young man came to Canada, settling in 
Kemptville, where he practised the profession of physician. On May 8, 1809, 
he married Mary, daughter of Major Samuel Adams, a close relative of John 
Quincy Adams, sixth president of the United States. She was a resident of 
Kemptville. The name, Adams, appears with regular frequency in succeeding 
generations. Silas trained as a physician and served the Kemptville area 
during a long life. 

Silas III 

The centre of our story, Silas III, was the eighth and last child in the 
family of Silas and Mary. He was born on February 19, 1829 at Kemptville. 

He trained for the Methodist ministry and served from age 21, in 1850, 
until his death in 1905, a period of fifty five years. 

Silas wrote :"My grandfather's name was Silas. He lived in Hartford 
City, Conn. He had five brothers, viz., John, who went to Ohio ; Daniel, a 
Baptist minister ; James, a ship builder ; David, who lived at Middlebury ; 
Harry, who remained in Connecticut. My grandfather had two sons, Avery, 
who died early leaving a son called Harry, and Silas, my father, who came 
to Canada and died at age 74, leaving four sons, Samuel, Erasmus, Gideon 
and Silas". 

Silas was married twice. The family Bible records that "Rev. Silas 
Huntington of Kemptville, Canada West, and Elizabeth Stewart were married 
by the Rev. F. W. Constable in St. Andrews on the 21st day of June, 1854. 
Elizabeth died at North Bay at age 64 on June 8, 1891. Interment took place 
in the Huntington plot in Vankleek Hill." 

In 1896, he married Annie Anderson of Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. She sur- 
vived her husband and was buried beside him in the Union Cemetery, North 

From the first marriage there were five children. Hugh Stewart, born 
in 1856 and Silas James, born in 1855, died in infancy. The third son, Samuel 
Adams, born in 1859, trained at the Royal Military College, Kingston, and 
opened the first hardware store in North Bay. John Wesley was born in 
1860. The fifth son, and second to be called Stewart, was born in 1861. He 
established the first newspaper, the Nipissing Times, in North Bay. He later 
became a representative in New York City for an international business school. 

Stewart had three sons, the eldest being Percy Adams, for many years 


a leading merchant in North Bay, and who has been active in Nipissing 
Masonic Lodge, No. 420, being Worshipful Master in 1942. 

Our research has turned up some very interesting facts concerning the 
Huntington family in the United States. Samuel, who lived from 1734-1794, 
was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. In 1779, he was 
made President of the Continental Congress, which position he held for two 
years. In 1786, he was elected Governor of Connecticut and was re-elected 
regularly until his death. His portrait was painted by Charles William Peale 
and hangs in Independence Hall, Philadelphia. 

Samuel, 1765-1817, a son of Joseph was raised by his uncle Samuel, 
named above. He became the first Grand Master of Ohio. He was raised in 
Norwich but moved to Cincinnati. Samuel Adams, one of the forebears, was 
also one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

Members of the Huntington family migrated to Indiana. From there, 
Darby and his wife, Rebecca, went along with their family and retinue, toward 
the west coast. They followed the Oregon Trail going by wagon train. In 
1847 after two years on the journey they landed at their destination, Monti- 
cello, in the present State of Washington. Darby built a store and hotel and 
became a ship owner. He at once became a leader in his community and it was 
in his house, in 1852, that a convention was held to demand that Washington 
be separated from Oregon. When this was accomplished, he became a member 
of the first Washington Territorial Legislature. 

Silas James Adams Huntington — The Man 

From several sources we discover what kind of man Silas Huntington 
was. At the time of his death, a eulogy appeared in the minutes of the 
Toronto Conference of the Methodist Church. -It had this to say, in part : 
"Silas Huntington was born in Kemptville, Ontario, in 1829, and on August 
3, 1905, exchanged the soldier's weapons of conflict for the victor's crown. 
Physically stalwart, intellectually strong, morally clean and spiritually fervid 
and intense, he was a princely man. His early educational privileges and 
opportunities were limited, but his active mind sought and acquired knowledge 
from every available source, and he became an attractive, instructive and 
saving herald of the Cross. His intensive enthusiasm, his warm outreaching 
affection, his melodious song, his readiness of utterance, made him a power 
in all church services. His ministry was marvellously truthful. His labours 
were hard pressing, his hardships multiplied and testing, but his indomitable 
perserverence, his commanding will, made him superior to all these, and with 
the exception of a few temporary retirements demanded by the strain of long- 
continued and exhausting labors in the conduct of special services, he continued 
his ministry for fifty-five years." 

Speaking of him as he was about to enter the North Bay territory, Dr. 
J. C. Cochrane, in his 'Trails and Tales of the Northland', describes him thus : 
"The traveller was in his early fifties, but with an alertness of manner and 
ease of movement which indicated that the burden of years had touched but 


little of his physical powers. Stalwart in build and well-proportioned, he had 
been the occasion of many stories of feats of strength on the lower Ottawa. 
His face was an index of strong personality. In it the lines of resolute courage 
and determination were deeply drawn, while his dark flashing eyes indicated 
an intense and enthusiastic spirit." 

He was reported to be well over six feet tall and large boned. He 
needed such physical qualities to cope with the pioneer frontier on which he 
labored, as witnessed in an incident as reported by Anson Gard in his 'Gate- 
way to Silverland', and further explained by Dr. Cochrane : "His great physical 
strength stood him in good stead on more than one occasion. One day he 
was preaching in a box-car to men of a construction gang, when two of their 
number took exception to his theology and decided to break up the service. 
Mr. Huntington urged them to be quiet and not disturb the meeting. The 
men paid no heed to his request and persisted in their unruly conduct. They 
were seated opposite each other at the end of the car farthest from the up- 
ended barrel which served as a pulpit. Walking down the length of the car, 
the preacher seized the offenders, one in each hand, dropped them out the 
door of the car, and returned to the pulpit, never stopping in his sermon. 
Incidents of this nature were not uncommon in his experience but though 
occasionally obliged to use force he did so without anger, and those so disci- 
plined held him afterward in great respect." 

Attesting to his great strength, Ripley's 'Believe it or not' section of the 
Toronto Star Weekly of August 3, 1957, showed him at Cobalt in 1884 writing 
his name on a wall five feet above the ground while attached to the little 
finger of his writing-hand was a fifty-six pound weight ! 

An amusing story is told about his experiences at Sudbury : "The unfail- 
ing good nature of Mr. Huntington and his imperturbility of spirit is illu- 
strated by an experience in his early ministry in Sudbury. Box-cars are fre- 
quently used by a missionary as places of worship. On one occasion the car 
stood on a temporary siding with a considerable grade. Some of the young 
men thought it would be a rich, practical joke to release the brakes when the 
preacher was in the midst of his discourse. This was done and the car began 
to move down the grade, gathering speed as it went. Mr. Huntington sur- 
mised what had happened, but he never stopped preaching. The car finally 
came to a halt on the main line at the edge of the settlement. When the 
service was ended, both preacher and worshippers walked back to town, but 
the incident was never mentioned, much to the chagrin of the practical jokers." 

Rev. Silas Huntington died during an epidemic of typhoid fever at North 
Bay, on August 3, 1905 and was buried in the Union Cemetery near the town. 

As a Clergyman 

Silas Huntington entered the ministry of the Methodist Church in 1850. 
In comparison with the standards of the 1960's, the clergy of those days were 
ill-equipped for their work. What they lacked in formal education, they made 


up in enthusiasm. The class-meeting was usually the forerunner of an organ- 
ized congregation and such meetings were the mainstay of the early Church 
and the training ground for the leaders. We know little about the early years 
of Silas Huntington but must surmise that he was active in the class-meetings 
of his home town. He was twenty-one years old before he took over his first 
charge. It was a new mission field at Clarendon and Onslow in the Province 
of Quebec, north of Ottawa and Hull. The annual reports of the Missionary 
Society show this as a very backward field with few members. He was an 
ideal candidate for this field made up of French-Canadians as he spoke fluent 

It was the custom of the Methodist Church to leave a worker in a charge 
for a very short time, at most for four years, unless there were special cir- 
cumstances surrounding the case. So in 1851 he was moved back across the 
Ottawa River to Richmond. Each year until 1854, he was allowed to remain 
but one year in each field. (See the appendix for the complete list of postings.) 

Each spring when the District Meeting and the Montreal Conference were 
held, each budding clergyman had to undergo a rigorous examination by a 
select committee. In due course Silas passed all tests and in 1854 was ordained 
a full-fledged clergyman and was then entitled to use the prefix 'reverend'. 
He had spent hte previous year at St. Andrew's, and there had met his future 
wife, Elizabeth Stewart, whom he married as soon as he was ordained. 

In 1854, he and his wife again moved into Quebec going to the Gatineau 
charge. As he had been ordained, he was allowed to remain there for two 
years. He now qualified for more important fields, and in 1856 was appointed 
to a well-established centre at Aylmer, where he again remained for two years. 
One of the best fields of all, Smith's Falls, then received him. His three year 
term here is notable in that here he joined the Masonic Order, and here three 
of their children were born. 

From 1854 until 1874, he went from field to field in Eastern Ontario 
and the adjoining parts of Quebec. In the latter year, we find him listed as 
a supernumerary at Belleville. This meant that he was placed there, not as 
a regular clergyman but as an additional one, or one more than the usual 
number for the field. At that time Belleville was a rapidly progressing centre 
and no doubt needed extra help. We can find no special reason listed for the 
appointment but it lasted six years or until 1880. 

It was then that the north country beckoned him. As he was proficient 
in French and Indian as well as in English, he was an ideal person to take 
over work in the north. There seems to be a two year gap, 1880-1882, when 
we find little about him. In the latter year, he took over the year-old mission 
at Mattawa. This field was opened by S. N. McAdoo who at the end of his 
year reported a membership of 13 in his church. 

In his two year stay at Mattawa, he spread his efforts far and wide. He 
was an expert canoe-man and journeyed up the rivers and lakes for many 
miles, visiting the lumber camps and budding communities along the right 


of way of the C.P.R. He is said to have penetrated as far north as Lake 
Temiskaming where the Great Clay Belt begins. It was not until the turn of 
the century, with the famous silver discoveries, that missionaries were sent 
into this country. 

One such canoe trip was vividly described by Dr. J. C. Cochrane in his 
'Trails and Tales of the Northland' : 

"On this particular morning he had set out on a scouting trip. The 
C.P.R. was steadily pushing its lines northward and westward and 
it was expected that it would skirt the shore of Lake Nipissing 
within the next year. The paddler was a missionary of the Methodist 
Church on the Upper Ottawa with headquarters at Mattawa, and he 
had foreseen that the Church must be ready to move forward with 
the building of the railway. With the intuition of a pioneer for 
strategic locations, he was convinced that as soon as the railway 
touched the shore of Lake Nipissing a community of considerable 
size would be established here. He had therefore set out on this 
scouting trip to survey the territory in order that as the country 
opened up he might be ready to recommend a new advance. The 
journey he was attempting was difficult enough, with many portages 
between lakes before reaching LaVasse River which flows into Lake 
Nipissing. Steadily through the sunny hours of the forenoon, he 
pushed on his way. Talon, Jack Pine, Turtle Lake were crossed 
and at last Trout Lake was reached where a short portage put him 
on LaVasse River. He was following an old Indian route over 
which Champlain journeyed in 1615. Shortly before noon he emerg- 
ed from the windings of the narrow river upon the spacious waters 
of Lake Nipissing. 

"Turning his canoe westward, the missionary skirted the north 
shore of the Lake for a distance of six miles looking for a place 
where the railway would likely parallel the shoreline. He finally came 
to a surveyor's camp and thrust his canoe up on the sandy beach 
almost exactly opposite the spot where a short time later the Cana- 
dian Pacific depot was built. Walking inland for about a hundred 
yards, he reached an elevation of rock several feet in height, flat on 
top and free from shrubbery. It was then twelve o'clock and it was 
his unfailing custom to observe noontide devotions. Kneeling on this 
rock he began to pray. With a vision of the future, he interceded 
for the community of homes which would doubtless be founded in 
the vicinity where he knelt. By faith he envisaged a place of worship 
and a house of God. Thus the Rev. Silas Huntington, "the Bishop 
of the North" came to what is today the site of the city of North 
Bay. The very rock upon which he offered his noontime devotions 
later became the foundation of the Methodist Church, now Trinity 
United Church, North Bay." 

By 1884, the railway had reached North Bay and Huntington was sent 
there to start a mission. From that time on he considered the community his 
home even though his work took him farther west. 

While in North Bay, he organized a thriving congregation. Before he 
left he saw a church built and a manse provided for the minister. In 1885, he 
reported that the congregation had advanced from 20 to 30 members despite 
the fact that manv had moved on with the construction crews. 


At the time, this part of Ontario was attached to the Pembroke District 
of the Church. An interesting report from the superintendent of the district 
at this time points out the hardships of the missionaries, yet it states that not 
one complained of his lot. The railway, by canoe and on foot were the only 
means of travel at this time. 

In 1887, he was moved on to Sudbury to repeat what he had done at 
North Bay. From this point he made regular trips farther along the railway. 
While still at Sudbury, he was made superintendent of the newly-formed 
Nipissing District in 1887. This took in all territory between Mattawa and 
Schreiber and some distance toward Sault Ste. Marie. As superintendent he 
had the responsibility of placing men in the several fields and to oversee their 
work. Rev. J. D. Ellis, D.D., who was assistant to Huntington in 1883, years 
later had this to say : 

"The Rev. Silas Huntington was really a great man. He deserves a 
monument somewhere in that North country. He was a pioneer 
missionary from Mattawa to Schreiber. He had vision, devotion, 
good judgment and unselfishness. He feared no hardship and he 
loved all men. He stood one day on the shore of Lake Nipissing 
at North Bay and he waved his hand out over that northern wilder- 
ness and said, 'Some day that country will be peopled with farms 
and factories, with towns and cities'. I replied, 'Huntington, you are 
crazy. There will never be anything in that land but a forest wilder- 
ness and wild animals'. Time has demonstrated that he was the 
prophet and I was the short-sighted pessimist." 

In 1890, the district was again divided. Two were set up, called Sudbury 
and Nipissing Districts. Huntington continued on as superintendent of the 
Sudbury part until 1892. He then filled the position of missionary on a number 
of fields until 1899 when he took over the Nipissing District again. In this 
position he was not supposed to be responsible for a congregation, yet with 
the scarcity of men he felt obliged to do so. From the time of his return to 
North Bay until his death in 1905, he continued to serve and at that time was 
responsible for the Widdifield charge. 

The Christian Guardian of August 30, 1905, carried the report of the 
District meeting held in North Bay shortly after the funeral. It said in part : 

"Having been connected with this District with but a slight break 
ever since its organization, and having either in his capacity as 
chairman or as pastor in charge, organized the work on nearly every 
circuit and mission in the District, having endured all the hardships 
of the pioneer work, we feel that our Church owes him a debt that 
gratitude can but poorly repay. We bow to the Providence that has 
so suddenly removed him from our ranks, at the same time express- 
ing our thanks to the Head of the Church for his long and useful 

As a Mason 

Bro. Silas Huntington not only carried the message of the early Metho- 
dist Church into the north, he also helped to extend Freemasonry. 


During the years 1858-61, he was stationed at Smith's Falls and while 
there he made application for membership in St. Francis Lodge No. 24. This 
lodge dates back to 1839 but records only from 1858 are extant. They show 
his initiation taking place on April 2, 1860, his passing on May 3 and his 
raising on June 7 of that year. His Grand Lodge certificate was dated February 
6, 1861 and his number was 1687. 

In midsummer 1861 he moved to North Wakefield for one year and then 
to Renfrew. When his move from Smith's Falls was imminent he resigned 
from his lodge as of May 24, 1861. On September 9, 1862 he affiliated with 
Renfrew Lodge No. 122, and was placed on its register as No. 42. 

After another two year period, he moved on again but there was no lodge 
at the several places to which he might affiliate. Unfortunately he did not 
attend to his Masonic duties and so was suspended for non-payment of dues 
on April 16, 1866. For the next twenty-one years he remained inactive even 
though there must have been lodges at several places where he was situated. 

In 1884 he moved from Mattawa to North Bay. That was the year that 
Mattawa Lodge No. 405 received its dispensation. But there is no evidence 
that he took any part in the proceedings. He was on hand when the Village 
of North Bay was established. In a short time he was drawn into a group 
that was discussing the formation of a Masonic lodge. With the founding 
fathers of North Bay and the railway personnel were many Masons. During 
1886 and 1887 numerous meetings were held, at which plans were laid to 
form a lodge. As Bro. Huntington was the leading Protestant clergyman in 
the community and had been experienced in Masonry, he was included in 
the deliberations. Soon, he and E. W. Cross, who was a Past Master, took 
the lead in organization plans. Bro. Huntington brought his membership into 
good standing by being restored in Renfrew Lodge on September 5, 1887. He 
then resigned his membership there. 

The foreword to an old issue of the by-laws of Nipissing Lodge No. 
420, North Bay, had these paragraphs : 

"In 1887, a number of gentlemen who were citizens of the Village 
of North Bay, Nipissing District, and who belonged to the Masonic 
Craft, desired to form a Lodge of A.F. and A.M., in North Bay. 
Rev. S. Huntington who was then stationed in the Village as Pastor 
of the Methodist Church, was a leading spirit in the movement and 
later in the year he and others petitioned the Grand Lodge of Canada 
for a Dispensation to make, pass and raise Freemasons in a Lodge 
to be called "Nipissing Lodge." 

"Henry Robertson, LL.B., Grand Master, granted their petition, and 
the following dispensation, dated November 21, 1887, gave the 
brethren of North Bay the authority to form Nipissing Lodge. Rev. 
Silas Huntington was its first Worshipful Master, with Bros. John 
G. Cormack and William Burgess as his Wardens." 

(Then follows the dispensation which is copied in the appendix.) 

North Bay must have had a large proportion of its male population as 
Masons, as there were thirty-one names on the petition who became charter 


members. Bro. Huntington's son, Samuel Adams, who had been made a 
Mason shortly before, possibly in a Quebec lodge, was one of these and he 
was appointed to the office of Senior Deacon. 

The Lodge was under dispensation until Grand Lodge met in July 1888. 
At that time it was recommended that a warrant be granted which was issued 
on July 18 of that year. 

Grand Lodge records do not give Bro. Huntington the rank of Past 
Master. On July 1, 1887, he was appointed to the new frontier town of Sudbury. 
Anticipating his move and realizing the effect on the Lodge, he decided to 
resign his position and to have W. Bro. Cross take over the Master's chair 
until the next election of officers. Records and correspondence concerning 
this are given in the appendix. In all Nipissing Lodge records he is referred 
to as Worshipful Brother, and he used that rank when applying for member- 
ship in St. John's Royal Arch Chapter. 

When Bro. Huntington moved on to further fields of work, he retained 
his membership in Nipissing Lodge and when eventually he retired to North 
Bay to make his home, he became active in lodge work again. No doubt he 
often returned the eighty- five miles to North Bay for meetings although he 
had to travel by rail, as road travel was practically unknown in these parts 
at this time. 

As soon as he moved to Sudbury, he became involved in a movement to 
have a Masonic lodge established there. As his work took him from the town 
for much of the time, he would not consider taking office. He was, however, 
a charter member of Nickel Lodge, No. 427, and his name appears as No. 9 
on the register of the Lodge. The dispensation for the Lodge was given on 
October 13, 1891 and the warrant was issued on July 20, 1892. 

His stay in Sudbury, too, was short as it was in other places. So, on 
May 1, 1898, he resigned his membership in this lodge, as he had retained 
membership in Nipissing Lodge and was once again a resident of North Bay. 
From 1898 until his death in 1905, he made his home there. As would be 
expected, he immediately became active in lodge work. Even before his return 
and in anticipation of it, he was elected Chaplain of the Lodge in 1896 which 
office he held for three years and he was elected again in 1902 and held the 
office until his death. 

On November 10, 1892, he was elected an honorary member of Nipissing 
Lodge 'in recognition of valuable services rendered to the Lodge'. 

Bro. Huntington took an active interest in the only body in the north 
working in the 'higher degrees'. He was initiated in St. John's Chapter, No. 
103, North Bay, on July 11, 1894, being sixteenth on the register of the 
Chapter. Records show that this chapter started in 1891, so if Comp. Hunt- 
ington was so high up on its register, it must have had a very meagre start. 

For the years 1895-1898, he was Chaplain for the Chapter. For one year, 


1899, he was Scribe E. He again served as Chaplain for the years 1901 and 

It is interesting to note that a grandson, Percy Adams Huntington, 
became a member of Nipissing Lodge and in due course rose to the rank of 
Master, fifty-five years after his grandfather had served. Four years later, 
in 1946, he was appointed Assistant Grand Organist and in 1953 he became 
D.D.G.M. for Nipissing East Masonic District. 

Looking back at the Masonic career of Rev. Silas Huntington from this 
vantage point, his part might appear rather unimportant. But he was a pioneer 
in a backwoods settlement and he was so highly respected in his chosen voca- 
tion that his advice was sought in Masonic matters as well as in religious 
ones. His parishioners valued Masonry as they respected their pastor and 
readily sought admission. His memory burns brightly in the records and 
traditions of the two northern Masonic Lodges as it does in the numerous 
congregations which he helped to found. 


Huntington University, Sudbury 

The foreword to the booklet, 'The Apostle to the North' has this to say: 
"Huntington is a name which men of the north may speak with pride, 
yet Silas Huntington was not a proud man. He was first a man of God, 
second a pioneer. He brought his beliefs to a primitive land and founded here 
a traditio nof Christian progress upon a sense of responsibility to his Church 
and to his fellow men. 

"Huntington University is founded on the same tradition. Just as Silas 
Huntington filled a need for Christian teaching in the primitive community 
of the north, so the institution which bears his name is established in the 
service of God, and the young men and women of the cities and towns which 
are those same communities. 

"A university had been foreseen for northern Ontario in 1914, by the 
Jesuit Fathers who included such powers in their charter for 'Le College du 
Sacre-Coeur'. In 1957 these powers were implemented in the University of 

"Meantime in the mind of Rev. E. S. Lautenslager, Minister of St. 
Andrew's United Church, Sudbury, and others a plan for a federated non- 
denominational university was developing in the conviction that true education 
involves the whole man and is the responsibility of the Church as well as the 
State. In 1958, the Northern Ontario University Association was formed with 
the aim 'to found and support in Northern Ontario, an institution of learning 
on the university level', United Church and/or Protestant in foundation and 
control or at least a Protestant college in a federated university." 

Already at this stage it had been agreed, following a hint in Dr. J. C. 
Cochrane's 'Trails and Tales of the Northland', that such a United Church 


university or college if it were achieved, would in its name memoralize a 
great Christian missionary in Northern Ontario, the Rev. Silas Huntington. 

In due time the Northern Ontario University Association was able to 
implement its plans. The Church pledged $1,000,000. At the same time con- 
versations took place with other Church bodies, viz., the Algoma Diocese of 
the Anglican Church and the Sault Ste. Marie Diocese of the Roman Catholic 
Church. It was agreed to found the Laurentian University of Sudbury and 
for each Church group to have its own federated university within the whole. 
So in September 1960, Huntington University opened its doors to thirty- 
seven students. Growth was steady and to-day it has made a name for itself 
throughout that part of Northern Ontario which it serves. 

So the name of Huntington will long remain a name to be revered in 
the north. 

Henry Robertson, G.M. 


We, Henry Robertson, Esq., LL.B., Etc., Etc., of the Town of Colling- 
wood, Province of Ontario, Dominion of Canada, Grand Master of the Most 
Honourable Fraternity of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of Canada. 

Send Greetings : — Whereas an Humble Petition has been presented to us 
by Brothers Silas Huntington, John G. Cormack, Wm. H. Burgess, (This 
is followed by the names of twenty-eight other brethren who became charter 
members of the Lodge.) and others, praying for a Warrant of Constitution, 
or such other authority as it may be competent for us to grant, empowering 
them to form themselves into a Regular Lodge, under the Denomination of 
the Nipissing Lodge, to be held at the Village of North Bay, in the District 
of Nipissing, in the Province of Ontario and Dominion of Canada, and the 
same having been duly and satisfactorily recommended to us, Now Know Ye, 
that having taken the same into consideration, We do hereby authorize and 
empower our said Brothers, and other regular subscribing Members and 
those who shall hereafter become such, and as such shall be reported to and 
registered in the Books of the Grand Lodge of Canada, to meet at the Village 
of North Bay aforesaid, on the Thursday on or before the full of the moon 
of every month, and proceed as a regular lodge to be entitled the Nipissing 
Lodge, and to enter, pass and raise Freemasons, conformably to the Laws 
and Constitutions of the Grand Lodge and not otherwise, and to do all such 
other acts as may be lawfully done by a lodge under dispensation. We do 
further approve of the nominated officers, and have constituted and appointed 
the said Brother Silas Huntington to be Worshipful Master; Brother John 
G. Cormack to be Senior Warden ; and Brother William H. Burgess to be 
Junior Warden of the said Lodge ; and direct that they shall continue in the 


said offices until such time as a Warrant shall be granted to the said Lodge 
under the Seal of the Grand Lodge of Canada. And for so doing, this Dispen- 
sation shall be sufficient authority, to remain in force until such Warrant 
shall have been granted or until the next annual meeting of the Grand Lodge 
at the latest. 

Given under our hand and Seal of the Grand Lodge, at Hamilton, in the 
Province of Ontario and Dominion of Canada, this Twenty-first day of No- 
vember, A.L. 5887, A.D. 1887. 

Grand Secretary. 

When Grand Lodge met the following year, Nipissing Lodge, was granted 
a Charter as Nipissing Lodge, No. 420, on the Grand Register of Canada, 
dated at Hamilton on the 18th day of July, 1888, signed by M. W. Henry 
Robertson, Grand Master and J. J. Mason, Grand Secretary. 


North Bay, May 11th, 1888. 

H'y Robertson, Esq., LL.B., G.M. of G.L.A.F. & A.M. of Canada. 

Dear Sir & M.W. Bro.: 

Your esteemed letter of a recent date to hand. In accordance with your 
suggestion — my proposal to resign the Chair of W.M. in favour of W. Bro. 
E. W. Cross, was submitted to the Lodge, and approved unanimously. I have 
therefore great pleasure in hereby placing my resignation in your hands. 
Accompanying it in reference you will herewith find attached a copy of the 
resolution thereto which was adopted by the Lodge. 

I remain, 

Yours fraternally, 


W.M. of Nipissing Lodge A.F. & A.M. 

North Bay, May 10th, 1888. 

Copy of resolution passed at an Emergent Communication of Nipissing Lodge 
held in Masonic Hall, North Bay on the evening of the 9th. inst. 

"On motion of Bro. Plummer, 

Seconded by Bro. Thompson : 

"That whereas this Lodge learns with the deepest regret from W. Bro. 
Rev'd. S. Huntington that owing to the pressure of his ecclesiastical duties 
as Superintendent of a very large District, that it is his wish to resign his 
office as W. Master in this Lodge, as he will be unable in the future to devote 
that time and attention to the welfare of the Lodge to which it is entitled and, 


as W. Bro. E. W. Cross has signified his willingness to accept the Chair — 
Be it resolved — 

That we do hereby accept the resignation of W. Bro. Huntington, and do 
hereby recommend to the M. W. Grand Master to appoint W. Bro. E. W. 
Cross his successor until the meeting of Grand Lodge. Carried unanimously. 
Attest. R. G. Croskery, Secretary. 




Worshipful Master Rev. Silas Huntington 

Immediate Past Master Edward W. Cross 

Senior Warden John G. Cormack 

Junior Warden William H. Burgess 

Treasurer James Shotten 

Secretary Robert G. Croskery 

Senior Deacon Samuel Huntington 

Junior Deacon James Gomax 

Senior Steward John Ferguson 

Junior Steward James Halpenny 

Inner Guard James Dick 

Tyler John Hill 


W. R. Boucher, A. Burritt, George Cavanaugh, 

George T. Evans, H. Gibson, William H. Howey, 

James Leslie, George H. Macher, D. A. McArthur, 

S. McCormick, James T. Nidd, George Rosebrook, 

John Scott, John M. Smith, A. R. Thibeault, 

R. Thompson, William Henry Thomas, H. Trelford, H. A. Washburn 



Worshipful Master William H. Howey 

Senior Warden James A. Orr 

Junior Warden Albert H. Smith 

Treasurer James Purvis 

Secretary Samuel Rondeau 

William Anderson, Horatio J. Atkinson, James N. Austin, 

Harry Curran, Richard S. Donnelly, Thomas Evans, 

John Ferguson, Robert Findlay, Charles Ford, 

Silas Huntington, Robert Johnston, Hiram H. Loomis, 

John McCallum, Andrew McNaughton, Charles Murphy, 

Herman Nicholson, John Noller, Thomas J. Ryan, 

Thomas Sheppard, James A. Short, Henry West 


The following officers were added before the Charter was granted. 
Apparently these were initiates. 

Senior Deacon 
Junior Deacon 
Director of Ceremonies 
Senior Steward 
Junior Steward 
Inner Guard 

A. Paul 

S. D. Humphrey 
W. Hewitt 
J. A. Sharp 
R. Dorsett 
William Blewitt 
D. Jacobs 
A. Ferris 



Eastern Ontario and Quebec 


Clarendon and Onslow 

1862-4 Renfrew 



1864-6 Ormstown 



1866-8 Huntingdon, Que 


St. Andrew's 

1868 North Augusta 



1869-71 Wellington 


Aylmer, Que. 

1871-4 Thurlow 


Smith's Falls 

1874-80 Belleville 

1861 North Wakefield 

(Supernumerary for six years) 

Northern Ontario 

1882-4 Mattawa 

1884-7 North Bay 

1887-9 Sudbury 

1889-92 Sturgeon Falls 

1892-4 Walford 

1894-5 North Bay Sup't. 

1895-9 Nipissing Junction 

1900-5 North Bay Sup't 

1887-90 Chairman, Nipissing District 
1890-2 Chairman Sudbury District 
1899 Chairman Nipissing District 



Huntington Memoirs — Genealogy of the Huntington Family 

Trails and Tales of the Northland — Rev. J. C. Cochrane, D.D. 

Gateway to Silverland — Anson Card 

North Bay — W. K. P. Kennedy 

Huntington University Archives 
The Apostle to the North 
Huntington University Historical Notes 
Chelsea United Church, An Historical Sketch 1862-1962 
Uncle Darby's Jubilee 1949 

Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. Records 

Nipissing Lodge No. 420 Records 

St. Francis Lodge No. 24 Records 

Nickel Lodge No. 427 Records 

St. John's Chapter No. 103 Records 

United Church of Canada Archives 
The Christian Guardian 1850-1905 
Annual Reports of the Methodist Church 1850-1905 
Annual Reports of the Missionary Society of the Wesleyan Church 
in Canada 

North Bay Old Home Week Booklet 1925 

10,000 Famous Freemasons — Denslow 

Personal Reminiscences of Percy Adams Huntington, North Bay. 



• n ■ ■■ m ■■ 

■fr * M M M ■ M M M M M l4» 

No. 92 






By Rev. William George Martin, DD., 

Before Supreme Council A&KS.R. 

Winnipeg, Manitoba 

September, 1967 


** — - — m - r i i m i i i 


"Prophets and Builders" 

Sermon preached 


at the Vesper Service of the 

Annual Session of the Supreme Council of the 

Scottish Rite of Freemasonry for the Dominion of Canada 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1967 


Now the prophets, Haggai and Zechariah, prophesied to the Jews in 
the name of the God of Israel. Then Zerubbabel and Jesua began to 
rebuild the House of God which is in Jerusalem — and with them were 
the prophets of God helping them. Ezra 5 : 1-2 

And the Jews prospered through the prophesying of Haggai and 
Zechariah. Ezra 6 : 14 

Prophets and Builders are terms which express a strange combination. 
What could be more alienated or divergent than the prophet and the builder? 
The prophet is the dreamer who dips into the future and tells of things to be 
— an idle visionary ; an impractical person, some might say, with his head in 
the clouds and his feet not firmly planted upon the earth. But the buildier, 
that's different ! He is in contact with life and the things of life. His hands are 
steeped in its toil. He is not waiting, Micawber-like, for something to turn 
up. He is addressing himself to the tasks of today, and at eventide, his is the 
satisfaction of something worthwhile attempted, something worthwhile done. 
In the final analysis, however, it does not require super-intelligence to realize 
that the prophet and the builder are not separate and apart. They belong to 
each other. Their's is a complementary relationship. What could the builder 
accomplish without the plans and designs of the architect? And, on the other 
hand, what would be the worth of the visions and dreams of the architect 
without the skill and efforts of the builder to execute them? 

His Grace, the Archbishop of Canterbury preaching at the consecration 
of the new Coventry Cathedral which was to replace the five hundred year old 
predecessor destroyed in the Second World War, summed up his tribute to the 
beauty and glory of the new edifice in these words : "Here is a House in 
which all the arts and craftsmanship of our time have united. The designer, 
the builder, the painter, the sculptor, each has made his offering of beauty in 
the Service of God." 


You remember how the beloved war-time padre, Studdart Kennedy, links 
the role of the prophet and the builder in the person of Jesus : 

"When on the sweat of labour and its sorrow, 
Toiling in twilight flickering and dim, 
Flames out the sunshine of the great tomorrow, 
When all the world looks up because of Him : 
Then will He come with meekness for His glory, 
God in a workman's jacket as before, 
Living again the eternal gospel story, 
Sweeping the shavings from His workshop floor. 

In one sublime personality were combined the prophet, the messenger of the 
New Order, and the builder, the creator of the New Kingdom. In word and 
in deed He lived out the "Eternal Gospel Story." 

In the thrilling bit of Old Testament history from which our text is 
taken, we are introduced to two mighty prophets of God — Haggai and 
Zechariah, who were destined to play a vital part in the rebuilding of their 
nation. The story is a heart-rending account of a city laid waste. Jerusalem, 
the Holy City of God's chosen people was in ruins, and the retreating tide of 
foreign invasion had left it like a heap of shingles on a sea beach. But the 
city was to be rebuilt — fairer and more glorious than the city of yesterday. 
So we have the stirring spectacle of the workers busy in all directions. But 
before one stone had been laid upon another, the prophets (the visionaries) 
had seen it all, a new and prosperous Jerusalem. 

Haggai, from point of age, was an old pioneer. He had lived amid the 
glory that had been. Zechariah was a young man endowed with all the passion 
and enthusiasm of youth. He dreamed of the glory that was to be. They formed 
a wonderful partnership, and the people, inspired by the prophetic leadership 
of age and youth, addressed themselves to the task of rebuilding, and they 

In this Centennial year we are dramatically reminded of the fact that 
Canada's history as a young nation is an epic story of prophets and builders, 
working hand in hand. 

In the city of Toronto stands the headquarter's building of the Royal 
Bank of Canada. It is a structure thirty-four stories tall. Up on the thirty- 
second storey is a promenade flanked by four colossal figures hewn in stone. 
These figures represent Observation, Foresight, Courage, Enterprise, and 
form an eloquent tribute to the pioneers of our history whom we honour in 
this year of Centennial celebration. Observation — These daring adventurers 
many of whom came from distant lands — peoples of varying races, creeds and 
classes, and whose mission it was to carve a nation out of a wilderness, 
beheld acres of diamonds at their very feet. Foresight — They dipped into the 
future and saw an empire yet to be. Courage — They followed up their dreams 
with tenacity of purpose. Enterprise — They brought their dream-castles out of 
the skies and planted them upon the earth. 


Following in their footsteps there came the pioneers of a later-day who, 
accepting the challenge of a great adventure, toiled and laboured and sacrificed 
until the mighty and unbridled forests were transformed into throbbing cities 
and pulsating towns ; untamed rivers were harnessed to serve the ever- 
increasing demands of commerce and industry; boundless wastes of prairie 
lands flashed forth with golden fields of wheat, and out of the dark depths of 
the earth flowed untold treasures of oil and mineral wealth. 

If Canada occupies an enviable place among the self-governing nations of 
the world, it is due to the visions of the prophets and the dedicated labours of 
the builders working together to fashion her destiny. 

The all-important aspect of the Old Testament story before us this after- 
noon is that in the rebuilding of the city an altar of worship was to occupy a 
central place. In other words, the new city was to have a Spiritual centre. 
The people had learned out of bitter experience what a disastrous thing it is 
to leave God out of account. But it was the prophets of God who brought 
them to their senses and awakened them out of their spiritual stupor. Haggai 
and Zechariah put their finger upon the plague spot of the Nations ignominy 
and despair. 

Haggai uttered stern words of warning : "Is it time for you, O ye, to dwell 
in your cieled houses, and this house lie waste? Now therefore thus saith the 
Lord of hosts ; consider your ways. Ye have sown much, and bring in little ; 
ye eat, but ye have not enough ; ye drink, but ye are not filled with drink ; ye 
clothe you, but there is none warm ; and he that earneth wages earneth wages 
to put it into a bag with holes. Thus saith the Lord of hosts ; Consider your 
ways. Go up to the mountain, and bring wood, and build the house ; and I 
will take pleasure in it, and I will be glorified," saith the Lord. 

And the word of the Lord came to young Zechariah. "The Lord hath 
been sore displeased with your fathers. Therefore say thou unto them, Thus 
saith the Lord of hosts ; Turn ye unto me, saith the Lord of hosts, and I 
will turn unto you, saith the Lord of hosts." 

Zechariah had a vision. It was of a young man going forth with a measure- 
ing line. An angel accosted him and asked what he was doing and he replied 
that he was going to measure Jerusalem. The angel told the young man that 
his plans for reconstruction were too small. The new city was to be a city 
without walls — a limitless city with an overflowing population. But there's 
one condition : "Return to me." There you have it ! "Consider your ways, 
saith the Lord. Return to me. Rebuild your broken altars, bow down and 
worship the God of your fathers, and the Glory of the Lord shall be upon you." 

Brethren — these prophetic words are a fitting challenge to the nations of 
today. In this hour of destiny we need our Haggais and Zechariahs sounding 
loud and clear the trumpet call of a new moral revolution and spiritual 

We are living in a wonderful age. Expo '67 portrays to a fabulous degree 
the achievements of mankind. It is a kaleidoscopic view of man and his world 


— man, the creator — man, the explorer — man, the producer — man, the provider. 
Over seventy nations are participating in presenting an unparalelled drama 
of the nature and genius of man. The millions of people who have attended 
this universal fair are convinced that we are living in a wonderful world. But 
this brand new world will prove to be a frightful and frightening'world if we 
do not see to it that spiritual principles and ideals keep abreast of our advance- 
ment in material things. 

Despite all our phenomenal achievements in science and discovery no one 
will attempt to deny that there is something radically wrong with the world. 
Some place the blame for the injustices and inequalities of life, and the 
travailing of the nations upon faulty economic theories and systems, or upon 
the intense nationalism which has taken the driver's seat and is spurring the 
world to ruin. The critics may be right to a certain degree, but they do not 
go to the root of the trouble which lies in the realm of the spiritual. As 
someone has rightly said, "If there is to be any surgery at all it will have to 
be surgery of the soul which probes deeper than any surgery of economics or 

We are living in testing times. But the real crucible of testing is man's 
response to the claims of religion. What are those claims ? They are two-fold. 
In the first place — a reasonable and practical faith in the existence of God as 
the central fact of the universe. Secondly — an equally irresistable belief that 
it is the will of God that the whole of life — its commerce, creative genius, 
government, common toil, shall be brought into harmony with His purpose of 
Love and Righteousness. We must give heed to the Divine injunction, "Con- 
sider your ways," saith the Lord. "Return to me." 

Let us repent as quickly as we can, 

Before mankind has done away with man. 

Let us repent with fervour and with joy, 

Determined to fulfil and not destroy. 

Let us repent of the unholy mess 

We've brought about through our half-heartedness. 

Let us repent, acknowledging that we 
Have given to false gods our loyalty ; 
That by them we've too willingly been led, 
With the great master Mammon at their head. 

Let us repent, because repentance brings 

The advent of exciting happenings. 

Let us repent. Let there no longer be 

The stigma of impossibility 

About Utopian projects. Time will show 

That old impossibilities will go. 

That we may live to say triumphantly, 

"Utopias need no more Utopian be." 

Repentance is a happy starting point 

From which to change the times — so out of joint. 


The faith that now enables us to move 
Molehills, when it is multiplied, will prove 
That monster mountains may be moved instead. 
The day of miracles is not yet dead. 
There's hope for every stricken continent 
That has the will and courage to repent." 

We may consider ourselves clever, but we are still dependent upon the 
primitive truth of Faith. Walking by sight, judging the events of life with a 
vision which lacks spiritual insight, it is not diffcult to be bogged down by 
ill-circumstance, and there is little or nothing to urge us to follow after that 
which is the noblest, or to make great sacrifices for the sake of lofty princi- 
ples. Walking by Faith we are aware of meaning in life, and are inspired to 
do and be our best, and to pay the utmost price for the attainment of the 
goal we have set. 

Walking by sight — 

"We see, the eternal struggle in the dark. 
We see the foul disorders, and the filth 
Of mind and soul, in which men, wallowing 
Like swine, stamp on their brothers till they drown 
In puddles of stale blood." 

Walking by Faith — 

"The scent of roses and of hay 
New-mown comes stealing on the evening breeze, 
And through the market's din, the bargaining 
Of cheats, who make God's world a den of thieves. 
We hear sweet bells ring out to prayer, and see 
The faithful kneeling by the Calvary of Christ. 
And through the clouds of Calvary — there shines 
His face, and we believe that Evil dies, 
And Good lives on, loves on, and conquers all." 

; That was the Faith of the Great Pioneer of Life. His great adventure 
was to awaken man's conscience and consciousness to whatever things increase 
the sum of human happiness, and to pilot the way to a more abundant life in 
all its relationships — A life in which poverty, hate, war, injustice, and man's 
inhumanity to man will be uprooted and replaced by mutual service and brother- 
hood. A life in which men find their supremest joy in spending themselves 
nor counting the cost for others' greater good. But what was His watchword, 
His slogan, to bring to pass these radical changes which would revolutionize 
the lives of men and nations — "Ye must be born again" — "Consider your 
ways" — "Return to me" — "Repent." 

In Him the prophet and the builder — Idealism and Realism — were partners 
in the uprearing of the Kingdom of Freedom and Justice and Truth that 
should be the heritage of all people that on earth do dwell. Small wonder 
that Renan declared, "Whatever may be the unlooked for phenomena of the 

— 1666 — 

future, Jesus will not be surpassed." Or that a distinguished Rabbi should 
pay his meed of tribute in these words : "I am far within the mark when I 
say, all the armies that ever marched; all the navies that have ever sailed; 
all the parliaments that have ever sat; all the kings that have ever reigned, 
put together have not affected the life of man on this planet as has that child 
of a peasant woman. He is the central figure of the human race — the leader 
of the column of progress." 

His nail-pierced hand which lifted empires off their hinges and turned the 
stream of history into new and undiscovered channels beckons men today as He 
beckoned His disciples of old. Beckons each one of us — you and me — to follow 
in His blood-marked way of love and love's self sacrifice. 

Expo '67 — a city of the world in miniature was built by 9,000 workers 
and they toiled for three years to bring it to pass. Everyone who shared in 
the mammoth achievement, from the master minds who designed it, to the 
humblest unskilled labourer, must have realized the significance of the theme 
of Expo — "Man and his world." The title was suggested by a French author, 
Antoine de Saint Exupery, who wrote in one of his works, "To be a man is 
to feel that through one's own contribution one helps to build a world." In 
this connection I cannot do better than to quote the noble sentiments of the 
late General Vanier in a speech which he delivered when he assumed his 
exalted office as Governor-General of Canada. 'Each one of us, in his own way 
and place, however humble, must play his part towards the fulfilment of our 
national destiny. To realize how mighty this destiny will be, let us lift our 
eyes beyond the horizon of our time. In our march forward in material 
happiness, let us not neglect the spiritual threads in the weaving of our lives. 
If Canada is to attain the greatness worthy of it, each one of us must say : 
"I ask only to serve." 

If each one of us, in his own way, will strive by word and deed to live 
out the eternal gospel story, we shall hasten the dawn of the glad hour when 
God's will shall be done on earth as angels do it before His face in Heaven. 

These times are testing men's souls — but sursum corda — lift up your 
hearts. By God's Grace the best is yet to be. 

'T looked, aside the dust-clouds rolled, 
The waster was the builder too, 
Up-springing from the old 
I saw the new. 

T'was but the ruin of the bad, 
The wasting of the wrong and ill ; 
Whate'er of good the old time had 
Was living still. 

God works in all things, 

All obey his first propulsion 

From the night. 

Wake up and watch — the world is grey 

With morning light. 




M m — — h»i^np— — — — mi™« ■■ ■■ ■■ ■— »»— — — «»— ■■— . i^» — iJh 

«§M ■ ■ — ■ ■■ 11 ■ — - «>—.»^— ■.—■—— ■»— .1— 11^— ■■—l.^—W.^.j— ..—,,— _„-_ r |^_| ,|, ? 

No. 93 






by M. W. Bro. R. V. Horris 

Read at a meeting of the Association 
at St. John's, Newfoundland, October 25, 1967 ! I 




• » 

y»^— ■ ■■ ■■ ■■■■ — — ■■ m ■■ ■■ ■ ■■ ■■ m m ■■ m u m ■■ ■■—■<{» j 



(1746 — 1832) 

by M. W. Bro. R. V. Harris 

The first authority for the practice of Freemasonry in North America 
was that granted by the Duke of Norfolk, Grand Master of England, on 5th 
June, 1730, to Col. Daniel Coxe, appointing him as Provincial Grand Master 
of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Previous to this authority, 
there is ground for the belief that Freemasons, probably from England and 
Scotland congregated without any special authority, such as a warrant. At 
this time there were apparently several lodges in Philadelphia, one of which 
included Benjamin Franklyn. In 1734, Franklyn reprinted Anderson's Con- 
stitutions, the first known Masonic book published in North America. 

Again, on the 30th of April, 1733, the Grand Master of England, Viscount 
Montague, commissioned Henry Price to be "Provincal Grand Master of Free 
and Accepted Masons in New England and Dominions and territories there- 
unto belonging," with power to "constitute the Brethren now residing or who 
shall hereafter reside in those parts into one or more regular lodge or lodges." 
Under this authority, Price formed a Lodge on the 30th July , 1733 at the 
Bunch of Grapes in King Street, Boston, now known as St. John's Lodge, 
and the first in New England. Eight of its nineteen members had previously 
been made Masons either in Boston or elsewhere. 


The next event of interest to us is the record of the initiation in Boston 
of Major Erasmus James Philipps of Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, on 14th 
November 1737. He and one, William Sheriff, from Annapolis and already 
a Mason, joined St. John's Lodge that night. 

Sometime between November 14th, 1737 and March 21st, 1738, Price 
appointed Philipps as his Deputy in Nova Scotia and granted a dispensation 
or warrant for a Lodge at Annapolis Royal, which place, since 1717, had 
been garrisoned by Colonel Richard Philipps' Regiment. 

At this point, we must interject a bit of history: 


This settlement had a long and interesting history. Fortified by the 
French as early as 1660, it became a place of considerable importance. In 
1690 it was taken by surprise by a party of English filibusters or pirates, but 
seems to have been given up immediately to the French for on September 15, 
1690, the English with five men of war, appeared before the fort, but no siege 
was made and the French continued in occupation until 1713. 


In 1704, the French leader, Subercase, was appointed to command at 
Placentia and immediately made a vigorous attack on the English settlements, 
besieging St. John's for five weeks, but unsuccessfully. The warfare con- 
tinued in 1708, under Costabelle, with another attack on St. John's, then de- 
fended by three forts. The attack ended in the re-capture of the place, leaving 
Carboniere as the only English settlement on the Island. 

Placentia then became a base for privateering operations against English 
commerce between Newfoundland and the West Indies. After the capture of 
Port Royal (now Annapolis Royal) in 1710, some of the French families 
there were sent to Placentia, and it continued to be a base for attacks on 
English enterprise in Nova Scotia and New England for the next four years. 

This uneasy situation however was ended by the Treaty of Utrecht in 
1713, when Newfoundland was ceded to England, with all fortifications intact, 
and Costabelle, the French governor, delivered up Placentia to Col. John 
Moody, appointed as Lieut-Governor. Costabelle was transferred to Louis- 
bourg in Cape Breton, along with about twenty French families and 82 fishing 
boats. Col. Moody continued as Governor at Placentia until the appointment 
of Col. Richard Philipps. 

In 1717, Col. Richard Philipps was sent to Annapolis Royal, and 
authorized to form a regiment for the defence of Nova Scotia and Newfound- 
land. Philipps Regiment was composed of eight previously independent com- 
panies, four stationed at Annapolis and four at Placentia. In 1722, three of 
these latter companies were removed to Annapolis leaving only one at Placentia. 

In 1744, the garrison consisted of three officers and 45 men. On Major 
Cope's death in that year, Capt. Otho Hamilton was appointed Lieut.-Governor, 
holding the office, more or less nominally, after 1754, until his death in 1770. 
(McLennan p. 122) 


In the records of the St. John's (Boston) Provincial Grand Lodge under 
date December 24, 1746, we find it stated, that 

"At the Petition of Sundry Brethren residing at New- 

foundland, Our Rt. Worshipful Grand Master Granted a Constitution 
for a Lodge to be held there, and appointed the Rt. Worshipful Mr. 

to be their first Master." 

For the next twenty-one years, that is, until 1769, we find in the Boston 
records that the "Lodge in Newfoundland was "not represented" or "nobody 
appeared" for it at the meetings of the Grand Lodge. 

This Lodge in Newfoundland joined in a petition sent to the Grand Lodge 
of England in 1754, asking for the appointment of Jeremy Gridley as Grand 
Master in North America. Just where in Newfoundland the Lodge was located 
is an unsolved question, it would have been either at Placentia or St. John's 
or both. 


From several regimental histories, we learn that the Fortieth Regiment 
continued to garrison Annapolis and St. John's, during the siege of Louisbourg 
in 1745; also that from 1752 to 1755, the regiment had its headquarters at 
Halifax with detachments at several forts and outposts ; also the further note 
that on November 1, 1757, eight companies were concentrated at Halifax, with 
one company at Placentia and the tenth at St. John's. Again in June 1762, 
the Company under Capt. John Hamilton was at Placentia, while the tenth 
at St. John's was obliged to surrender to a vastly superior French force and 
was later transported to England. 


It is the writer's belief that in this period 1746-69 Placentia was never 
without a garrison, that is, a company of the 40th Regiment, along with a 
lodge, and further that a second lodge was formed in the tenth Company at 
St. John's, some time between 1757 and 1767, for on July 25, 1766 a second 
lodge appeared in the lists as "St. John's, Newfoundland Lodge" after the entry 
"Newfoundland Lodge" and again in the lists for January 23, 1767 and April 
24, 1767. In other words, there were two Lodges in Newfoundland, one at 
Placentia from 1746 to 1767 and the second at St. John's, formed perhaps 
locally, both owing allegiance to the Provincial Grand Lodge in Boston. 


In 1751 a rival Grand Lodge was formed in England, sometimes later 
known as the Atholl Grand Lodge, after its Grand Master, the Duke of Atholl, 
who was also Grand Master of Scotland in 1773. This rivalry was finally 
ended by the Act of Union in 1813 which formed the one body, since known 
as the United Grand Lodge of England. 


This second, or Atholl Grand Lodge, issued its warrant on 24th March 
1774 for St. John's Lodge in St. John's, Newfoundland — which worked until 
1832. This Lodge was known as the "St. John's Newfoundland Lodge No. 
186" and met for some years at the "London Tavern." 

Thomas Todridge W.M. 

Thomas Murphy S.W. 

Peter Snyder J.W. 

The earliest evidence we have been able to find of this St. John's Lodge 
No. 186 is a certificate issued to one WILLIAM EVANS in 1792 and reading 
as follows: (See next page) 

Seal of 



Mo j mmm t it m^ W 



; f : 







,/- — i 

m^M4^L v^M 



»•' -Taw**-.*-* 

Certificate from St. John's Lodge No. 186 issued in 1792. 


To all whom it may Concern 

We do hereby certify that BROTHER WILLIAM EVANS 

is a regular Registered MASTER MASON, in Lodge No. 186 

and has during His stay amongst us, behaved HIMSELF 

as become an Honest Brother. 

Given under Our Hands, and 

the Seal of our LODGE, at St. John's, Newfoundland 

this Fifteenth Day of September 1792 and of Masonry 5792 

James Little Master 

John Brophy Senior Warden 

Thos. Warren Junior Warden 

Mich'l Little, Secretary 
Admitted 29th Day of Deer. 1791 
Declared off 15th Day of Sept. 5792 

The archives of the present St. John's Lodge also contain a certificate 
issued by this Lodge in 1798, signed by Simon Solomon, Master; Chris. Dent, 
Senior Warden, and William Evans, Junior Warden, with Michael Little as 

This old certificate bears the printed seal of the Lodge, as well as a wax 
seal which is now illegible ; the body of the certificate was printed in London, 
so that it must have been the usual form in use for some time by the Lodge. 

Another old certificate from the Lodge reads ; 


We do hereby Certify that BROTHER Mathew Murch 
is a regular registered MASTER-MASON, in Lodge 
No. 186 and has during His Stay amongst us behaved 
Himself as became an Honest Brother. 

Given under OUR HANDS and the SEAL of our 
LODGE at St. John's, Newfoundland, this Fifteenth 
Day of November 1798 and of Masonry 5798. 

Simon Solomon Master 

William Evans _ Junior Warden 

Chris Dent — - Senior Warden 

Mich'l. Little 



Printed Seal 

Admitted 13th Day of May 1794 
Declared off 15th Day of Nov. 5798. 


In 1794, William Evans rejoined the Lodge and became its Master in June 
1798, but again declared off on leaving in December 1797 — serving as Junior 
Warden in 1798 — and again demitted on 10th December 1799, when he again 
left for England. 

Michael Little served as Secretary from 1796 to 1798, and Chris Dent, 
who was Senior Warden in 1798, became Secretary in 1799. 

We know that this Lodge was active and that its members included a 
number of military personnel. One record says : "in 1810 its membership was 
composed largely of Royal Artillerymen," but its returns to Grand Lodge 
were very irregular. At the union of the two rival Grand Lodges in England, 
in 1813, St. John's Lodge was assigned No. 226, which at the closing up of 
the lodge numbers was changed to No. 159, but the Lodge was not erased 
from the Grand Lodge roll until 1859. 

The Lodge lost its regalia and records in the fire of 1832 after which 
it apparently became inactive. 


The next chapter in the history of Masonry in Newfoundland must be 
associated with the period of the late 1700's and the early 1800's when there 
was a prosperous trade between Poole in Dorset and Newfoundland. For over 
three centuries (1583-1933) the two were closely linked by trade, and there 
were hundreds of points of contact, as is evidenced to this day by the names 
of Dorsetshire families in Newfoundland; persons, places, bays and villages. 
It was from Poole and Dorset that the fisherfolk came in all types of craft 
from thirty-five to 200 tons, to prosecute the cod-fishing and the sealing 
industry, and to people the Island with a sturdy race of colonists. 


Back in Poole there was, and is, a famous Lodge, the Lodge of Amity. 
Its relationship to Freemasonry in Newfoundland is an intensely interesting 
story. The history of this old Lodge is told in most informative narrative 
by Harry P. Smith in his History of the Lodge, published in 1937. 

Scores of vessels were sailed by members of the Dorsetshire Lodge. Bro. 
Joseph Garland, a member in 1779 and Bro. William Spurrier 1785 are early 
examples of ship-masters or owners who knew the coasts of Newfoundland 
as they knew the southern coast of England. The commerce both ways, 
was enormous. 

In the minutes of Amity Lodge we find frequent references to visiting 
brethren from the New World: 

"May 7, 1766, Hugh McPhillimy of Halifax in Nova Scotia. 

Feb. 20, 1769, Michael Franklyn, Lt. Gov. of Halifax. 

April 18, 1770, Dewes Cokes, M.M. now of the Island of Newfoundland, 
a surgeon. 


Feb. 6, 1771, E.A. Bro. Pat Terry of Dungarvon in Ireland, late of 

Dec. 16, 1784, Alexander Wilson of Placentia, 
James Warwick of Placentia. 

Dec. 1, 1790, Rd. Waterman of Newfoundland" and others. 


While not directly concerned with Michael Franklyn, we should like to 
say that this is the first bit of evidence that we have found of his membership 
in the Craft. His father of the same name was a prominent merchant in Poole 
and Mayor during the years 1736-38. The son, born in Poole came to Halifax 
in 1750, when he was only seventeen years of age, and soon rose to a position 
of influence becoming a member of the Legislature in 1759 ! 

On January 21st, 1762, he was married in Boston to Susannah, daughter 
of Joseph Boutineau, a kinsman of Peter Fanueil. He had five sons and five 

In the same year he was appointed a member of the Council of the Prov- 
ince and in 1769 was appointed Lieut. Governor of the Province. 

In the period of the American Revolution, he was a man of great influence 
and organized the Militia in defence of the Province. He died in 1783. 

As stated above this is the first record we have found of his membership 
in the Masonic Craft and the evidence undoubtedly points to his having been 
initiated in the First Lodge in Halifax, now St. Andrew's Lodge No. 1. This 
Lodge founded by the Hon. Edward Cornwallis in 1750 transferred to the 
Ancients in 1757 becoming No. 155 on the English Registry and No. 4 on the 
local or Provincial Registry in 1768. 


Was a settler at Trinity, and a surgeon by profession. Judge Prowse in 
his History of Newfoundland says that "to eke out his small income as a 
doctor, he had acted as a scrivener, justice of the peace, and keeper of the 
rolls." From Trinity he migrated to St. John's, became chief judge and 
continued to preside in the Supreme Court as Lord Chief Justice until 1797." 

As the date of his visit to the Lodge of Amity as a Master Mason was 
April 18, 1770, it would indicate that in some previous year a Masonic lodge 
may have existed at Trinity. 


As already indicated, lodges in military units of the British Army worked 
in Newfoundland in these early days. One example is the Lodge in the Fourth 
Battalion of the Royal Artillery. This Lodge was constituted on October 18, 
1781, while the battalion was at New York. Two years later when the British 
Army evacuated New York, the battalion was moved to St. John's, Newfound- 
land and finally to Woolwich, England. 



The next lodge formed in order of time would seem to be one constituted 
by the "Moderns" at Placentia in 1784, No. 455; changed to No. 367 in 1792 
and erased in 1813. 

A second lodge at Placentia was constituted by the "Ancients" on May 
2, 1788 as No. 250; named Placentia in 1806, renumbered in 1814 as 317 and 
erased in 1815. 

A certificate, issued by the Lodge of Harmony, Placentia, dated August 
7, 1807. and signed by Daniel Hodgeson, Master; Joshus Blackburn, S.W., 
Edward Larkin, J.W., and Secretary is in the possession of the present day 
St. John's Lodge, St. John's. 

In the Anglican Cathedral across the street from the Masonic Temple, 
in St. John's, is a silver communion service presented by the Duke of Clarence 
later King William IV of England, who, along with his surgeon, Francis 
Bradshaw, is said to have belonged to the Lodge of Harmony at Placentia. 

This Lodge met in a building, owned by Bradshaw, and formerly the 
officers' quarters when Placentia was the French capital of Newfoundland. 


The first lodge at Harbour Grace would seem to have been warranted by 
the "Moderns" on April 30, 1785, as No. 470; renumbered in 1792 as No. 381; 
and erased at the Union in 1813. 

No records are known to exist of this Lodge. 

In the History of the Lodge of Amity is recorded a very interesting 
letter written by Thomas Dunckerley, Prov. G.M. of Dorset to William 
White, Grand Secretary : 

Hampton Court Place, 
April 21st, 1785. 

Dear Brother: 

Cavil and Dissipation prevented my talking to you at the Quarterly 
Communication on real Masonry. You may remember I jockey'd Dermot 
(Lawrence Dermott, Dep. G.M. of the "Ancients" Grand Lodge, 1751), 
by obtaining a warrant for a Lodge at Placentia, it has produced another 
petition for a Lodge at Harbour Grace on the Island. I rec'd it this 
morning under cover of a letter from my very worthy Deputy, Doctor 
Campbell of Pool. I beg you will get it executed (in the same manner as 
that for Gloucester) as soon as possible & send it (by the Pool Coach) to 
Alex Campbell, Esq., at that place, as the ship that is to convey it is under 
sailing orders, xxx I shall be glad to have a line from you in return that I 
may acquaint Bro. Campbell with the success of the Petition for New- 
foundland xxx 

Thos. Dunckerley. 


Dunckerley's victory over Dermott was not actually a triumph for the 
"Moderns" for the only two warrants issued by that Grand Lodge for New- 
foundland were that of 1785 for No. 470 in Harbour Grace and No. 455 for 
the Lodge of Placentia in the previous year. 

After the Union of 1813, that is, on November 15th, 1824, a warrant was 
issued for a second Lodge at Harbour Grace, known as the Lodge of Order 
and Harmony No. 796. No members were registered in London and the 
Lodge was erased in 1832. 


The next lodge at St. John's was known as Benevolent Lodge No. 247, 
established by the "Ancients" in March 1788, meeting at the "London Tavern" 
in St. John's. It received its name in 1804. 

It is significant of the growing feeling of friendship between brethren 
of two rival Grand Lodges in England, which later resulted in their union in 
1813, that on July 31, 1811, Bro. John Hosier, a member of Benevolent Lodge, 
St. John's, No. 247, was admitted a visitor, in the Lodge of Amity (Moderns) 
at Poole, and a week later balloted for and accepted as a member, without 
the necessity of being "remade" or of paying the accustomed fees. 

At the time of the Union in 1813, the Lodge was renumbered as 312, and 
again in 1832 as 220. 

The writer has in his possession a copy of a demit issued by the Ben- 
evolent Lodge No. 312/247 to one George R. Maurice on September 2nd, 1810. 
It reads as follows : 


WE DO HERBY CERTIFY that Brother George R. Maurice is a regular 
Registered Master Mason in the BENEVOLENT LODGE No. 312/247 and 
has during his stay among us conducted himself as became an honest and 
faithful Brother and as such we recommend him to all Regular Lodges and 
Brethren round the Globe. 

Given under our hands and Seal of our Lodge at ST. JOHN'S, NEW- 
FOUNDLAND this 2nd day of September in the year of Masonry 5810. 

Pat Huie _ Master 

H. McCalman S.W. 

N. Cullen J.W. 

Hannibal Church, Secy. 

Admitted 18th day of January 5808 

SEAL Declared off 2nd day of September 5810 

In the history of the Lodge of Amity, there is the record of a letter dated 
August 7, 1827 from Edward Harper, Grand Secretary to Bro. John Sydenham, 
in which he mentions the "Quarterly Communications for the three Lodges in 


Newfoundland, which you will be pleased to forward as directed by earliest 



This would indicate the existence at that time of Benevolent Lodge at 
St. John's No. 312; Order and Harmony No. 796 at Harbour Grace and 
Union Lodge No. 698 at Trinity. 

That the Royal Arch degree was conferred in this Lodge is established 
by a certificate which has recently come to my notice, issued to the same 
George Maurice previously mentioned. This certificate reads as follows : 


In the Name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost 


These are to certify that the Bearer hereof, Our trusty and well beloved 
Brother GEORGE MAURICE, is a regular Registered Royal Arch Excellent 
Mason, in our Chapter held under the sanction of Lodge No. 226 A.Y.M. 
He having first served his time regularly in every previous degree of Masonry, 
and did with due Decorum, Fortitude, & Resolution sustain and support the 
various and several trials that attended the Initiation into this most sublime 
degree of a Royal Arch Excellent Mason. Likewise behaving himself since 
his admission as becometh a worthy Brother. 

And as such we recommend him to all regular Royal Arch Chapters round 
the Globe. 

Given under our Hands, and the Seal of our Lodge in St. John's, New- 
foundland, this 28th day of September, 1816, and of Masonry, 5816. 

John Brophy H.P. 

W. Mahon King 

Robert Lee Scribe 

Robert Shaw Cherub 


Jas. Anderson 
Royal Arch Captain 

The Lodge was erased in 1853. 

At the time of the establishment of Benevolent Lodge, a second Lodge 
was established, March 31, 1788 in St. John's, known as Town or Garrison 
Lodge No. 249. It lapsed in 1804. There are no records. 


A "reference book" on Newfoundland history (just what book is not 
known) states that "the date on the fly leaf of an old book on Freemasonry, 
indicates a Masonic Lodge at Trinity on April 20, 1795." 


If this be so, it would seem likely that the brethren named below as 
founders of Union Lodge at Trinity in 1817 (other than those made Masons 
in the Lodge of Amity) may have received their Masonic degrees in the earlier 
lodge of 1795. 

Apart from this supposition, we have no account of the Lodge of 1795. 
It may well be that Union Lodge No. 698, to be mentioned below was the 
revival of the earlier lodge of 1795. 

Union Lodge No. 698 was warranted on September 21, 1817 by the Grand 
Lodge of England, and may in a very real sense be regarded as a daughter of 
the Lodge of Amity. Of the fifteen brethren mentioned in the warrant, the 
Master John Clinch and four others were initiated in the Lodge of Amity, 
while two others belonged to well known Poole families. 

The names of the founders of Union Lodge with the dates of initiation 
in Amity Lodge are : 

John Clinch March 31, 1780 

Thomas Gaylor January 25, 1788 

Samson Mifflin August 21, 1793 

John Jomes November 18, 1795 

Philip Hamon December 7, 1808 

Thomas Wanhell January 18, 1815 

Robert Slade July 1, 1818 (affiliated) 

John Walters James Weller 

Thomas Peel William Alexander 

James Ockley Robert Jones 

Richard Ash Thomas Ponell 

Just where the last eight petitioners were initiated into Masonry has not 
been determined ; but it would seem probable that they received their Masonic 
degrees in Newfoundland. 

The first officers names in dispensation were John Lander as Master, 
whose name does not appear in the warrant issued September 21, 1817. In 
that document John Clinch was named as Master ; Richard Ash as Senior 
Warden ; and Thomas Ponell as Junior Warden. Robert Ash was Master in 
1819 and Joseph Taverner, Secretary from 1816 to 1822. It would seem that 
Robert Ash and Joseph Taverner may have joined the Lodge while under 

The outstanding member of this Lodge was John Clinch, closely asso- 
ciated with Edward Jenner in the discovery of vaccine as a preventive of 
smallpox, later an ordained clergyman of the Church of England, the compiler 
of the first glossary of the native Beothuck Indians of Newfoundland, and 
distinguished in other fields of service. Truly a thrilling story to be told 
some other time. 

The petition for Union Lodge was presented to the Lodge of Amity in 
September 1817 and endorsed and recommended to the Grand Master for a 


Union &dge oftfiinityMmtQ. 

<9onsccrated 181?. 

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The Lodge number was changed to 451 in 1832 and erased in 1859. Un- 
fortunately there are no minute books or other records of its most interesting 


The jewels of the officers of the Lodge however have existed to the 
present time. 

It was a Poole merchant, Bro. George Hancock, who purchased them 
and presented them to Lodge Tasker, No. 454 (Scot.) at St. John's for safe 


In a paper by Bro. Nathan G. Penney, J.W., of Lodge Tasker No. 454 
(Scot. Cons.) read at a meeting of the Lodge, held on September 18, 1958, 
to commemorate the 25th anniversary of "Poole Night in Newfoundland," 
the author told the interesting story o* the officers' jewels of Union Lodge 
of Trinity and exhibited them to the large audience of Brethren present. 

After the demise of the Lodge, the jewels of some of the officers came 
into the possession of a private individual in 1868 and were purchased by 
Lodge Tasker for £8. They later went through the fire which destroyed the 
Masonic Temple in 1892 but were recovered from the ruins and now hang 
framed on the wall of the Lodge room of the present Masonic Temple in St. 
John's. There are ten jewels in all and they were undoubtedly made by the 
same craftsman. 

The Master's jewel is of rare beauty and from the mark of the craftsman 
can be identified as the work of Thomas Hancock, noted English silversmith 
of about 150 years ago. The same craftsman made several of the jewels of 
the Grand Lodge of England displayed at Freemasons' Hall, London. He may 
have been related to Bro. George Hancock mentioned above. 

Between the points of the compasses and standing on the segment of the 
circle are two columns surmounted by an arch and keystone. Above the key- 
stone is the monogram of the Royal Arch degree, a T standing on the crossbar 
of an H, the whole surrounded by a circle, evidence, it is submitted, that 
Union Lodge conferred the Royal Arch degree. 

The Treasurer's jewel is also of special interest, depicting two crossed 
keys upon a medallion displaying a "Pelican in Prudence" (depicting that bird 
feeding its young with its own blood from its breast), an emblem of another 
branch of Masonry, the Order of the Rosy Cross. 

All ten jewels are well made and are well grouped in a glass covered 
case, to which is affixed a card bearing the legend : "The property of Lodge 
Tasker, No. 454, S.C." and the signatures of Sir John R. Bennett, D.G.M., 
E.C.," W. J. Edgar, D.G. Secy., all of the District Grand Lodge of England 
in Newfoundland and Rev. G. R. Blount and other notables of Dorset Free- 

/;/ July 1933, a delegation of Newfoundland Masons, which included Sir 
John R. Bennett, K.B.E., District Grand Master for Newfoundland (Eng. 


Const.) attended the Dedication of the new Masonic Memorial Temple in 
London and other gatherings on the programme. Following the conclusion of 
this programme, these Masons paid a visit to the Lodge of Amity at Poole 
in Dorset, designated as "Newfoundland Night in Poole." 

The published History of the Lodge of Amity contains a full page plate 
of Bro. I. J. Mifflin, displaying the jewels of Union Lodge, together with 
the statement that the original photograph was presented to the Lodge on 
this occasion, and that Bro. Mifflin was the grandson of Bro. Samson 
Mifflin, a member of the Lodge of Amity and a founder of Union Lodge 
of Trinity, Newfoundland. 

If the reader has carefully read the story of Freemasonry as set forth 
above, he will have noted that all Lodges formed in Newfoundland in the 
period 1746 to 1832, ceased to exist by the latter date. In that year the lights 
in the last existing lodge flickered out and for the next fifteen or sixteen years 
there is no evidence of any Masonic activity, for it was not until 1848 that 
we find any record of the Masonic Craft in the Colony. The story of its 
new beginnings and progress is of very special interest. 



I »■ ■ - ~ . " . ." . , I" — .. „ M " .. " .. " «JI M .. . "" , „ „ ,. UIaT 

No. 94 






Founder of Scottish Rite Masonry and 

Royal Order of Scotland 

in British Columbia. 

- by - 

Bro. Evans F. Greer 

I 4**— ~ 

•+ 1 


Joseph Richard Seymour, 33° 


Joseph Richard Seymour 

Joseph Richard Seymour was born in St. Catharines, Ontario, January 
19th, 1858, died December 11, 1933 in his 77th year, and was buried in Moun- 
tain View Cemetery, Vancouver, B.C. 

As a boy he attended St. Paul Street Methodist Church and Sunday 
School, and later became a member of St. George's Anglican Church, St. 
Catharines. When he moved to British Columbia he became a member of 
Christ Church Cathedral, Vancouver. 

He attended St. Catharines public and private schools, also Grantham 
High School. On entering university he started to train for a doctor and 
later became a pharmacist because of a medical condition. 

After graduating as a pharmacist he opened a drug store at 51 St. Paul 
Street, St. Catharines where the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce now 
stands at St. Paul and Queen Streets. 

He married Adele Ann Adams who was born at Goderich, Ontario but 
lived in St. Catharines for a few years before they were married. There 
were four children by this union : two sons, Murton and Richard Ansley 
(Paper No. 84), also two daughters, both living at the present time and in 
Vancouver, B.C. 

Business Career 

About 1892 he moved to Vancouver and opened his first drug store there 
at Seymour and Hastings Streets. He later opened a second store at Gran- 
ville and Georgia Streets opposite the C.P.R. hotel which has now been torn 
down. This hotel was called the "Vancouver" and was a magnificent edifice 
for that time. 

About 1906 he sold both stores and went into real estate and insurance 
business called Seymour, Marshall, Storey and Blair. Mr. Marshall had been 
a druggist in St. Catharines, Ont. at one time. They carried on this business 
until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 at which time real estate in 
Vancouver suddenly took a downward trend. 

Seymour also became interested in financial and insurance companies, being 
president of the Hudson's Bay Mortgage Corp. of Vancouver and vice-president 
of the North Amercian Building and Loan Co. Brother Seymour was trea- 
surer of the Vancouver Branch of the Red Cross during the Boer War and 
at the outbreak of World War I was made first vice-president of that orga- 
nization. During the war he organized a Canadian Red Cross Association 
for the mainland of British Columbia and was active in Victory Loan promo- 
tion and in connection with the Patriotic Fund. 

He later accepted a position as superintendent for the Vancouver Docks 
and remained in such position until the time of his passing. 


Public Speaker 

He was a good public speaker and was always in great demand to speak 
on Masonry and as a layman for the Anglican Church. These were his main 
outside interests. He was president of the B.C. Conservative Association for a 
number of years and here again he was called on many times as a public 
speaker. He enjoyed the political hustings of a good campaign. 

Illustrious Father 

Although Joseph Richard Seymour was an illustrious Mason he had a 
father who was an illustrious Mason also. C.M.R.A. (Paper No. 84). His father 
was Grand Master of Grand Lodge of Canada, D.D.G.M. for two terms, Grand 
First Principal of Royal Arch Masons (Ontario) and Right Eminent in 
Knights Templar. He would no doubt have reached Supreme Grand Master 
of Knights Templar if it had not been for failing health during his last years. 
This record has only been exceeded by two other great Masons in Canada; 
a, very fine gentleman living in Halifax, Nova Scotia, 111. Bro. R. V. Harris 
and the late Clarence MacLeod Pitts. I should point out however, that this 
latter great Mason had the same standing in York Rite Masonry as James 
Seymour but he was also Sovereign Grand Commander in the Scottish Rite. 

A recent event of historical significance took place in the Masonic Temple, 
Port Dalhousie Ward, St. Catharines, on December 7, 1966 when Brother 
Murton Seymour presented Seymour Lodge No. 277 with the Master's Chair 
in memory of his illustrious grandfather who had founded the Lodge in 1872 
when he was the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Canada. 

Sovereign Grand Inspector General 

On April 22, 1930, our Illustrious Brother was entertained by the 20th 
degree team of Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Valley of Portland, 
Oregon. Brother Seymour made the special trip to Portland, Oregon for the 
purpose of encouraging the exchange of fraternal visitations between the two 
jurisdictions, thereby aiding to create an increased friendly understanding and 
relationship between all members. 

A Masonic history and picture of Brother Seymour was sent to all 
members of the 20th degree team before the visit so that they would be better 
acquainted with "J.R." or "Dick" as he was known. They pointed out with 
pride that this is a record of a high-principled, unselfish, democratic, dignified 
and a kindly leader loved by all who knew him. 

Civic Life 

Of wonderful physique and striking, handsome appearance, one would 
expect, and justly so, that our brother was an outstanding figure in the public 
life of the City of Vancouver for many years and gained a prominent place 
on the roll of the City pioneers. He was a leader in several important business 
enterprises ; a well known churchman who took an active part in the estab- 
lishment of the Anglican Theological College (with which he was still con- 
nected at the time of his death) ; a former chairman of the Vancouver School 


Board ; a prominent Red Cross worker ; and an ex-member of the Soldiers 
Settlement Board. He was also Honorary Lay Secretary of the Anglican 
Diocese of New Westminster and Lay Delegate to the Anglican General Synod. 

Daughter's Memoirs 

Adele Seymour, living in Vancouver, and named after her mother, writes : 

"He was head of the Royal Order of Scotland, which he instituted here 
by request from Scotland. 

"He had a pleasing sense of humour and was quite merry, enjoying a 
good joke." 

Masonic History 

Our beloved Brother received the Third degree in Masonry June 8th, 1879 
in Elgin Lodge No. 349, A.F. & A.M., St. Thomas, Ont. later affiliating 
with Temple Lodge No. 297, St. Catharines, Ont. where he was elected Wor- 
shipful Master in 1887 and re-elected to that office for two consecutive years. 

On July 8, 1929, he celebrated his 50th Anniversary as a Craft Mason. 

He received the 14° A. & A.S.R. in Murton Lodge of Perfection, Ham- 
ilton, Ont. in June 1892 and became a life member thereof. 

Scottish Rite Masonry was not very active in British Columbia at the 
time Bro. Seymour took up his residence there, and he at once began an 
active campaign to establish a Lodge of Perfection, which effort was 
eminently successful and the dispensation therefor granted in July 1896. So 
happily did this work progress that a charter was granted to this Lodge 
of Perfection on October 28, 1897, of which Lodge Bro. Seymour became 
Thrice Puissant Grand Master in 1898, retiring from that office in 1900. 

Whilst visiting in the East (Ontario) in 1898, he received the 18° in the 
City of Hamilton, returning to Vancouver to receive almost immediately a 
dispensation for the establishment of a Chapter of Rose Croix, upon the 
successful and earnest working of which a charter was granted October 25, 
1902, Bro. Seymour becoming the Most Wise Sovereign the following year. 

In 1905 a charter was granted for a Vancouver Consistory and 111. Bro. 
Seymour became the first Commander-in-Chief, filling this position for three 
years. This completed the establishing of the Scottish Rite with all its bodies 
for the Valley of British Columbia. 

Our Brother was appointed Special Deputy for the Province of British 
Columbia in 1901 and continued in that office until 1910. 

He was created an Honorary Inspector-General 33° at a special session 
of Supreme Council called for that purpose in Toronto in July 1903. 

On October 26, 1910 he was crowned a Sovereign Grand Inspector 
General, Active member in the Supreme Council of A. & A.S.R. for the 
Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland and elected Deputy for British 


Columbia, which position he held until the time of his death. 111. Bro. Sey- 
mour was easily the dean among our deputies at the time of his death and 
far out-distanced in time of service any who have occupied a corresponding 
position in any of our provinces. 

No Mason in British Columbia was better known or more highly re- 
spected than 111. Bro. Seymour. A Past Master in his Craft Lodge, while 
living in St. Catharines, he was also a member of Seymour Lodge at Port 
Dalhousie, now St. Catharines. His father, having been a Past Master of the 
Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario, this lodge having been 
named for him. His mother, Elizabeth (Murton) Seymour, was sister of 
the late 111. Bro. John W. Murton, past M. :.P. : Sovereign Grand Commander 
of the Supreme Council for Canada, after whom was named the Murton Lodge 
of Perfection, Hamilton, Ont. C.M.R.A. (Paper No. 70) 

In Capitular Masonry he was exalted in Mount Moriah Chapter No. 19, 
St. Catharines, Ont. in November 1892, immediately after which his family 
took up their permanent residence in Vancouver, B.C. when and where he 
affiliated with Cascade Lodge No. 12, A.F. & A.M. and in 1894 with Van- 
couver Chapter No. 98, Royal Arch Masons. In 1913 he was First Principal. 
In 1916 he was appointed Representative of the Grand Lodge of Canada, in 
Ontario, for the Grand Lodge of British Columbia. 111. Bro. Seymour was 
also representative of the Supreme Council for the Argentine Republic near 
the Supreme Council for Canada, and at the time of his death was Provincial 
Grand Master of the Royal Order of Scotland in the Provinces of British 
Columbia and Alberta. 

Masonic Medals 

John E. Taylor, Oakville, Ontario, having access to these Jewels, describes 
them as follows : 

1. First Principal's Jewel presented to our late Excellent Companion in 1913 
by Royal Arch Masons, Chapter No. 98, Vancouver, B.C. 

2. A Jewel presented to him in 1905 after he had been Commander-in-Chief 
of the Consistory. 

3. Jewel of the Constituting Officer for the Okanagan Lodge of Perfection, 
Vernon, B.C., 21st March, 1930. 

4. A special Jewel presented to our 111. Brother J. R. Seymour with a history 
etched on the back of his Masonic activities stating definitely that he had 
founded Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Masonry in British Columbia 
in 1895. 

For a term of four or five years prior to his demise, in the face of a very 
indifferent condition of health, Bro. Seymour bravely crossed the continent 
to attend Supreme Council ; those who knew his fight recognized his great 
courage. In 1933, he arrived accompanied by Mrs. Seymour in the City of 
Ottawa, attended to his official work with great clearness of vision and 
much apparent enjoyment. After the luncheon on breaking-up day at the 
Seigneury Club at Lucerne, 111., Bro. Seymour and Mrs. Seymour proceeded 


to visit the Convention of the Mother Supreme Council A. & A.S.R. of the 
World at Washington, D.C. Bro. Seymour transmitted as Sovereign Grand 
Commander, a delightful report of the proceedings which took place in Wash- 
ington, expressing the wish and his belief that when all Active members of 
our Council at least should become acquainted with the members and the 
work of the Southern Supreme Council. 

Although ailing for some time, his death came as a distinct shock to his 
many friends who had hoped that he was on the road to recovery. 

The funeral service, most beautiful, solemnly impressive, was held on 
14th December, 1933 from Christ Church Cathedral conducted by R. W. Bro. 
His Grace Archbishop de Pencier to Mountain View Cemetery. 

The Soul, of origin divine, 

God's glorious image, freed from clay, 
In heaven's eternal sphere shall shine 
A star of day. 


A. & A.S.R. records 

12° A. & A.S.R. records, Portland, Oregon 

John Taylor, Oakville 

Adele Seymour, Vancouver 

Murton Seymour, St. Catharines 



-II ■■ ■ M »■ «■ ■ H— 11— ■■—— 11^— U m 11^—11—11—11^—11 1| — n H M— »fr 

Jw « m — m ■■ ■ n^— 1»^— n^— ■■ «■ m^— ««^— n— «^— n t i ii m n n n | A 



No. 95. 









11 11 11 11 11 11 ■ ■ H ■ ■ 11 ■ M M 11 11- 



—1 11 M 


M ..P. Sovereign Grand Commander 



On March 15, 1969, Clarence MacLeod Pitts, of Ottawa, while attending 
a meeting of the Advisory Council of the Presbyterian Church in Canada at 
Toronto, suffered a coronary attack and was immediately confined to hospital. 
He appeared to be making slow but steady progress toward recovery, when, 
without warning, he suffered a fatal stroke on April 7 and passed away on 
April 10 without gaining consciousness. Thus passed from the scene one of 
Canada's great Masons, churchmen, industrialist, and philanthropist. 

Family Background 

Clarence Pitts was born at Fredericton, N.B., May 5, 1894, the second 
son of Herman Henry Pitts and Alexandrina MacLeod. He received his 
early education at the Fredericton Model School. When the family moved to 
Ottawa in 1903, he continued his education in the Ottawa Public Schools, the 
Lisgar Collegiate Institute and then at McGill University, Montreal, from which 
he graduated in 1914 with the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineer- 

In 1933, he married Elsie Georgina King of Ottawa who predeceased 
him on June 19, 1958. There were no children of the marriage 

Professional Life 

On graduation from McGill University, Clarence Pitts immediately 
entered upon the work for which he was trained, that of engineering. His 
labours took him to Halifax, Hawkesbury and Montreal as well as to Ottawa. 
World War I broke in upon this for a period, and he enlisted in the Second 
Battery of the Canadian Field Artillery and attended the Royal School of 
Artillery at Halifax, afterwards joining the 10th Siege Battery C.E.F. at 
Halifax with the rank of Lieutenant. 

Following the Peace, he joined his father and brother Gordon, in the 
Pitts Construction Co., the Canadian-American Exporters and the People's 
Gas Supply Company, becoming President and General manager of each. 

A most successful business man, he was supremely happy in his relations 
with employees, business associates and competitors. His several endeavours 
gave him opportunity to take an active part in commercial and professional 

He was a life member of the Engineering Institute of Canada; Chairman 
of the Ottawa Branch in 1933 ; and Councillor in the years 1934 and 1935. He 
was also a member of the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario ; 
Chairman of the Canadian section of the Compressed Gas Manufacturers 
Association 1942-45 ; President, Compressed Gas Manufacturers Association 
Inc., New York, 1946; President International Acetylene Association Inc., 
New York, 1945 ; Member National Fire Protection Association ; Committee 
Member Canadian Standards Association and Member The Chemists Club of 
New York. 


He also enjoyed membership in The Seigniory Club, Quebec, The River- 
mead Golf Club and the Royal Ottawa Golf Club, Hull, P.Q. 

Civic Activities 

Besides the many professional groups with which he was associated, his 
interest in young people induced him to take a leading part in the Boy 
Scouts Association in which he was an Executive member of the Ottawa 
District Council, Vice-President of the Ontario Council and an Executive 
member of the Canadian General Council. 

He also served for many years as Chairman of the Ottawa Charitable 

A Layman in the Church 

Along with Freemasonry, the Church was Clarence Pitts' great love. His 
work in and for the Presbyterian Church was one of supreme devotion and 
dedication. On May 9, 1926 he was ordained and inducted as an Elder of the 
Kirk Session of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Ottawa, and for twenty- 
three years served as Superintendent of his church's Sunday School. In the 
Presbyterian General Assembly, he was highly respected as one of the most 
dedicated laymen in the Church, and his leadership, especially as the long time 
Chairman of the Pension Board, was highly appreciated throughout the 
length and breadth of Canada. The Church-at-large and, in particular, retired 
ministers, ministers' widows and orphans, as well as a great host of others 
who were the recipients of his beneficence, owe him a debt of gratitude which 
they can never repay. 

In the 'Acts and Proceedings' of the 91st General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church, in a memorial to our late esteemed brother, it is written : 
"Amid the many calls upon his time and energy, Mr. Pitts' first love was for 
the Church. From 1946 he was Chairman of the Pension Board. On taking 
office, he was appalled at the small amount of the pension given to ministers 
and their dependents. He found that after forty years of service and at- 
taining the age of seventy, a full rate paying minister received a maximum 
of $600 per annum. Largely through his leadership the maximum in 1965 was 
raised to $1,500 per annum. In 1946, the widow of a minister received $300 per 
annum ; in 1965 the pension had been increased to $750. He gathered to the 
Board some of the most distinguished experts in the pension field. He 
organized the Group Insurance Plan which has proved a blessing to so many. 
Out of his own money he established the Pension Assistance Fund and the 
Group Insurance Assistance Fund, so that, if he could prevent it, no min- 
ister should lose his equity. One of his last acts was to send from his 
death-bed a cheque to augment the Group Assistance Fund. As Chairman of 
the Council's Committee on Benevolence, Mr. Pitts rendered an extensive 
service to those in great need. His benefactions to ministers and their wi- 
dows and orphans ran into thousands of dollars" 

It is said that The Pension Board which he set up for the Presbyterian 
Church was so successful that the United Church of Canada adopted some 
of its principal features. 


On this note, a certain Presbyterian minister (who wishes to remain 
anonymous) told the writer of his own experience with our late brother. Un- 
able to pay the pension fund, he told Mr. Pitts about his plight and informed 
him that he would be unable to pay for some time. Later, on, when he had 
saved enough money to pay up, he went to the Chairman of ths Fund but 
was told that 'it was all taken care of. This case could be repeated in 
similar cases in untold number. 

It was while attending the courts of the Church that Clarence Pitts took 
his fatal seizure. 


Clarence MacLeod Pitts came from a Masonic family. His grandfather, 
Henry W. Pitts, affiliated with St. John Lodge, No. 2, St. John, N.B., on 
May 1, 1821. His father, Henry Herman Pitts was also a Mason. 

Clarence Pitts found in our great fraternity something that appealed to 
him and in which he found great joy. His many years of devotion to Masonry 
in all its branches earned for him the affection of an innumerable company 
of friends in the Craft the world over, as well as an appreciation by them of 
his leadership qualities. His contribution to the Order was outstanding, re- 
flected in the many honours and high offices conferred upon him all de- 
served and worthily filled. 

He was initiated in Hawkesbury Lodge, No. 450, G.R.C., on November 
22, 1917. It is said of him that while "going through" the lodge he learned 
the 'work' while skating on the Ottawa River in the wintertime. On returning 
to Ottawa, he affiliated with Dalhousie Lodge, No. 52, on November 2, 1920. 
He served this lodge as Worshipful Master for the year 1928-9 and again in 
1939-40. He was elected District Deputy Grand Master for the Ottawa 
District for 1940-41. For fourteen years, from 1943, he was regularly elected 
to the Board of General Purposes and during that time served on several 
major committees. In 1957 he was elected Deputy Grand Master and two 
years later, Grand Master. He was Grand Master for the years 1959-61 and 
filled this office with distinction. 

In the Bulletin of the Grand Lodge of "Canada", which is published 
three times a year, the Grand Master usually has a message. In the January 
1960 issue, M. W. Bro. Pitts had this to say: 

"Freemasonry, in its labours to diffuse a spirit of brotherhood 
among men, and to benefit those areas in which it is practised, has 
continued to advance in many jurisdictions, but with somewhat less 
acceleration than has been enjoyed in recent years. The enduring 
struggle for the loyalty and devotion of men's minds to the high prin- 
ciples of right-living and just dealing between men in this present 
day's selfish race for comfort, security, position and self-gratifica- 
tion in social prestige, has had its influence on the influx of candi- 
dates for the fraternity. Masonry does not compete by high-pressure 
advertising to tell of the advantages of our self -honoured Craft; 
nor by soliciting any to join our ranks. We are all 'volunteers' who, 


once received, approved and enrolled, should set an example by our 
living and conduct in all affairs of life — whether domestic, civil 
or national — such as will draw others into our fellowship to share 
our high privileges of association and service." 

While he was Grand Master, he gave a dispensation for the initiation of a 
blind man, Graham Stoodley. Stoodley was initiated in William Mercer 
Wilson Lodge, No. 678, Woodstock, Ontario. Bro. Stoodley -is now a 
barrister in Toronto and he and his wife, also blind, are workers in the cause 
of the blind. This dispensation is thought to be the first and only one of 
its kind. (Nova Scotia had an exactly similar case in 1956. — R.V.H.) 

Bro. Pitts served as Representative of the Grand Lodge of Nebraska. He 
was made an Honorary Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodges of New 
Brunswick, Saskatchewan and Alberta. 


Companion Pitts was exalted in Ottawa Chapter, R.A.M., No. 222, in 
1929 and was elected First Principal in 1943. The following year he was 
installed Grand Scribe of the Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons of 
Canada. Then followed in order Grand Third Principal in 1945, Grand 
Second Principal in 1947 and Grand First Principal in 1949. 

He was named as Representative of the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia 
(with jurisdiction over Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland). He 
presided over the Conference of Canadian Grand Chapters of which be was 
a founder and first President. He held the Honorary rank of Grand First 
Principal of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and Honorary Past President 
of the Order of High Priesthood of Ontario. 

Knights Templar 

This is the only branch of Masonry in which our distinguished brother did 
not reach the pinnacle. However, had he lived longer, he would in all likeli- 
hood have attained this honour too. He became a member of the Ottawa 
Preceptory, No. 32, and was Preceptor in 1946. He held the office of Grand 
Director of Ceremonies in the Sovereign Great Priory of Canada and became 
a Member of the Grand Council. His title, Knight Commander of the 
Temple, was received from the College of Honours of the Sovereign Great 
Priory on August 11, 1959. 

Cryptic Rite 

The Cryptic Rite is a very old branch of Masonry having been started in 
Canada in 1867. Adoniram Council, the first in Ontario, and dates from 
1870. However, the order became dormant for a number of years and for that 
reason it is not as well known as many of the others. Clarence Pitts joined 
the Ottawa Council, No. 16, Royal and Select Masters (now the Gedeliah 
Council) and became its Thrice Illustrious Master. He also joined the Bay 
of Quinte Lodge, No. 11, Royal Ark Mariners and held the rank of Com- 
mander Noah. 


York Cross of Honour 

Any person who presided over the four branches of York Masonry, viz., 
the Craft Lodge, the Holy Royal Arch, the Royal and Select Masters, and the 
Knights Templar may be elected a member of the York Cross of Honour. 
Bro. Pitts fulfilled these qualifications and was elected to the Ontario Priory, 
No. 49 and became the Warden of this organization. 

Red Cross of Constantine 

There is no Conclave of this Order in the vicinity of Ottawa so our 
brother went to Toronto to be knighted in Holy Land Conclave, No. 3, Red 
Cross of Constantine, in 1948. Two years later, he was given the rank of 
Honorary Past Sovereign by his Conclave. In 1951, he was elected to the 
office of Very Illustrious Grand High Prelate (2) of the Sovereign Grand 
Conclave, which office he held until 1961 when he was elevated to the rank of 
Honorary Past Grand Sovereign and given the title of Knight Grand Cross 
of Constantine. 

Scottish Rite 

Clarence Pitts became a member of Ottawa Lodge of Perfection and 
went on to the Murray Chapter of the Rose Croix, Ottawa, becoming the 
Most Wise Sovereign in 1930. To receive his degrees to the 32nd., he went 
to Hamilton in May 1922. He was coroneted 33° Honorary Inspector General 
on October 1, 1940. Two years later, on October 7, he was made an Active 
member of the Supreme Council. On October 15, 1952, he was installed Sov- 
ereign Grand Commander at Niagara Falls and served in this office for three 

Honours came to him too from outside of Canada. He was named as 
an Emeritus Member of Honour of the Supreme Councils of both Northern 
and Southern Jurisdictions, U.S.A., in 1953, and an Honorary Member of the 
Supreme Councils of England and Wales and of Scotland, Ireland, the Philip- 
pines and France. He was elected an Honorary Member of the subordinate 
bodies of Calgary, Vancouver, Moncton and Halifax. 

One of his great accomplishments was in 1954, during his term as 
Sovereign Grand Commander. Recognizing the need for better under- 
standing and closer fraternal relations between the English speaking Supreme 
Councils of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, he organized and was 
elected chairman of the first meeting of what was to be known as 'The 
English Speaking Supreme Councils of he British Isles and North America in 
Amity'. This meeting was convened at the Seigniory Club and representatives 
came from the Southern and Northern Masonic Jurisdictions of the United 
States and from England, Ireland and Scotland. So much good was accomp- 
lished that it was agreed that further meetings should be held and the 
organization perpetuated. 

Royal Order of Scotland 

On April 15, 1942, he became a member of the Royal Order of Scotland 
in the Provincial Grand Lodge of Ontario. The characteristic of "Intelligence" 


was bestowed on him by the Provincial Grand Master and he was known to 
the brethren as 'Sir Clarence Intelligence'. 

Masonic Education and Research 

Although Bro. Pitts did not himself engage in research writing, he 
encouraged others to do so. In 1949, when the Canadian Masonic Research 
Association was formed he became a member and remained very active until 
his death. He became the President in 1953, following M. W. Bro. W. J. 
Dunlop. Afterwards the office of President passed to other hands, he attended 
every meeting that he could and on many occasions, presided when the presi- 
dent was absent. On one occasion he journeyed all the way from Ottawa 
to Niagara-on-the-Lake to be present at the meeting and to give encouragement. 
He also became a member of the Philalethes Society, a group of research stu- 
dents in the United States of America. 

He served as an active Director of the Ottawa Masonic Temple Associa- 

Masonic Jewels 

After serving as the chief head of the three branches of Masonry he 
continued to be a tower of strength to each and travelled extensively through- 
out Canada and the United States of America, as a representative of one or 
the other. 

At hte time of his death, the "Freemason" listed his Masonic Jewels as 
follows : 

1. Past Master's Jewel Dalhousie Lodge, No. 52, 1928-29, with Bar 1939-40. 

2. Past Most Wise Sovereign Jewel of Murray Chapter Rose Croix, 
Ottawa, presented 1933. 

3. Jewel of a First Principal of Ottawa Chapter, No. 222, Royal Arch 
Masons, awarded 1943. 

4. Joseph Conway Brown Medallion for meritorious service by the Grand 
Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Nova Scotia. 

5. Jewel of an Emeritus Member of Honour of the Supreme Council of the 
Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, United States of America, awarded 
September 21, 1953. 

6. -Jewel of an Emeritus Member of Honour of the Supreme Council of the 

Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Southern Jurisdiction, United States of 
America, presented October 20, 1953. 

7. Medal of Membre D'honneur Des Sup. Cons. De France R.E.A.A., with 
certificate, awarded January 1, 1958. 

8. Philip C. Tucker Medal from the Grand Lodge of Vermont, F. and A.M., 
awarded by vote of the Grand Lodge June 16, 1960. 

9. Erasmus James Philipps Medal, awarded for meritorious service rendered, 
by the Grand Lodge A.F. and A.M. of Nova Scotia. 

10. The Jeremy L. Cross Medal awarded by the Grand Lodge of New Hamp- 
shire, F. and A.M., July 20, 1960. 

— 1700— 

11. Jewel of an Active member and Past Sovereign Grand Commander 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry for the Dominion 
of Canada. 

12. Josiah Hayden Drummond Medal awarded for Distinguished Service by 
the Grand Lodge of Maine, A.F. & A.M. 

13. Jewel as a delegate from Canada to the 7th International Supreme Coun- 
cil of Scottish Rite, Havana, Cuba. 

14. Christopher Champlin Jewel for outstanding Masonic achievement, award- 
ed by the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island. 


Between the time when Clarence Pitts had his first heart attack on 
March 16, 1965, until his death on April 10, he was confined to the Toronto 
General Hospital. He was able to see visitors and many close friends 
called. One of these was the pastor of his church, St. Andrew's Presbyterian, 
Ottawa, Brother the Reverend Arthur W. Currie. They talked over future 
plans and Bro. Pitts made known to him some things he wished done. As 
was the way with this man, these were not to be given publicity. 

On April 10, after suffering a stroke from which he did not regain cons- 
ciousness, he quietly slipped away. 

His body was taken back to his beloved church, where he had played such 
a major role over the many years, for burial on April 14 in Beechwood 

The funeral service was conducted by Rev. Dr. Currie, assisted by the 
Rev. Dr. Hugh A. MacMillan, Moderator of the General Assembly, and the 
Rev. Dr. J. Logan- Vencta. High tribute was paid to our departed brother. 
The church was filled with a host of friends from all walks of life including 
representatives from each organization in which he had been a member. 

The Honorary Pallbearers represented the various branches of Masonry, 
the Church and business associates. They were : 

J. A. Irvine, London, Ont., Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of 
Canada in the Province of Ontario. 

George C. Derby, Vancouver, B.C., Sovereign Grand Commander of 
the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite for the Dominion of Canada. 

George A. Newbury, Buffalo, N.Y„ Lieutenant Grand Commander of 
the Supreme Council Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of The Northern 
Masonic Jurisdiction, U.S.A. 

F. C. Ackert, Gait, Ont., Supreme Grand Master of the Sovereign 
Great Priory of Canada, Knights Templar. 

Dr. Fraser E. Hay, Listowel, Ont., Grand First Principal of the 
Royal Arch Masons of Canada in the Province of Ontario. 

William J. Roe, Ottawa, Ont., District Deputy Grand Master of the 
Ottawa Masonic District. 

— 1701 — 

R. M. Stanton, Ottawa, Ont, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of 
Freemasonry, Valley of Ottawa. 

Rev. James Cochrane, Montreal, P.Q., representative of the World 
Alliance of the Reformed Presbyterian Churches. 

J. Allan Perham, Toronto, Ont., President Canadian Oxygen Ltd. 
C. H. Cunningham, Hamilton, Ont., Deputy Provincial Grand Master 
of the Royal Order of Scotland. 

The writer, on going through some old issues of the Masonic Sun, came 
across a picture of Brother Pitts in the May-June issue of 1949. This was the 
year that he was Grand First Principal of Royal Arch Masons. Under the 
picture was this inscription : 

"He who serves his brother best 
Gets nearer God than all the rest" 

This, I am sure, is the summary and secret of his life. It is evident 
that a man, upon whom so many responsibilities and honours were bestowed, 
must have possessed in unusual measure, qualities of mind and heart which 
commanded the confidence and regard of his fellows. In him high integrity 
and lofty idealism were joined with a keen mind and an understanding and 
generous heart. 

In his life he exemplified the spirit of Christ. He never nourished bitter- 
ness in his heart. He was ever the friend of the friendless and the champion 
of the oppressed. Many lives have been made happier through his kindly 

R. W. Bro. the Reverend Alex K. Campbell, Past Grand Chaplain of 
the Grand Lodge of Canada, the minister of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, 
Thorold, and a long-time friend of Bro. Pitts, had this to say of him : 

"I think of his matchless gifts of mind and heart which he 
gave without reserve during long years of selfless, untiring, conse- 
crated public service to the Church, to Masonry and to his country. 
Amid all the changes and chances of public life, he revealed his 
stainless integrity, his courage, his high sense of duty and his stead- 
fastness of faith, his devotion to truth, his love of beauty in word and 
deed, his pursuit of goodness and his abhorence of all sham and 
pretence and all shoddy thinking and opportunism. 

'Clarie' — for by this name he was known to all his friends — 
had a heart as fragrant with the love of God as dew drenched roses 
on a summer morning. Truly, he was taught of God to love. It was 
seen in his love for God's world. For him, the sun, the moon and 
the stars, the forests, the lakes, the rivers, the birds and the cattle 
in the field were all part of the Divine orchestra. His joy in 
God's creation was infectious. The quiet way in which he talked of 
these things made one intensely aware that here was a man who 
considered the lilies of the field with the same mind that kindled in 
our Lord in Galilee of old. He always wanted to share this joy with 
others. And at times one could grasp that here was a love mani- 
festing itself in a liberality and understanding that he wished only 
God to know of. He loved old folk as well as young folk. 

He loved the Church, the true Church, the people of God. He 
was a staunch Presbyterian, but most of all he loved the fellow- 
ship of God's people that overflowed the frontiers of denomination. 

To watch him rise in the courts of the Church and speak with 

— 1702— 

forcefulness and sincerity was something to warm the heart of any 
minister. In the fullest sense of the phrase, he was a good steward 
of the Grace of God. 

What was the secret of his victorious life, for it was victorious? 
The truth was that he had the peace of God, and he shared it. He 
loved his Master and sought to do everything humanly possible to 
fulfill his commission. He delighted in the well-chosen and fitly- 
spoken word in poetry and prose, revealing God's way and will for 
man in his pilgrimage from earth to heaven. His real friendliness 
and concern for the sincere seeker after truth and righteousness was 
shown to all, but especially to the young with their dreams of high 
adventure. It is a well-known facet of his life when we mention 
his open-handed generosity towards all worthy causes and his con- 
cern for the unfortunate, the downtrodden and the enslaved. He 
loved the Word and derived great pleasure from his faithful attendance 
at the services of worship. It gave him an unshakeable conviction 
that 'All things work together for good to them that love God' and 
that " 'Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into 
the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that 
love Him'-". 

It is very difficult to express in words, or in writing, the contribution 
this great man has made for his Church and Masonry ; however the Reverend 
A. Campbell, with his beautiful command of the English language, has ex- 
pressed it in a manner, that is fitting and appropriate. The writer is grateful 
for his contribution to this history. I would also like to express my thanks 
to the many interested persons for their help. 

To close the account of the life and work of Clarence MacLeod Pitts, we 
can do no better than to quote a short poem used by R. E. Comp. J. A. Payton, 
Grand Chaplain, to close the memorial service in Grand Chapter in Toronto in 
April, 1966: 

I want to think when life is done 

That I have filled a needed post ; 

That here and there I've paid my fare 

With more than idle talk and boast. 

That I have taken gifts divine, 

The breath of life and manhood fine, 

And that I used them now and then 

In service for my fellowmen. 

I hate to think when life is through 
That I have lived my round of years 
A useless kind that leaves behind 
No record in this vale of tears ; 
That I had wasted all my days 
By living only selfish ways ; 
And that this world would be the same 
If it had never heard my name. 

I want to think when life is through 
That here or there there shall remain 
Some happier spot which might have not 
Existed had I toiled for gain ; 
That someone's cheery voice and smile 
Would prove that I had been worthwhile, 
And that I'd paid with something fine 
My debt to God for life divine. 

i mi 


Clarence MacLeod Pitts was a member of the following Masonic bodies 


Dalhousie Lodge, No. 52, Ottawa. 

Acacia Lodge, No. 61, Hamilton. 

Central Lodge, No. 110, Prescott. 

Belleville Lodge, No. 123, Belleville 

Cornwall Lodge, No. 125, Cornwall. 

Rising Sun Lodge, No. 129, Aurora. 

Hawkesbury Lodge, No. 450, Hawkesbury. 

Melita Lodge, No. 605, Thornhill. 

Ashlar Lodge, No. 701, Tillsonburg. 

Hon. Past Grand Master, Grand Lodges of Alberta, New Brunswick, and 


Ancient Frontenac Chapter, No. 1, Kingston. 

The St. Andrew and St. John Chapter, No. 4, Toronto. 

Moira Chapter, No. 7, Belleville. 

Carleton Chapter, No. 16, Ottawa. 

Prince of Wales Chapter, No. 71, Essex. 

Occident Chapter, No. 77, Toronto. 

The St. Patrick Chapter, No. 145, Toronto. 

London Chapter, No. 150, London. 

Ottawa Chapter, No. 222, Ottawa. 

Quinte Friendship Chapter No. 227, Belleville. 

Hon. Member The Hiram Chapter, No. 3, Windsor, N.S. 

Hon. Past Grand First Principal, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. 


Gedeliah Council, No. 16, Royal and Select Masters. 
Bay of Quinte Lodge, No. 11, Royal Ark Mariners. 

Knights Templar 
Ottawa Preceptory, No. 32, Ottawa. 

Scottish Rite 

Ottawa Lodge of Perfection, Ottawa. 

Murray Sovereign Chapter of the Rose Croix, Ottawa. 

Moore Sovereign Consistory, Hamilton. 

Supreme Council for Canada. 

— 1704— 

Hon. Member of the subordinate Bodies at Calgary, Halifax, Moncton, and 

Hon. Member of the Supreme Councils for England and Wales, and for 

Emeritus Member of Honor of the Northern and Southern Jurisdictions, 


Masonic Bodies and Associations 

York Cross of Honour 

Ontario Priory, No. 49 

Red Cross of Constantine 

Holy Land Conclave, No. 3, Toronto 

Royal Order of Scotland 

Provincial Grand Lodge of Ontario 

Canadian Masonic Research Association 
Second President 1953-55 

The Philalethes Society 


The Freemason — 1949 :6 and 1965 :2 

The Masonic Sun — 1949 May-June Issue 

Grand Lodge Proceedings (Ontario) — 1959, 1965 

Grand Chapter Proceedings (Ontario) — 1949, 1965 

Grand Conclave Proceedings — 1962, 1965 

The History of the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish 

Acts and Proceedings of the Presbyterian Church in Canada Ninety-first 
General Assembly 

Notes from the following interested persons : 

Rev. Alex K. Campbell, Thorold. 

W. S. Coolin, St. Catharines, Ont. 

Rev. Arthur W. Currie, Ottawa, Ont. 

The Late Mrs. Sarah J. Fiske, St. Catharines, Ont. 

R. V. Harris, Halifax, N.S. 

B. Lishman, Ottawa, Ont. 

A. E. Thurlow, Woodstock, Ont. 

J. Lawrence Runnalls, St. Catharines, Ont. 

Dr. C. A. Sankey, St. Catharines, Ont. 

— 1705— 

— 1706— 

No. 96 










Read at the Biennial Meeting of the Association 
at Winnipeg, Manitoba, February 18, 1969 

▼i ■■- 

— Ml ■ ■— 


The Schism Of 1878 


In view of the time limit, which I find that I must of necessity adopt, 
I shall confine my remarks to only that facet of the subject that has led to 
the final split in the ranks of our Fraternity, and will give but a very limited 
treatment of the final solution of the problem. 

I shall start my humble presentation with the year 1869. 

Why 1869? Afer all, what I am about to relate is primarily centered 
around the years 1875 to 1879 . . . the formative years of the Grand Lodge 
of Manitoba . . . and the year 1878 in particular . . . Then why 1869? 

(1) Because the chain of events that culminated in the 'Schism of 1878' 
can be readily traced back to incidents of that year : incidents that 
were indirectly related to an upsurge in Masonic activities, which 
eventually led to the formation of the said Grand Lodge. 

and (2) Because, to confine myself to the bare recorded facts of the Schism 
of that year, would result in a presentation that is totally out of 

It is therefore of utmost importance that I at least attempt to paint a 
vivid picture of the circumstances, of the times, of the people, and of the 
prevailing conditions, prior to and during that period . . . that is ... if such 
is possible . . . for : 

(1) A number of our sources of information have since been lost. 

(2) Much of the details have not been recorded: we must, of necessity, 
read between the lines. 

and (3) Our present day sense of values is so drastically different in this 
modern so-called 'space age', from that of the 'canoe and oxen era' 
of some one hundred years ago. 

History tells us that the years, in the following decade, were very eventful 
years for Manitoba. 

In 1869, the Canadian Government was in the process of taking over the 
'Northwest' from the Hudson's Bay Company. The official target date was 
set for December First. 

The population of the Red River Valley was indeed a motley conglomera- 
tion of Metis, Settlers, Farmers, and Traders, a number of whom came from 
the American Side of the Border, all of different cultures, all of different 
backgrounds, all of different aspirations. 

The area was in a state of turmoil. The Metis, being the largest group, 
held squatter's rights to holdings in the area of the present day Winnipeg. 
They were in fear of losing these rights, and therefore banded under the 
leadership of Louis Riel. A sequence of events finally ended in the seizure 

— 1708— 

of Fort Garry, and the formation of a Provisional Government by Riel. On 
the other hand, those traders who came from the South, were in favour of 
annexing this territory to the United States. Overtures were therefore made 
to listening ears across the border. 

In the interim, on May 2nd, 1870, Manitoba became a Province of Con- 
federation. And on May 21st of that same year, some 1430 soldiers were 
dispatched from Collingwood, Ontario, under the command of Colonel Woles- 
ley, to restore peace at the Red River Settlement. This trek took the troops 
more than three months to complete, and when they finally did arrive at Fort 
Garry, they found that the rebels had abandoned the Fort and fled. 

It is interesting to note that the area, which three short years later became 
incorporated as the City of Winnipeg, had a recorded population of 215 souls. 
In addition to this figure, there were approximately 350 soldiers who saw fit 
to remain and seek their fortune in the 'Great Lone Land', after the troops 
had disbanded. 

By way of interest, and in sharp contrast to this figure, we find that 
the population was nearing the 15,000 mark in the year 1881 . . . i.e., only 
eleven years later. 

With this 'bird's eye view' of conditions as they existed during the latter 
part of 1870, let us now focus our attention on Masonic Activities in the area. 

I grant you that the Practice of Freemasonry in Manitoba did not 
begin with the year 1870. The Craft was represented in the earlier pioneer 
days and had even taken positive steps towards the formation of a Lodge 
under American Dispensation. Perhaps, I should mention at this opportune 
moment, that this Lodge, which was known as the Northern Light Lodge, was 
originally composed of military men stationed at Pembina, Dakota Territory; 
in other words, members of the American Militia. Circumstances brought 
four residents of the Red River Settlement into membership in that Lodge. 
When in May of 1864, the battalion left Pembina, dispensation was obtained 
from the Grand Lodge of Minnesota to use the same name, i.e. 'Northern 
Light', for another Lodge located in the Red River Settlement. However, due 
to the unrest of that day, this Lodge lasted but a few years and seemed to 
have disintegrated before it had received its Charter. 

We thus can rightfully claim that the birth of uninterrupted Masonic 
Activities in the Canadian Red River Valley coincided with the birth of the 
Province of Manitoba, in the year 1870. 

It was in this year, in the year 1870, that seven members of the Wolesley 
Expedition (which number was later increased to nine), all members of the 
Craft, all with credentials from Lodges of Eastern Canada, under the leader- 
ship of Brother R. Stewart Patterson, made their bid to the Grand Lodge of 
Canada for their dispensation, in order to institute a Lodge in Manitoba. And, 
on December 10-th of that same year 'Winnipeg Lodge' held its inaugural 
meeting in the upper flat of the McKenny Building on the corner of Main 
Street and Portage Road. 


The early minutes and a portion of the records were lost in a fire in 
later years, and it is therefore very difficult to determine anything with any degree 
of certainty. However, we do know that at an Emergent Meeting held on 
January 6-th, 1871, the Lodge's name was changed to 'Prince Rupert's Lodge' 
#240, with the sanction of the Grand Lodge of Canada. 

These Brethren envisaged a great future for Freemasonry in Manitoba. 
These were Brethren who experienced the Freemasonry of Eastern Canada, 
Brethren who had migrated to the wild west of their own volition. These 
were strong-willed, self-sufficient men, men who endured untold hardships, 
Men who did not know of our Modern Day luxuries. They lived by their skill, 
by their ingenuity, and slowly but stubbornly forged ahead with the one thought 
in mind, of making Canada a great land. 

Their bubbling enthusiasm was very effectively expressed by Brother 
G. F. Carruthers in his 'Sketch of the History of Prince Rupert's Lodge', 
in the year 1877. Quoting verbatum therefrom : 'Planted in hope and 

brotherly love this seedling (i.e. this embryonic Lodge) has already sprung 

into being as a fluorishing young tree that its offshoots will cover 

the land from the Banks of the Red River in the East to the base of the 
Rocky Mountain in the West, binding the Brethren not only to one another 
with that 'Mystic Tie' that cements us all, but uniting the whole Craft of 
the Northwest Territories in one band of fraternal love to the Grand Tiara 
of Lodges that cluster on the Register of the Grand Lodge of Canada. In 
doing so, they will be directly hanging out the second article of our Constitu- 
tion which amongst other things states 'that a Mason is zealously to promote 
the properity of his own country'. And how can an earnest Mason do this 
more efficiently than by instilling into the Brotherhood a love for home institu- 
tions .... it is by rigidly adhering, as far as possible, to our manners and 
customs that we can even hope to nourish a feeling of Nationality without 

which Canada will in vain dream of becoming great" Those were the 

words of Brother G. F. Carruthers. 

Now let us continue to trace our way thrcugh time. 

On December 5th, 1870, eight petitioners sought dispensation at the 
Grand Lodge of Canada to form a new Lodge in Manitoba, not at Winnipeg, 
but at Lower Fort Garry. Among the petitioners were officers from the 
Prince Rupert's Lodge as well as officers from the dissolved Northern Light 
Lodge. The dispensation was granted on January 4th, 1871, and on February 
20th of that year we find this new Lodge instituted as the 'Manitoban'. Bro. 
John Frazer was the first to occupy the chair in the East with Brother George 
Black as his Senior Warden. The Chairs of Senior Deacon, Inner Guard, and 
Tyler, were filled by Prince Rupert's Brethren. From November 6th of that 
year, the Ledge became known as Lisgar Lodge ^244 on the Grand Register 
of Canada. 

On the 19th of December, 1871, we find Wor. Brother James Henderson, 
hailing from Zetland Lodge #21 GRC in Montreal, has been accepted as an 
'affiliate' at Prince Rupert's Lodge. It appears that this Brother was accus- 


tomed to the American or York Rite, and therefore found the 'Work', as 
practised in Prince Rupert's and Lisgar Lodges, somewhat strange and not 
entirely to his liking. He immediately instigated for the formation of a second 
Lodge in Winnipeg, where the American Ritual would be adopted. Strong 
opposition was voiced against this action, from several sections of the mem- 
bership. However, in June of 1872 a motion was carried, which recom- 
mended the formation of 'Ancient Landmark' Lodge, #288 on the G.R.C. 

the first significant indication of American influence on Masonry in 


And now, Brethren, let us tune our dial in time to the year 1875. 

On Wednesday, the 12th day of May, A.L. 5875, at a convention of Dele- 
gates from the three aforementioned and the only then existent Lodges in 
the Province the Grand Lodge of Manitoba came into being. 

As could very well be expected, the Officers of Prince Rupert's Lodge 
played a leading role in its formation. I daresay that the founders of Prince 
Rupert's Lodge in particular, were experiencing visions of ... . 'the fluorishing 
young tree with offshoots covering the land from the Banks of the Red River 
and reaching to the Rocky Mountain in the West' .... a unifying force in 
Canadian Nationality. 

At the time of the inauguration of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, R. W. 
Bro. Geo. Black, from Lisgar Lodge, represented the Grand Lodge of Can- 
ada, as its District Deputy Grand Master. From available correspondence and 
information, it seems that this Brother may have exercised considerable in- 
fluence and persuasion in affecting that permission be granted by the Grand 
Lodge of Canada. 

The constituent Lodges were Prince Rupert's #240, with a membership 
of 109, Lisgar Lodge #244, with a membership of 39, and Ancient Land- 
mark #288 with 55. A total of 203 Masons, with approximately 27 percent 
practising the American Ritual. 

I think that it would be time well spent, if I quickly reviewed the incum- 
bents of some of the principal chairs in Grand Lodge. 

The first Grand Master was Rev. W. C. Clarke, a clergyman, 
aged 41, who hailed from Three Britons Lodge No. 14, Perth, On- 
tario, Chateauguay Lodge No. 208 G.R.C, Huntington, Quebec, and 
Clarke Lodge No. 28 G.R.C, Quebec. He affiliated with Prince 
Rupert's No. 240 G.R.C. on May 19th, 1874. 

In the Deputy Grand Master's chair was William Nassau Ken- 
nedy, a Lieutenant under Wolesley, aged 36, who hailed from Corin- 
thian Lodge No. 101 G.R.C. He was a Charter Member of Prince 
Rupert's Lodge No. 240 G.R.C. and was its first Senior Warden. 
In the year 1875 when the Grand Lodge of Manitoba came into 
being, he was the Mayor of Winnipeg. 

In the Grand Senior Warden's chair was James Henderson who 
served with the Montreal Regiment during the Fenian Raid in 1869. 


Aged 29, he hailed from Zetland Lodge No. 21, Montreal. I have 
found one reference only as to his occupation, wherein he is shown 
as a Furrier. He affiliated with Prince Rupert's No. 240 on December 
19th, 1871. He was an ardent advocate of the American Ritual. He 
spearheaded the formation of Ancient Landmark Lodge No. 288 
G.R.C. and became its first Master on December 16th, 1872. 

In the Grand Junior Warden's chair was S. L. Bedson, the Master 
of Lisgar Lodge No. 244 G.R.C. 

In the Grand Secretary's chair was John H. Bell, a Bookkeeper, 
aged 35, who hailed from St. John's Lodge No. 20 G.R.C., London, 
Ontario. He affiliated with Ancient Landmark No. 288 G.R.C. in 
May 1872 and was Master of that Lodge in 1875. 

I should perhaps add the name of Geo. F. Newcomb, who played 
a very prominent part in the ensuing years. Bro. Newcomb was a 
Civil Servant. He affiliated with Prince Rupert's No. 240 G.R.C. 
on November 16th, 1875, as a Past Master. By his own admission he 
was totally unfamiliar with the Canadian Ritual. His appointment 
on the formation of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, was to the chair 
of Director of Ceremonies. Grand Lodge Proceedings are somewhat 
vague in his change to that of the Grand Lecturer, that very same 

Immediately following the installation of these Officers, the M.W. 
Master proceeded with the naming of membership to various committees. 
Among these we have the 'Committee on Ritual', which was constituted as 
follows : 

M.W. Bro. Geo. Black of Lisgar No. 2 G.R.M., installed P.G.M. 

R.W. Bro. Wm. N. Kennedy of Prince Rupert's No. 1 G.R.M., 
installed Deputy Grand Master. 

R.W. Bro. John H. Bell of Ancient Landmark No. 3 G.R.M.. 
installed Grand Secretary. 

V.W. Bro. Geo. F. Newcomb, Grand Director of Ceremonies. 

Although the subject of 'Ritual' did appear on the agenda for the Special 
Grand Lodge Communication of Tuesday August 17th, 1875, the Committee 
was not prepared to report, at that time. 

Again, at the First Annual Communication of June 14th, 1876, we have 
a recommendation from the Committee 'that no further action be taken at 
this meeting .... but that the Committee be allowed further time in which 
to report'. It was now obvious that agreement could not be reached between 
the four members of this Committee. However, the Committee was not granted 
its request for an extension of time. Motions, amendments thereto, further 
motions, which in turn were also amended, followed in rapid succession. The 
war was on. Alas, Brethren, the foundation upon which our Grand Lodge 
was built, displayed its first signs of weakness. 

After the Officers for the coming year were installed, the subject of 
Ritual was again discussed, but no decision was reached. 


However, on motion by the Grand Senior Warden, R.W. Bro. S. L. Bedson 
of Lisgar Lodge, seconded by the Grand Secretary, R.W. Bro. J. H. Bell of 
Ancient Landmark Lodge, it was passed that .... 'the M.W. Grand Master 
(then Wm. N. Kennedy) appoint two Committees of three each to exemplify 
the two methods of Work at the next meeting of Grand Lodge'. 

M.W. Bro. Black — W.M. of Lisgar No. 2. 

R.W. Bro. Jchn Kennedy — of Prince Rupert's No. 1. 

& V.W. Bro. Conklin — W.M. of Prince Rupert's No. 1. 
were to exemplify the Canadian Ritual, 

whilst: R.W. Bro. J. H. Bell, I. P.M. of Ancient Landmark No. 3 

R.W. Bro. Newcomb 

& V.W. Bro. Duffin — S.W. of Ancient Landmark No. 3 were ap- 
pointed to exemplify the American York Rite. 

By the time the Brethren assembled for the Second Annual Communica- 
tion in June of 1877, there were five component Lodges under the jurisdiction 
of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, with a sixth under dispensation at Emerson. 
Both St. Johns No. 4 and Hiram No. 5 were daughter Lodges in the York 
Rite. The total recorded membership as of December last was 318. 

In his address, at this Communication of June 1877, the Grand Master 
(Kennedy) sensed further disagreement ahead, and cautioned the Brethren 
.... 'to be very careful that whatever you do, nothing may be done to 
cause or occasion ill-feeling or discord, so that in grasping at the shadow we 
may lose the substance'. 

That evening, of Wednesday June 13th, 1877, the Committees exemplified 
the First Degree (the E.A. Degree) in both Rites. And, on the following 
morning, for some unknozvn reason, only the American Work was exemplified 
in the remaining two degrees. 

An attempt was then made by R.W. Bro. Henderson and R.W. Bro. Bell 
to have a resolution passed in favour of adopting the American York Rite. 
But, the Master of Prince Rupert's Ledge presented a counter argument. He 
claimed that the Constitution called for a Notice of Motion in writing, which 
must be given at an earlier Communication. The Grand Master, M.W. Bro. 
Kennedy, went along with this argument and ruled the motion out of order. 

The new slate of Officers was installed the next day with Bro. Geo. 
Newcomb as the new Grand Master, Bro. Henderson as his Deputy, Bro. John 
W. Harris, the I. P.M. of St. Johns Lodge as his Senior Grand Warden, and 
Bro. Geo. Conklin as Junior Grand Warden, when the 'Ritual' once more 
became the subject of a heated controversy. Alas, the cleavage in the founda- 
tion of the Grand Lodge was becoming more pronounced. 

The two remaining members of the American York Rite exemplification 
Committee, namely Bro. J. H. Bell and Bro. S. Duffin, being possibly aware 
of the advantage in their favour with M.W. Bro. Geo. Newcomb now in the 
East, pressed for the adoption of a resolution requiring all newly formed 


Lodges to 'conform, as near as possible, to the Work exemplified by the 
Committtee in the York Rite'. 

R.W. Bro. Conklin argued that such report was out of order and that the 
Committee had no right to bring in a report. When the newly installed Grand 
Master, the M.W. Bro. Newcomb accepted the report and recommendation 
as being 'in order', it was moved by R.W. Bro. Henderson, seconded by V.W. 
Bro. A. J. Belch .... 'that the report be received and the resolution be 
adopted, with the understanding that Emerson Lodge (now under dispensa- 
tion) be granted until the next regular meeting in December next to determine 
which work they will adopt ; and that at said meeting they decide by vote 
of the Lodge ; and that said decision then made be confirmed' .... This 
motion was carried by a majority of more than two to one, after various un- 
successful attempts were made at amendments to change the resolution to 
read 'Canadian Ritual' in place of 'York Rite' and even to defer this whole 
matter concerning a uniform Ritual. 

Before the Proceedings were closed, a Notice of Motion was given by 
the R.W. Bro. Col. John Kennedy .... 'that at the next Annual Communica- 
tion he will move that the resolution recommended by a portion of the Com- 
mittee to exemplify the Work, and adopted by the Grand Lodge at its session 
held on the 16th day of June AL 5877, be and is hereby rescinded'. 

There is no doubt that many must have left that meeting with embittered 
feelings, as could well be gathered from the behaviour of several of the Lodges 
during the ensuing year. The Prince Rupert's Lodge historian claimed that 
a number of Brethren, from those Lodges working under the Canadian Ritual, 
were absent due to bad road conditions. In addition, the representatives from 
Emerson Lodge were denied a vote, on the plea of being under dispensation, 
although in a precedent set the previous year, the representatives of St. 
John's Lodge were accorded this privilege. It was by this means, he alleges, 
that a minority were able to force their unwelcome system upon the accept- 
ance of the majority. 

It is very difficult at this very late date to prove, or disprove, such 
statements. And here is another point of contention. Although it is proper 
for a Committee on Credentials to submit a daily report showing the names 
and Lodges of those who were entitled to a seat in the Grand Lodge, such 
daily lists, in the case of June 13th, 14th, 15th and 16th, 1877, seemingly were 
not kept, and were covered by one general, a!l-encompassing statement in 
the proceedings, to wit : 

'Board of General Purposes reported at various times as to those 
entitled to be present' And it goes on to list seven under Prince 
Rupert's Lodge, one under Lisgar, six for Ancient Landmark, five 
for St. Johns, and four for Hiram. Since the last three were prac- 
tising the American York Rite, their total voting power of fifteen 
in addition to Bro. Newcomb's vote (who was shown under Prince 
Rupert), could very well have given a majority of more than 2 to 1 
when the vote on the Ritual was registered. Such known Brethren 


as Black (PM), Dr. Young (WM), Mee (JW), Bedson (PM), 
and Mcmicken did not appear on the list of the Committee of Cre- 
dentials, and therefore must be assumed to have been absent at that 

The Proceedings of the Third Annual Communication, of the year 1878, 
are far from being complimentary to Masonry in Manitoba. It is a record 
of intrigue, disobedience, and connivances. An undertone of discontent can 
be sensed in every incident : discontent, frustration, and even bridled revolt. 

To delve into these Proceedings in detail would be far beyond the scope 
of this paper. It would serve no practical purpose, but would merely un- 
cover old wounds. I shall therefore, dwell on the more glaring incidents and 
then only briefly. 

Although the Grand Lodge of Manitoba came into being in the year 
1875, it was not until July 18th, 1877, that it had forwarded a new charter 
to Lisgar Lodge, with a request that the one issued by the Grand Lodge 
of Canada, be returned. Several unsuccessful attempts were made to retrieve 
the original document. 

On October 3rd, when the Grand Master found that only the Senior 
Warden and Tyler turned up in answer to his request for a Special Meeting, 
he walked off with the old Charter that was issued by the Grand Lodge of 
Canada. On November 5th, 1877, the Deputy, on instructions from the Grand 
Master, visited Lisgar Lodge, but was met by a refusal from the Officers 
to open the Lodge. They claimed that their old Charter was removed and 
they had not received the one that was recently issued by the Grand Lodge of 
Manitoba. They even refused to act on an 'on-the-spot' dispensation that 
was drawn up by the Deptuy Grand Master Henderson. 

When the report of this incident reached the Grand Master he imme- 
diately summoned the principal officers, and M.W. Bro. Black, to make an 
appearance and bring their books, documents, and warrant of Constitution 
before the Board of General Purposes on November 21st. 

I need not go through a 'blow-by-blow' description of what followed. 
Suffice it to say that the whole matter was finally settled in a satisfactory 
manner without recourse to any extreme measures. 

Another uncomplimentary matter was an incident concerning Prince 
Rupert's Lodge. 

The Grand Master issued a circular letter whose contents he had directed 
to be read at the next three regular meetings. The intent was to ensure 
that application for initiation be treated in strict confidence, and that the 
applicants be kept unaware of the contents of reports submitted by the in- 
dividual members of the Investigation Committee. Although W. Bro. Conklin, 
the Master of Prince Rupert's Lodge, had this 'circular' read at two meetings, 
he refused to do so for the third time. In a letter to the Grand Master, he 
advised him of his contrariness, and justified his actions by claiming the 
letter's contents to be 'contrary to the Constitution' and the 'true spirit 
of the Craft'. The Grand Master immediately requested an apology by 
November 13th. As he did not receive a reply by the designated date, the 


Grand Master suspended Conklin and requested that he appear before the 
Board of General Purposes on November 21st, 1877. However, such apology 
was tendered by the latter date and the suspension was later removed. 

The election of Officers, at the Third Annual Communication, took 
place on Friday morning June 14th, 1878, and under most adverse and non- 
congenial conditions. Discord reigned supreme. 

The recorded Proceedings, for that date, mention only that R.W. Bro. 
Ccnklin, the Junior Grand Warden, requested that Brethren in the ante-room 
be admitted during the collection of the ballot for the District Deputy Grand 
Master. When the Grand Master refused to grant this, M.W. Bro. Black, 
R.W. Bro. Conklin, V.W. Bro. Young, V.W. Bro. John Villiers, W. Bro. 
Walker, W. Bro. Joseph Hursell (who was one of the three scrutineers), and 
Bro. George F. Carruthers, forced open the door and left, after first having 
created a considerable disturbance in the ante-room. 

During an Emergency Communication held on December 28th, 1878, 
M.W. Bro. Newcomb elaborated on these minutes. He claimed that R.W. Bro. 
Conklin had left the Lodge room under the false pretense of having forgotten 
the proxy of Lisgar Lodge in another coat. He then returned in the company 
of a number of Brethren, which action disrupted the ballet for the Grand 
Master and necessitated a third distribution of same. It was then that ingress 
and egress to the Lodge was prohibited, and that the incident concerning the 
election of the Deputy Grand Master followed, as was recorded in the 
earlier minutes. 

It seems as though the revolting Brethren were attempting to prevent 
the re-election of Bro. Newcomb, in answer to Bro. Conklin's call. However, 
I cannot understand why they did not make their appearance on time, since 
the intent of carrying out the elections at that morning session was indicated 
during the previous evening at that time, the elections were postponed in order 
'to entertain visiting Brethren from Dakotah Territory'. In view of that 
evening session having been resumed at 8:15 p.m., this fraternization must 
have begun at a very late hour, and terminated even much later, and thus pos- 
sib'y accounts for the late stragglers the next morning. 

Now what has happened to our old standby, our well known disrupter of 
discord .... 'the Ritual'? 

The Grand Master ruled that the Notice of Motion given by R.W. Bro. 
Col. John Kennedy, at the Last Annual Communication, was upon a subject 
which was disposed of at that very same session, and therefore, could not be 
introduced at that time, and must thus be taken as having been given un- 

Again, R.W. Bro. Col John Kennedy gave notice of his intent to move 
this same resolution at the next Annual Communication. 

And finally .... to add insult to injury .... during the evening session, 
on that same Friday, June 14th, 1878. just before the Installation of the 
Officers, the Grand Secretary, R.W. John H. Bell, dropped the bombshell, 
by giving notice that at the next Annual Communication he would move 
.... 'that the Regulations of Grand Lodge respecting 'work', adopted the 
14th day of June, 1876, and the further regulation, adopted the 16th of June, 


1877, be amended so that all Lodges be required to conform to the 'Work' 
adopted the 16th of June, 1877, and that six months' time be allowed for 
them to comply with this amended regulation; and that the Grand Master 
appoint a Committee of Three, one of them being the Grand Lecturer, to 
examine the Wor. Master as to his efficiency, and report to the Grand Master 
at the end of the said time'. 

Here we have the 'straw that broke the camel's back'. Here we have no 
show of Brotherly love ! . . . . No show of understanding ! . . . . No show 
of diplomacy ! . . . . and for that matter, no attempt on either side to concede, 
just a little, for the sake of unity .... No concessions on either side ! 
.... but simply a display of actions more appropriately those of a spoilt, 
stubborn child .... And I venture to say, that had the election incident not 
preceded this final display of irresponsibility, had those Brethren not left 
the Lodge room when they did, ill feeling may have welled to overflow, and 
frayed tempers may have been fanned to a dangerous level by a further 
exchange of words .... 

Yes, .... several feeble attempts were made to patch up the differences, 
but the gap that now existed between friends of but a few years ago, was 
almost beyond abridgement. 

The Most Wor. Bro. Newcomb agreed to stay all Proceedings within his 
prerogative, and meet with the Brothers W. N. Kennedy, O'Meara, and 
Matheson, on the 18th day of Jure .... the day before his intended departure 
for Little Saskatchewan, for about three months. Late that evening he re- 
ceived a letter from an alleged 'grieving committee' headed by Rev. James 
Dailas O'Meara. The said Committee suggested that three delegates, from 
both sides, draw up general questions concerning the alleged unconstitutionali- 
ties of the last Annual Communication. Should the majority of three arbitrators, 
consisting of Grand Masters, at least one of which must be of a Canadian 
Lodge, judge these questions and rule any important particular to be uncon- 
stitutional, then the Grand Master must declare that Communication to be 
void and another held in its place. 

In the Grand Master's reply, he gave a limited acceptance to these terms 
in general, but would only consent to an amendment to any such irregularities, 
rather than declaring the whole session to be void and null. He also de- 
manded that such questions receive his prior sanction before being passed to the 
arbitrators. He named Bros. Harris, (No. 4), Belch (No. 4), and Henderson 
(No. 3), as the delegates on drafting the questions. He further cautioned 
against the inclusion of grieving Brethren from among those who walked 
out of the Lodge Room without his consent. 

In the Grand Master's absence, attempts were made by the grieving 
Brethren, to get the Deputy Grand Master, the Senior Warden, and finally 
the Grand Secretary, to 'Summon a Special Meeting of Grand Lodge .... 
to re-consider the business transacted' at the last Annual Communication. 
These requests dragged over a period of several months. In the interim M.W. 
Bro. Newcomb had returned to the Province. 

It seems as though this was not the only matter that required the Grand 
Master's attention when he finally did return to the City. Circumstances led to 


and resulted in a visit to Lisgar Lodge. On examining their books he found, 
among other irregularities, that the Lodge had not met for several months 
during the year . . . and also, that the minutes held record of an Emergent 
Meeting that took place on June 24th, when a motion was passed 'declaring 
the last Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba illegal.' 

After further investigations into the circumstances, the Grand Master 
summoned W.M. A. W. Mee to appear before the Board of General Purposes, 
with the Lodge's books and warrant of Constitution. Since no heed was 
paid to his summons, he finally suspended Lisgar Lodge on November 12th. 

I need not burden you with all details of those incidents that followed 
in rapid succession. They can all be summed up in a few short statements. 

M.W. Bro. Black, M.W. Bro. W. N. Kennedy, and R.W. Bro. Conklin 
were suspended for their attempts at calling a clandestine meeting, which did 
finally take place on December 30th, 1878 .... On examining the books of 
Prince Rupert's Lodge the Grand Master found that the suspended R.W. Bro. 
E. J. Conklin conducted the regular meeting of December 17th, 1878. This 
fina ly led to further suspensions of the Worshipful Master and his Wardens, 
among others, and the arrest of the Lodge's Warrant of Constitution .... 
At the same time, Bro. Dr. D. Young, Bro. D. M. Walker, and Bro. Geo. 
Carruthers were suspended for their part in the Lodge walkout of last June 

It was with this sad note that the Grand Lodge closed its Communication 
of December 30th, 1878, at 10 :50 p.m. 

The Brethren will note that I have made specific reference to the hour 
when Lodge was closed. It was on that very same day, on Monday, Decem- 
ber 20th, 1878, at 3 :00 p.m., in that very same Masonic Hall, that the seceding 
group, under M.W. Bro. Kennedy held their first clandestine meeting. At 
that time, they had openly declared their alleged rights to the authorities of the 
Grand Lodge of Manitoba, and had arranged for the duplication of the Lodge 
Sea', if and when the Regular Lodge Secretary refused to relinquish it to 
them. The intent of this meeting was to 'reconsider the business transacted 
at the last Communication of Grand Lodge ! . . . . which they had labelled as 

An election of Officers was held, and this new slate was substituted for 

that of the annulled Communication. The most ironical part of all this, is 

that the names of Brothers G. F. Newcomb and J. H. Bell were included 
as members of the Board of General Purposes. 

This new Grand Lodge of Manitoba met for a second time on the 22nd 
day of January, in 1879. They referred to that meeting as being the 'Fourth 
Annual Communication'. This as well as the preceding Communication, were 
later recorded in printed form in some thirty bound pages of minutes. 

Needless to say, agreement between the two groups was not reached while 
M.W. Bro. Newcomb occupied the Grand Master's chair. However, there 
did appear one bright ray through the foreboding clouds that hung over the 
Grand Lodge during his last term of Office. In the afternoon of the 12th 
day of February, 1879, and in accordance with his notice of intent, R.W. Bro. 


J. H. Bell introduced his motion, which, if passed, would force all Lodges to 
adopt the York Rite. However, an amendment thereto, introduced by V.W. 
Bro. R. McCuaig and seconded by R.W. Bro. J. W. Harris, overruled this 
and was carried by more than a two-thirds majority. 

This accepted amendment now made it permissible for each and every 
Lodge, including any such Lodges which may be instituted in the future, to 
adopt either ritual .... the ritual of its choice. 


During the evening session of that same day, before the annual Com- 
munication of the 'Regular' Grand Lodge of Manitoba had closed, it was 
moved by V.W. Bro. A. J. Belch, seconded by V.W. Bro. Chas. H. House, 
and carried by majority, 'that it be resolved by this Grand Lodge, in the 
matter of all Brethren and Lodges who are at present under suspension, and 
whose cases have been before this Grand Lodge, be in the meantime left in 
abeyance, the suspensions being continued, and that the Grand Master elect 
be empowered to deal with the matter upon consultation with the Deputy 
Grand Master and Wardens' 

This motion proved to be very effective, and was crowned with success. 
On Thursday June 19th, 1879, a Special Communication was held in the 
Masonic Hall, at which the Grand Master, M.W. Bro. Rev. S. P. Matheson, 
reported his success in negotiations with M.W. Bro. Black as arbitrator for 
the seceding group. Final consummation of the desired union was affected 
before that meeting had closed. 

The only dissenting note was that which was registered at the Fifth 
Annual Communication, when the three remaining members of Rev. Matheson's 
Committee, viz : John W. Harris, D.G.M., Simon Duffin, G.S.W., and 
Roderick McQuaig, G.J.W., registered their protest against the adoption of 
the final settlement, on the grounds that it was allegedly unconstitutional. 

The incoming Grand Master, M.W. Bro. J. H. Bell, acted very wisely 
when he ordered this protest to be filed, without further discussion. 

Brethren, this has been a somewhat lengthy presentation ; much longer 
than I had formerly anticipated. To deal in detail with the actual points of 
conciliation would be time consuming, uninteresting, and of little consequence. 
What is of far greater importance, is the lesson we may have learned. 

Exactly what have we learned from the mistakes of our Brethren? 

We have seen obstinacy, short-sightedness, intolerance, and selfishness, 
practised by both sides. Certainly those are not 'the tenets or fundamental 
principles of Ancient Freemasonry' of which we are so vociferous. No, de- 
finitely not! 

Then, Brethren, let us pay heed to the teachings of our Beloved Craft. 
Let us not be blinded by these prejudices, but let us practise Charity, Tolerance, 
and True Brotherly Love .... not only to each other as Masons, but also 
towards every sen of Adam, regardless of his race, his creed, or his religion, 
for let us not ever forget, that he too is one of the children of the Great 
Architect of the Universe. 



*•■ ■■ ■• •*— ■■ ■■ ■■ ■•— ■■ ■■ •• „^m—n ■— — — .fr 

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No. 97 


■ ■ 





by R. E. EMMETT, P.C. M. 





by J. L. RUNNALLS, P.C.S. 


I ' I ' I ■■ ■ H m ■■ M— ■■— J» H 11 M 11 — M M M M ■■ ■■ M M 1« | 

■ ■— — ■■ 1 1 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ P 


Reginald Vanderbilt Harris 

Winnipeg, Manitoba 
April, 1969 

"It is a brief period of life that is granted us by nature, 

but the memory of a zvell-spent life never dies. 


"A well-spent life". If one had to sum up the life of M.W. Brother R. V. 
Harris in a few words, the four quoted would cover his eighty-seven years of 
service to his fellow men, and if the average man could be endowed with 
a fraction of the talents, qualities and excellent characteristics of our late 
Brother, he would be fortunate indeed. 

M.W. Bro. Harris possessed ability, skill, intelligence, drive, determina- 
tion, kindness and compassion, all of which was directed towards helping 
others. The rare degree of dedication to his work is equalled by few men 
in their lifetimes. 

Brother "Reg", as he was known by his close associates, was born at 
Londonderry Mines, N.S., March 21st, 1881, son of Rev. Canon and Mrs. 
V. E. Harris. Throughout his life he had an unwavering determination of 
Christian character inherited from his forebears, and a steadfast religious 
faith nurtured by his beloved mother and father who gave him the great love 
for his Maker and fellow men, which guided his actions all his life. 

His early education commenced at Amherst Academy, N.S., and Trinity 
College School, Port Hope, Ontario, where he was twice Governor General's 
Medallist ; continuing on to Toronto University he was Prince of Wales Prize- 
man and Duke of Wellington Scholar in mathematics at Trinity College ; 
where he obtained his B.A. in 1902 and M.A. in 1910. King's College, 
Windsor, N.S., also gave him an M.A. degree in 1912, whilst University of 
Bishop's College Lennoxville, P.Q., granted him a Doctor of Civil Law 
degree in 1924. He was also honored with Doctor of Canon Law in 1950 
from University of King's College, Halifax. 

Choosing the legal profession, he was admitted to the bar in Nova Scotia 
in 1905 and in Manitoba in 1906, where he practised for two years with the 
leading firm of Aikens, Robson and Loftus before returning to his native 
Province. In private practice in Halifax he was associated with his Uncle, 
the late Chief Justice R. E. Harris, the late Hon. C. H. Cahan and the late 
Mr. Justice T. S. Rogers and others until 1927, when he was appointed Pro- 
thonotary of the Supreme Court, and later Official Receiver and Registrar 
of Bankruptcy, Registrar Court for Divorce and Clerk of the County Court; 
he was appointed King's Counsel in 1922. 


M.W. Bro. Harris, brought up to worship in the religious denomination 
of his father, the Church of England in Canada, soon became intensely inter- 
ested in the organization and administration of his Church and was soon 
prominent in its affairs. In 1904 he was appointed a member of the Diocesan 
Synod of Nova Scotia, and served as Chancellor from 1922 until his retire- 
ment early in 1968. Since 1915 he was a member of the General Synod of 
Canada; in 1946 he was elected Prolocutor, the highest position ever held by 
a layman ; also, he served as Governor of both King's Collegiate School, 
Windsor, N.S., and the University of King's College at Windsor, later removed 
to Halifax. 

In addition to all these activities he was Secretary of the great Bicentenary 
Celebration and Church Congress in Canada in 1910. 

As might be expected, he was most generous in giving unstintingly of his 
time to public service. In his first venture into civic affairs in 1911 he be- 
came an Alderman of the City of Halifax and in 1913 its Controller; in all, 
he gave four strenuous and aggressive years to the service of the City ; at 
the same time he was Chairman of the Board of School Commissions for six 
years. He was also a member of the School Board of Bedford. In 1912 and 
1913 he was vice-President of the Union of Nova Scotia Municipalities. 

During the first World War he served as a Lieutenant in the 246th. 
Overseas Battalion ; Staff Captain, M.D. No. 6, Halifax and Chief Public 
Representative of the Military Service Act of 1918. In England in 1917 
he was created an Esquire of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of 

At the same time as he was following his private and public vocations, 
he was a remarkable humanitarian devoting his boundless energies to numerous 
institutions and societies of charitable nature ; in enumerating so many of 
these, one cannot be certain that others have not been overlooked. 

First among his special interests is the Nova Scotia Freemasons' Home 
at Windsor, the only one of its kind in Canada ; founder of the Maritime 
Home for Girls at Truro, N.S., the Halifax Industrial School and its Succes- 
sor, the Halifax Protestant Youth Foundation ; the Inter-Provincial Home for 
Women ; Founder of the Commercial Club of Halifax ; the Kiwanis Club 
(District Governor in 1934) ; the St. George's Society; Founder of the Hali- 
fax Welfare Bureau ; the Canadian Welfare Council ; the Halifax Playground 
Commission ; the Halifax Board of Trade ; the Nova Scotia College of Art ; 
the Halifax Y.M.C.A. ; both the Provincial Executive and the National 
Council of the Canadian Red Cross ; the Provincial Council of the Boy 
Scouts Association ; the Canadian Cancer Society ; the St. John's Ambulance 
Association (Commander in 1943 and Medal of the Order in 1944) ; the Hali- 
fax Overseas Club ; the Royal Empire Society ; the Advisory Board of the 
Salvation Army (Order of Distinguished Auxiliary Service in 1945) ; the 
Mayflower Society, etc., etc. 


A person's skills often go unnoticed unless he has the ability to express 
himself clearly and distinctly by the spoken and written word. Fortunately 
our late Brother was not handicapped in this way ; he was an interesting and 
informative speaker, and a prolific writer on a wide variety of subjects. 

His literary talent was displayed early, when in 1909 he was awarded 
first prize of a hundred guineas offered by the "Standard" of London, Eng- 
land, for the best short essay on the /Governance of Empire" ; here he was in 
competition with a large collection of essays of very high quality submitted 
by a great number of able contributors from every portion of the Empire. 
He continued to demonstrate his devotion to King, Empire and Commonwealth 
by being corresponding secretary for fifty-one years (1910-1961) of the Royal 
Empire Society in Nova Scotia, now known as the Royal Commonwealth 

One can only be amazed at the tremendous amount of creative literature 
Bro. Harris has produced during his life time covering Municipal, Jurispru- 
dence, education, historical and Masonic, in all its phases including histories, 
plays and biographies. To mention only a few of his publications, there are 
several books on Masonic law, over one hundred Lodge and Grand Lodge 
histories, several Masonic plays of which perhaps the best known is "As it 
was in the Beginning", many of these have been presented in every part of 
Canada. Author of annotated Constitutions of several organizations ; educa- 
tional subjects include a history of King's Collegiate School; among his legal 
writings are "Organization of a Legal Business" and "The Trial of Christ 
from a Legal Standpoint". In addition to all this, over the years he has pre- 
pared and presented a very large number of addresses and papers ; included 
in his more recent publications is the fascinating story of the "Oak Island 
Mystery", and a History of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of 
Nova Scotia, which was on the press at the time of his death. Perhaps his 
favorite play was "The Glory that was Glastonbury", as he felt it was a 
story which had not been adequately recorded. 

However, it is the tremendous contribution that Bro. Harris has made 
to basic and fundamental Craft Freemasonry that is now our chief interest 
and concern. He was initiated into St. Andrew's Lodge No. 1, G.R.N. S. in 
1913 and it is doubtful if any man has or could live up to the early admoni- 
tions of Freemasonry more than our late Brother. He responded at once to 
the exhortation to "be useful to mankind and an ornament to the Society 
of which you have been this day admitted a member ; to devote your leisure 
hours more especially to the study of such of the liberal arts and sciences as 
may lie within the compass of your attainment ; and without neglecting the or- 
dinary duties of your station, to consider yourself called upon to make daily ad- 
vancement in Masonic knowledge". This is exactly what Brother Harris 
proceeded to do. 

He was Worshipful Master of his Lodge for two years, 1918-1919; its 
Secretary for twelve years, 1920-1932, which reminds us that no unit of a 
Society can function smoothly and efficiently without the devotion and close 


attention to details of its Secretary. He was also a member of Lodges Equity 
No. 107 and University No. 110. His further activities on behalf of the Craft 
were recognized and Honorary memberships were extended to him by the 
following Lodges: Keith No. 17, North Star No. 74, St. Johns No. 2, 
G.R.N. B., and Royal Standard No. 398, E.C. In addition to all this, he was 
awarded the Erasmus James Phillips Medallion in 1922, the Henry Price 
Medallion in 1938 and in 1950 the Jeremy Cross Medallion. 

His own Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia soon recognized his zeal for 
Freemasonry and appointed him Grand Historian for the years 1923 to 1932 
and again in the ten-year period 1935 to 1945. He was elected Grand Master 
for the years 1932 to 1935, Grand Secretary 1945 to 1958 and Associate Grand 
Secretary from 1958 until the time of his death. Other Grand Lodges gave 
him recognition by conferring Honorary Grand Lodge rank. Scotland made 
him a Past Junior Grand Warden and he was also their Grand Representative 
near the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia. Prince Edward Island, Canada (in 
the Province of Ontario) and New Brunswick made him a Past Grand Master 
of their respective Grand Lodges. 

As this story of the life of M.W. Brother R. V. Harris is being prepared 
as a memorial to him and for distribution to the members of the Canadian 
Masonic Research Association, some reference in detail must be made to 
that Association of which he was the Founder and its Secretary from the 
time of its inception in 1949 until his death in 1968. For many years now 
Brother Harris has been one of Canada's leading Masonic scholars and the 
success of the Association has been entirely due to his boundless energy, deter- 
mination, ability and unique circumstances of being able to travel so consistent- 
ly from one end of Canada to the other. Over the years (twenty) ninety-six 
papers have been presented, of these twenty-four were prepared by our late 
Secretary, and the work of the Association will forever be a monument to 
his memory. 

As well as his activities in Craft Freemasonry, he was associated with 
many of what are commonly called "concordant" Bodies. Many of these are 
not generally know, and in any case we are confining our interest only to 
basic and fundamental Craft Freemasonry. However it should be mentioned 
that he was active in Scottish Rite and held his 33° for many years. 

Brother Harris was married in 1907 to Ethel W. Smith, daughter of 
Edmund G. Smith. She predeceased him in 1964. They are survived by two 
sons, R. Gordon Harris of Calgary and Arthur S. Harris of Islington. During 
the last war both sons served in the Forces — Gordon in the R.C.N. R. and 
Arthur with the R.C.A.F. 

Although Freemasonry may have inculcated within us a due regard for 
the dispensations of Divine Providence, it was with profound sorrow that we 
heard of the sudden death of Reginald Vanderbilt Harris in Halifax on 
Friday, August 2nd, 1968. 


The funeral Service took place in the Cathedral Church of All Saints, 
Halifax, and proved an impressive tribute to the esteem in which he was 
held in the Church, in the City, and in the Fraternity, by the large number 
present. Interment was in the Harris Family Burial Ground at Annapolis 
Royal, N.S. 

One knows that our late Brother had great mental ability which he 
used unstintingly in so many ways, but one can also ponder on what other 
contributory elements would stimulate and help him to reach the success he 
did. First, there would be the love and early influence of his parents ; second 
the spiritual impetus he would receive from his Church and third, the love, 
devotion, support and encouragement he received in all his undertakings from 
his wife over a period of fifty-seven years. 

The following tribute came to my attention : 

"R. V. Harris was happiest when he was busiest ; and when he passed 
away so very suddenly while his fellow men slept, it was really a 
wonderful way for him to go. He never had to know an idle day, 
a day when he might have had to lie in bed accomplishing nothing 
while his fellow men worked. 

"In his many fields of activity, his work in the legal profession, his 
work for his Church, his beloved Craft of Freemasonry, his re- 
search in the history of Nova Scotia or "The Oak Island Mystery", 
or his amazing accummulation of biographical and historical in- 
formation relating to countless facets of his work, he was never 
idle. I am also sure that when he might have completed one project, 
he must have started another to take its place. His life's work 
was well done and his eternal rest, well earned." 

So the life story of Most Worshipful Brother R. V. Harris comes to 
an end; he had "squared his life upon the principles of truth and justice, 
and who, by improving his faculties to the Glory of God and the good of 
mankind, has answered the great end of his creation". 

Those who knew him best will miss him most. He will surely rank 
amongst that body of splendid men who have given of their best to Free- 
masonry and in doing so, have earned the affection and respect of every one of 

"Well Done, Good and Faithful Servant". 


Raised in St. Andrews Lodge No. 1, 7 October 1913; Worshipful Master, 
1918-1919; Secretary, 1920-1932; Honorary Member: Keith No. 17, North 
Star. No. 74, St. Johns No. 2 G.R.N. B., Royal Standard No. 398 E.C. ; Mem- 
ber : Equity No. 106, University No. 110; Erasmus James Philipps Medal- 
lion, 1922, Henry Price Medallion, 1938, Jeremy Cross Medallion, 1950; Grand 
Historian, 1923-1932, 1935-1945; Grand Master, 1932-1935; Grand Secretary, 
1945-1958; Associate Grand Secretary, 1958-1968; Honorary Past Junior 


Grand Warden (Scotland), Honorary Past Grand Master (Prince Edward 
Island, Canada in the Province of Ontario, New Brunswick) ; Grand Repre- 
sentative of the Grand Lodge of Scotland; founder Canadian Masonic Re- 
search Association and first Secretary, 1949-1968. 

Exalted in St. Andrews Chapter No. 2, 18 February 1915 ; High Priest 
1923; Grand Archivist, 1935-1967; Grand King, 1924; Grand High Priest, 
1926-1927; Honorary Past Grand Z. (New Brunswick, Ireland) ; Joseph Con- 
way Brown Medallion, 1944; President, Order of High Priesthood, 1940-1944; 
Grand Representative of the Grand Chapter of Ireland. 

Greeted in Chebucto Council No. 4, 10 June 1930; Thrice Illustrious 
Master, 1934; Deputy Grand Master, 1935; Grand Master, 1940-1943; Grand 
Recorder, 1946-1955 ; Grand Representative, Grand Council of the Western 
Jurisdiction of Canada ; Royal Ark Mariner in Lake Ontario Lodge No. 5, 
11 August 1945; Past Grand Commander Noah (Ontario). 

Consecrated in Nova Scotia (now Antiquity) Preceptory No. 5; Preceptor, 
1924, 1925-1932; Honorary Member: Cape Breton, Wascana, and Geoffrey 
de St. Aldemar Preceptories ; Deputy Grand Master, 1935-1937 ; Supreme 
Grand Master, 1937-1939; Grand Cross of the Order in Canada; Honorary 
Grand Master, General Grand Encampment, U.S.A. 

Installed in Huron Conclave No. 2, 1936; affiliated with Royal Edward 
Conclave No. 8 ; Sovereign ; Grand Viceroy, 1938 ; Grand Sovereign, 1939 ; 
Grand Historiographer, 1949-1968. 

Admitted to the York Cross of Honour in Shrewsbury Priory, 1935 ; 
charter member, Eastern Canada Priory No. 19, 1943 ; Prior, 1947 ; Registrar, 
1943-1960; Grand Cross (Four Quadrants), 1940. 

In the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, he received the 14° in Victoria 
Lodge of Perfection, 23 April 1915, the 18° in Keith Chapter Rose Croix, 12 
November 1917; the 32° in Nova Scotia Consistory, 11 July 1918. He was 
Most Wist Sovereign, 1924-1926, and Commande rin Chief, 1928-1945. He 
was made an Honorary 33° in 1932, Active 33° in 1954, Past Active 33° in 

In the Royal Order of Scotland, he received the degrees 17 August 1925 
and was Provincial Grand Master 1942-1959. 

He was created a Noble in Philae Temple A. A. O.N. M.S. 

— Courtesy, Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia. 






The study of Masonic history and traditions has led to the formation of 
a number of research lodges and associations throughout the world. The 
oldest and most noted of these is Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, London, 
England, which began publishing its proceedings in 1886. This lodge has 
world wide recognition and its associate members are scattered throughout 
the whole world. There are several other such lodges in Britain, the leading 
one being the Lodge of Research, No. 2429, Leicester. 

America, too, has not been slow in forming research lodges. Most states 
in the Union have such organizations and they seem to have been successful. 
In 1915, the National Masonic Research Society began publishing "The 
Builder", a monthly research magazine, under the guidance of Bro. the 
Reverend Joseph Fort Newton. This society was an outgrowth of a research 
group of the Grand Lodge of Iowa with headquarters at Anamosa, Iowa. In 
September 1923, the Society moved to St. Louis, Mo., where it continued 
to publish until 1930 socn after the death of Bro. Newton. 

In 1915, a research lodge was formed in Nova Scotia with Bro. R. V. 
Harris as its leader and secretary. This continued in operation for a number 
of years. 

On September 28, 1948, at the second Conference of Grand Chapters of 
Royal Arch Masons of Canada, held in Toronto, the matter of a lodge of 
research for all-Canada was raised. It was thought that if it were to be 
successful, it must have genuine backing from all Grand Masonic Bodies in 
Canada. In March 1949, at the Canadian Conference of Grand Lodges, held 
in Toronto, and at the Assembly of the Sovereign Great Priory, Knights 
Templar, held in Winnipeg, in August, 1949, the matter was again raised. 
This led to the formation of a committee representing all Grand Masonic 
Bodies and it held its first session on November 15, 1949, at Hart House, 
University of Toronto. Following a general discussion, it was unanimously 
decided to recommend to the next Conference of Grand Lodges, to be held 
in 1951, that a petition be presented to the Grand Lodge of Canada, in the 
Province of Ontario, for a warrant for an All-Canada Lodge of Research. 
The terms of the petition were agreed upon and a code of by-laws tentatively 
set up. It was thought wise to follow the plan stated above as Ontario is the 
central province and its Grand Lodge the largest. 

The petition set forth the desirability of forming an All-Canada Lodge 
of History and Rezearch, which would provide a centre and bond of union 
for Masonic students, to which they could submit their discoveries and conclu- 
sions and which would publish from time to time the results of their investiga- 


The preservation of early manuscripts and records of Freemasonry in 
Canada, and the compilation and publication of works dealing with the history 
and jurisprudence of Masonry were two objects emphasized as most 

The constitution of the proposed Lodge was to be modelled on the well- 
known and long-established Quatuor Coronati Lodge of London, the Lodge of 
Research of Leicester, the Missouri Lodge of Research and many other re- 
search lodges which were functioning to the great advantage of the Craft in 
Great Britain and the United States. The control of the Lodge was to be 
vested in a limited group of Active Members composed of students and well- 
informed brethren. The group would be limited in number but there would 
be no limit to the number of Associate or Corresponding Members, which 
would include not only individual brethren but Masonic bodies in all branches 
of Masonry. The Lodge would be financed by the dues of its members assisted 
by grants from the Grand Lodges and other Grand Bodies. It was suggested 
that the active members pay an affiliation fee of $25.00 and an annual fee 
of $5.00, while the associate members pay $5.00 and $5.00. 

It was proposed to ask the Grand Lodge of Canada, in the Province of 
Ontario, for such an amendment to its constitution as would permit it to issue 
a warrant for the Lodge of Research, permitting its Grand Master and 
Grand Historian to be ex-officio active members of the Lodge and allowing 
members of other jurisdictions to become members by affiliation. A waver of 
fees to Grand Lodge was suggested. 

It was also unanimously agreed that until the report of the committee 
could be made to the Conference of Grand Lodges in 1951 and successful 
action taken, and in order to demonstrate the feasability and desirability of 
such a Research Lodge in Canada, an Association to be called the Canadian 
Mascnic Research Association should be formed and that several meetings 
be held at which papers should be read by Canadian research students, which 
papers would demonstrate the useful work which might be done in the field 
of Masonic historical research. It was agreed that during the life of the 
Association there would be no joining fee but an annual fee of $5.00 be payable. 

The aims of the Association were listed as follows : 

(1) To encourage Masonic research and study. 

(2) To present findings at meetings. 

(3) To publish proceedings and transactions. 

(4) To publish Masonic books. 

(5) To reproduce or print Masonic documents. 

(6) To re-print scarce Masonic books. 

(7) To assist in and encourage the preservation of Masonic materials 
of historical value. 

MAY. Bro. J. P. Maher, Grand Master of Canada (in Ontario) made 
a report on the programme of the Canadian Conference of Gra d Lodges held 
ni Winnipeg in February 1951 but made no mention of the petiticn to be brought 


before it. Neither is there any reference to the movement in the proceedings 
of succeeding years. From conversation with leaders of the Craft in Ontario 
there seems to have been some misgivings as to the workability of a Re- 
search Ledge centred in Ontario to which any Canadian Master Mason might 
be accepted. The technicality of jurisdiction over such matters as the sus- 
pension of members for non-payment of dues was raised. It was finally 
deemed wise to have the Canadian Masonic Research Association continue 
under the format as set up to avoid later complication. And it has continued 
as such for the past twenty years. 

In all planning and negotiations, M.W. Bro. R. V. Harris was in the 
forefrcnt. He had served as Secretary for the Research Lodge of Nova Scotia 
and was considered Canada's leading Masonic scholar. In 1953, M.W. Bro. 
C. M. Pitts stated that the Association had been the brain-child of Bro. 
Harris and he had been its leading light from the beginning to that time. 
Another leader in the movement was M.W. Bro. W. J. Dunlop, a Past Grand 
Master of Ontario and a famous Ontario educator. Bro. Dunlop became the 
first President of the Association with Bro. Harris as Secretary. R.W. Bro. 
O. E. Alyea of Belleville became Treasurer. 

Over the years, seven have presided over the Association. Besides Bro. 
Dunlop, who he 1 d the position for four years (1949-53), they were M.W. Bro. 
C. M. Pitts of Ottawa (1953-55), R.W. Bro. A. J. B. Milborne of Knowlton, 
P.Q., (1955-59), who later became Treasurer, M.W. Bro. Judge S. H. Fahrni, 
Portage La Prairie, Man. (1959-61), M.W. Bro. LeRoy Bond, Calgary, Alta. 
(1961-63), V.W. Bro. J. Lawrence Runnalls, St. Catharines, Ont. (1963-67), 
and M.W. Brc. R. E. Emmett, Winnipeg, Man. (1967 to the present). 

Each Province has had a Vice President for each term and the names of 
many distinguished Masons are listed among them. 

With the paper given at the tenth biennial meeting currently held in 
Winripeg, 96 papers have been presented. Of these 24 were prepared and 
presented by Bro. Harris. They have ranged from the one given on May 
9, 1949, "The Masonic Stone of Port Royal, 1606", to his most recent and 
final paper delivered in St. John's, Newfoundland, last Octcber 25th and en- 
titled "John Clinch". 

All but a few of the 96 papers have been published and distributed to 
the members. Unfortunately several of Bro. Harris' papers were not published 
along with about three others. He felt that precedence should be given to 
others. It may now be too late to secure copies for publication. 

Fifty-five meetings in all have been held. Thirty-two of these have been 
convened in several cities and towns of Ontario. The reason for this number 
stems from the fact that Bro. Harris, in the course of his duties for the 
Anglican Church, visited Toronto at least four times each year. Besides this, 
the majority of writers as well as members were from Ontario. Meetings have 
been held in every province except Saskatchewan and one meeting was held 
in New York City in conjunction with the American Lodge of Research. 


No records are readily available to tell what numerical strength the As- 
sociation has enjoyed over the years. No concerted plan to increase the 
membership was followed but the Association depended upon its interested 
members to secure new members. As far as can be ascertained, the member- 
ship stood near the two hundred mark over the years. Since the last biennial 
meeting about 195 members were registered. 

A perusal of the topics dealt with indicated that personal biographies 
have been favoured, althought a considerable number dealt with the "Higher 
Degrees". Not a few famous pioneer lodges were recorded. 

The death of our esteemed Secretary, M.W. Bro. Harris, has dealt a 
blow to the Association, and it will be difficult to replace him. The twenty- 
year record of historical investigation will remain a monument to his memory. 

So now, in 1969, we may look back with pride at the accomplishments 
of the Canadian Masonic Research Association. 




No. 98 








Read at the Ninety-Fifth Annual Communication of the 
Grand Lodge of Manitoba, Winnipeg, June, 1970. 

*y>— <1 — i^ww— i ■ ■ ■ ■■— m^^i^ni^hm^hmii ■■ m ■■ ■■ m ■■ 1 ■■ ■■ »«J> 

^ H ■ ■ ■■■■■■■■ ■■ ■1 1 1 ■ ■ ■ — «!■■■■! f 


Address of the Grand Historian 

M. W. Bro. Robert E. Emmerr 


To the Most Worshipful Grand Master, Officers, 

Members and Visitors of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba: 

Most Worshipful Grand Master and Brethren: 

We have reached the Centennial Year — 1970 — the anniversary of 
Manitoba's entry into the Canadian Confederation. This gives us the oppor- 
tunity at this Communication to recognize and celebrate the 100th birthday of 
the Province. 

In thinking of anniversaries and celebrations, there is a tendency to 
concentrate our thoughts on dates and lighter vein activities rather than 
on the struggles of the men who brought to fruition the event that we are 
now so eager to celebrate. 

Therefore, today, let us for a few minutes give our attention and 
sober reflection to some of the Freemasons who were not only respon- 
sible for the area becoming a part of Canada, but also for those who. 
over the period of a hundred years, took an active part in the civil 
administration at the Provincial level. Therefore, I have selected as the 
title of my address to you this morning, "The Masonic Premiers of 

However, before speaking on this subject let me outline the story of 
the whole area now known as Manitoba prior to the year 1870, and refer 
to the momentous events which led to our entry into Confederation as a 

In 1812 Captain Thomas Button, afterwards Sir Thomas, Sailed from 
Gravesend, Kent, England, with two ships the "Discovery" and "Resolu- 
tion" and arrived at the mouth of a river flowing into Hudson's Bay, 
which he named the "Nelson" after Captain Nelson of the "Resolution", 
who died there after landing. Button took formal possession of all the 
surrounding territory for England, raised its flag and erected a cross to 
indicate the fact, and gave the country the name of New Wales. Our 
Province, therefore, has been under one flag longer than any other 
portion of the North American Continent. Button Bay near Fort Prince 
of Wales, Churchill, commemorates the name of this early explorer. 

On September 24th, 1737 the brave and gallant French explorer Pierre 
Gaultier de Varennes Sieur de la Verendrye or his son Pierre both of 
Three Rivers, Quebec, reached the forks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers; 
opposite this spot, on the St. Boniface side of the Red River, where he 
landed, there now stands a monument and statue to this intrepid voyageur, 
showing him viewing the vast prairies as far as the Rocky Mountains. 


The French Colonial Government in Quebec neglected to support the 
discoveries of la Verendrye, and the forts he and his sons had built 
eventually were abandoned. It is interesting to read in one of his diaries, 
and I quote: "What advantages may result from my toils the future will 
tell". In looking back over these two hundred odd years, we can recog- 
nize la Verendrye as the first white man to open up this whole Western 
Country, which, of course, includes what is now Manitoba. 

On May 2, 1670 a charter of incorporation was signed by Charles II, 
King of England, granting corporate rights to "The Governor and Adven- 
turers of England trading to Hudson's Bay". These Adventurers after- 
wards known as the Hudson's Bay Company were granted the sole trading 
rights in all waters lying within Hudson's Strait, and in all lands drained 
by streams flowing into those waters; this then covered what now com- 
prises the three prairie provinces, parts of Ontario as far East as Fort 
William, and also parts of what are now North and South Dakota, and 
parts of Minnesota. 

Prince Rupert was the first governor of the Company, and to this 
day, under certain circumstances, a part of the territory is still known as 
Rupert's Land. In passing we note that the Hudson's Bay Company this 
year is celebrating its three hundred years of existence. 

In 1811 the Earl of Selkirk, a Scotsman, purchased from the Com- 
pany 116,000 square miles of land and water about 74 million acres in all, 
which he called "Assiniboia" after the Assiniboine tribe of Indians who 
lived along or near the river of the same name. Included in this vast 
territory was the Southern part of what is now Manitoba. Between 1811 
and 1815 Lord Selkirk brought out from Scotland and Ireland five parties 
of settlers, and gave them grants of land on the west bank of the Red 
River stretching from what is now north Winnipeg towards the town of 
Selkirk. Later in 1835 this land was resold to the Company. 

In 1833 Governor Simpson of the Company decided to adopt a wider 
form of government and formed the Council of Assiniboia, which operated 
in an area extending fifty miles in all directions from the forks of the 
Red and Assiniboine Rivers until the Manitoba Act was passed by the 
Dominion Government in 1870. 

Whilst the Hudson's Bay Company, under its Charter, ostensibly had 
the sole rights of trading and operating in this western country, in actual 
fact up to 1821 they were challenged at every turn by the North-West 
Company of Montreal. Competition may be the life of trade, but in this 
case it led to open warfare of the most bitter kind, killings, murders, 
burning of each other's properties and supplying the Indians and hybrids 
with the vilest liquor; those two classes of people as well as the settlers 
were caught squarely between the two rival companies. This state of 
affairs was seen at its worst in the Seven Oaks Massacre, one of the 
blackest crimes ever committed in this area. By 1821 the two companies 


were exhausted from their relentless conflict, and bankruptcy for them 
both was averted only by their union, which terminated the chaos and 
turmoil that reigned for more than forty years. 

In a census taken by Nicholas Garry in 1821 there were only 419 
people in the Red River settlement made up of 221 Scot settlers, 65 
Meuron and 133 Canadians; among this number were 154 females. By 
1849 the population had increased to 5,391, but 1,511 of these were listed 
as transients. 

In 1868 the whole territory came under jurisdiction of the Crown, 
and subsequently under the Government of Canada, which passed the 
Manitoba Act on May 12, 1870 creating the Province of Manitoba effective 
July 15th, 1870. 

Prior to this, tensions ran high in the Settlement owing to the in- 
creased population, and the obvious fact that some other civil government 
would have to be found to replace the old Council of Assiniboia. There 
were three principal factions — The Metis under Louis Riel, who wanted 
full local Provincial control, free of Canada; the annexationists, who 
sought to have the area taken over by the United States of America, 
and the Canadian party of which J. C. Shultz was the dominant figure. 

Louis Riel with his Metis supporters did seize power and set up 
what he called a Provisional Government for a short time, but this col- 
lapsed just before the Wolseley Expedition arrived from Eastern Canada 
in the middle of 1870. Before the end of the year our Prince Rupert's 
Lodge No. 1 had been formed, and all the Charter Members had come 
West with that Expedition. Whilst the creation of the Province of 
Manitoba became effective on July 15th, 1870, it was not possible to have 
an election until a census of the population had been taken, and electoral 
districts set up. The census was completed by the end of November and 
disclosed the total population to consist of 11,963 persons. There were 
1,565 whites, 5,757 French hybrids, 4,083 Scot and English hybrids, and 
558 Indians; of the whites 747 had been born in the North-West, 294 
in Canada, 412 in the British Isles, 69 in the United States, 15 in France, 
and 28 in other countries; of the total population 6,247 were listed as 
Roman Catholics, and 5,176 as Protestants. The Province was therefore 
divided into twenty-four electoral districts, and the election was held on 
December 30th, 1870. 

The first session of the new Provincial Legislative opened on March 
15th, 1871, and all its meetings were held in the private residence of 
Andrew Graham Ballenden Bannatyne, and here also were located the 
Government offices. 

The site of the Bannatyne home is 433 Main Street, Winnipeg, and 
the building standing there now is occupied by the Banque Canadienne 
Nationale. To mark this spot the Historic Sites and Monuments Board 


of Canada have placed on this building a bronze plaque, inscribed as 

"Nearby in the home of Hon. A. G. B. Bannatyne 
the first Legislative of Manitoba met on 15th of 
March, 1871." 

An excellent illustration of the original Bannatyne home will be found 
in the History of Freemasonry in Manitoba; in appearance it resembles 
the old home of William Inkster, still standing on the Seven Oaks 
property in West Kildonan. 

Bro. Bannatyne was the Senior Warden of our pioneer Northern 
Light Lodge, whilst its first Master was John Christian Schultz, who 
more than any other one man was responsible for advancing the interests 
of his beloved Manitoba to remain within Canada and the Empire. 

The activities and interest of these two Brethren in the affairs of the 
Province have been duplicated many times by other Freemasons over the 
past hundred years in many forms of local civil administration at various 
levels. It is impossible to measure the influence of these men from our 
detached position. However, it is not generally realized that out of six- 
teen Provincial Premiers, twelve of them have held membership in the 
Masonic Craft, and it is these twelve Brethren that I want to tell you 
something about and have them represent that large number of other 
Freemasons who also dedicated themselves to the service of their fellow 
men in the field. of politics. A list of these twelve is given below, with 
the dates of their Premiership and Masonic affiliations: 


Clarke, Henry James 

Davis, Robert Atkinson 

Norquay, John 

Harrison, David Howard 

Greenway, Thomas 

Macdonald, Sir Hugh John 
Roblin, Sir Rodmond Palen 

Norris, Tobias Crawford 




Ancient Landmark No. 3, 



Ancient Landmark No. 3, 



Ancient Landmark No. 3, 



St. James No. 73, St. Mary's, 



Lebanon Forest, No. 33, Exeter, 



Prince Rupert's No. 1, Winnipeg. 


Oakland No. 9, Carman, 



Oak Lake No. 44, Oak Lake, 



Lansdowne No. 107, Griswold, 



Bracken, John 1922-43 "The Assiniboine" No. 114, 

Garson, Stuart Sinclair 1943-48 St. John's No. 4, Winnipeg. 

Campbell, Douglas Lloyd 1948-58 Assiniboine No. 7, 

Portage la Prairie, Manitoba. 
Roblin, Dufferin 1958-68 Ionic No. 25, Winnipeg. 

Four of our Premiers have occupied the Master's chair in their 
respective lodges, namely: D. H. Harrison, T. C. Norris, D. L. Campbell 
and Dufferin Roblin. 

It would be interesting if time permitted to give you an intimate bio- 
graphy of these twelve Premiers, but I shall deal only with the most 
salient facts about each, and indicate to some extent the contribution they 
made to the progress of the Province. 

On December 16th, 1872, the first two candidates initiated into Free- 
masonry in Ancient Landmark Lodge No. 3 were the Hon. H. J. Clarke, 
Q.C., Premier and Attorney General, and the Hon. John Norquay, 
Minister of Public Works, who became Premier at a later date. How- 
ever, let us consider in chronological order the twelve Freemasons who 
were Premiers of this Province since its inception. 

The first one to become Premier, 1872 to 1874, was Henry James Clarke 
who came from Donegal, Ireland, but received his education in Quebec. 
He was invited to come to the Province by Rev. N. J. Richot, a delegate of 
Riel's short lived government. Brother Clarke was elected to the 
Legislative Assembly for St. Charles in 1871. He supported Lieutenant 
Governor Archibald's policy of conciliation but eventually lost favour with 
the French for seeking rapproachment with those from the British Isles. 
He retired from politics in 1874 to practice law in Winnipeg; he was an 
able criminal lawyer and defended some rebel prisoners following the 
North- West Rebellion of 1885. Brother Charke was a member of Ancient 
Landmark Lodge No. 3, Winnipeg. He died on a C.P.R. train at Medicine 
Hat, N.W.T., in 1889. 

The second name to consider is that of R. A. Davis, 1874 to 1878, who 
was also a member of Ancient Landmark Lodge No. 3. He was born 
and educated in Quebec, but came to Winnipeg in 1870 when he pur- 
chased the Emmerling Hotel from George Emmerling who was returning 
to the United States to live, when it became evident that annexation to 
that country was not going to take place. The hotel was re-named the 
"Davis House". 

Brother Davis was elected to the Provincial House in 1874, and 
became Provincial Treasurer in the Girard ministry; then later that year 
Premier. He followed a policy of retrenchment and redistribution of 
electoral districts to correspond more closely with the steadily increasing 
population. In 1876 he was instrumental in securing improved financial 


terms from the Federal Government. During- his term of office Manitoba's 
Upper House, known as the "Legislative Council" was abolished. He 
retired from public life in 1878, and went to live in Illinois. 

The third Brother to consider is John Norquay who was born in 1841 
at St. Andrews, the son of pioneer Red River settlers. After graduating 
from St. John's Parochial School, he engaged in teaching for a short 
time, but in 1866 moved to High Bluff to take up farming. In High Bluff, 
1871, he was elected by acclamation to the first Provincial Legislative and 
given the post of Minister of Agriculture and Public Works. In 1874 he 
was elected for St. Andrews and represented that constituency for the 
rest of his life. He was Premier of the Province from 1878 to 1887, and 
was the first native son to hold that office; he resigned over disagreement 
with the Dominion Government on their railway policies. He died in 1889 
at the early age of 48. Brother Norquay was a huge man of great ability 
and industry who contributed tremendously to the development of 
Manitoba in its formative years. He was the third member of Ancient 
Landmark Lodge No. 3 to become Premier. 

Our fourth Premier was D. H. Harrison. He was born in 1843 in 
London, Upper Canada. After attending McGill and Toronto Universities 
and graduating from Medical College, he practised medicine in St. Mary's, 
Ontario, until 1882, when he settled in Manitoba. He was elected in 
1883 to the Provincial House to represent Minnedosa West; in 1886 he was 
Minister of Agriculture, and then in December of 1887 became Premier, 
but his ministry lasted only twenty-four days as he resigned in January 
1888, and retired from political life. He was a Past Master of St. James 
Lodge No. 73, of St. Mary's, Ontario; he died in 1905 in Vancouver. 

Thomas Greenway headed the next Government; he was born in Corn- 
wall, England, in 1838, and came to Canada in 1844 with his parents, who 
settled in Huron County, where he received his education; afterwards he 
was a general merchant in Centralia, Ontario, where he became Reeve 
for ten years. In 1875 he was elected to the Canadian House of Com- 
mons until 1878. The next year he moved to Manitoba to take up 
farming near Crystal City; shortly after he was elected to the Provincial 
Legislative for the constitutency of Mountain, and was Premier from 
1888 to 1890. During his ministry the school question raged and was 
resolved. In 1904 he was returned to Ottawa as a member of the Domi- 
nion Government for Lisgar, but retired in 1908 when he became a 
member of the Board of Railway Commissioners. He died in Ottawa that 
same year. Brother Greenway was a member of Lebanon Forest Lodge 
No. 33 of Exeter, Ontario. 

The next in order was Sir Hugh John Macdonald who was born in 
1850 in Kingston, Upper Canada; he was the only surviving son of Sir 
John A. Macdonald. After graduating from the University of Toronto, 
he practised law in Toronto and at a later date in Winnipeg. He first 


came West with the Red River Expedition in 1870, and also took part 
with the troops from Winnipeg in suppressing the second North-West 
Rebellion in 1885. He twice represented Winnipeg in the House of 
Commons in Ottawa, and in 1896 was Minister of the Interior in the 
short lived Tupper Administration. 

He was Premier and Attorney General in the Provincial Legislative 
for a short time in 1900, but resigned later in that year to contest 
Brandon in the Federal Election, but was defeated by Clifford Sifton. He 
then retired into private life, but from 1911 to 1929 was Police 
Magistrate in Winnipeg. He was a member of Prince Rupert's Lodge 
No. 1, and died in Winnipeg in 1929. 

Our seventh Masonic Premier was Sir Rodmond Palen Roblin who was 
a member of Oakland Lodge No. 9, Carman; he was born in 1853 at 
Sophiasburg, Prince Edward County, Upper Canada, and educated at 
Albert College, Belleville, Ontario. He moved to Manitoba in 1877 and 
commenced farming near Carman. He represented Dufferin in the 
Provincial Legislative from 1889 to 1915, and during that time was 
Premier for fifteen years. The present Provincial buildings were erected 
during his term of office. He died at Hot Springs, Arkansas, in 1937. 

Tobias Crawford Norris was our next Premier. His Mother Lodge was 
Oak Lake No. 44 but he affiliated with Lansdowne Lodge No. 107, Gris- 
wold, Manitoba, where he was Master in 1927 and 1928. Brother Norris 
was born in Brampton, Upper Canada, in 1861, and came to Manitoba 
with his parents who farmed in the Oak Lake-Griswold areas. He 
represented Lansdowne in the Provincial Legislative from 1896 to 1925, 
and was Premier from 1915 to 1922. During his term of office he intro- 
duced woman suffrage, minimum wage laws, and prohibition. He died in 
Toronto, 1936. 

We are now coming to more recent times as the next Premier, our 9th, 
is John Bracken, who was born at Ellisville, Leeds County, Ontario, in 1883; 
his education was obtained at Brockville Collegiate and Ontario Agri- 
cultural College; in 1906 he received his B.S.A. degree from the University 
of Illinois. In this year he was the Manitoba Representative on the Domi- 
nion Seed Board; the following year he was superintendent of fairs and 
farmers' institutes for Saskatchewan. From 1920 to 1922 he was Principal 
of the Manitoba Agricultural College. It was during this period that he was 
the author of two books, namely "Crop Production in Western Canada" 
and "Dry Farming in Western Canada". 

Up to 1922 Brother Bracken had taken no active part in politics, but 
in that year he was elected in The Pas to the Manitoba Legislative, and 
was Premier from 1922 to 1943. In 1945 he was elected in the Federal 
Constituency of Neepawa to the House of Commons in Ottawa where he 
was the Leader of the Opposition until 1948. He retired the following 
year from public life to live on his farm near Ottawa. In 1954 he 
headed the Royal Commission to look into the liquor laws of Manitoba. 
Brother Bracken who was a member of "The Assiniboine" Lodge No. 
114, Winnipeg, died quite recently in Ottawa. 


The tenth is Stuart Sinclair Garson who was Premier from 1943 to 
1948. He was born at St. Catharines, Ontario, in 1898, and came to 
Manitoba in 1901; his education was obtained in the Winnipeg Public 
Schools and the University of Manitoba. He was called to the Manitoba 
Bar in 1919, and between that date and 1928 practised law at Ashern and 

In 1927 Brother Garson was elected in Fairford constituency to the 
Provincial Legislative; in 1936 he was Provincial Treasurer. These were 
the depression years which severely impaired Provincial finances, fortun- 
ately he was able to negotiate new agreements with the Federal Govern- 
ment. In 1943 he succeeded Brother Bracken as Premier, but resigned in 
1948 when he was elected in Marquette to the Federal House where he 
became Solicitor General in 1950; he returned to private practice in 1957. 
Brother Garson is a member of St. John's Lodge No. 4. 

Douglas Lloyd Campbell was the eleventh Masonic Premier of Man- 
itoba, and is a Past Master of Assiniboine Lodge No. 7, Portage la Prairie. 
He was born at Flee Island, Manitoba, in 1895, and obtained his educa- 
tion at High Bluff and Portage la Prairie schools, and later at Brandon 
College. In 1922 he was first elected to represent Lakeside Constituency 
in the Provincial Legislative; a seat he was to keep on winning for 47 
years. He served in the cabinets of both Brother Bracken and Garson, 
and in 1948 succeeded Brother Garson as Premier, this position he held 
for ten years. 

Brother Campbell continued the general policy of his two predeces- 
sors, and by his careful handling of the Province's finances and sound 
leadership, the business of the Province was competently administered. 
Some of his other achievements must include rural electrification, re- 
organization of power production, the reform of the liquor laws based on 
the Bracken report, the MacFarlane report on education, introduction of 
the hospital insurance program, and, perhaps, his greatest accomplishment 
the Redistribution Act of 1952, which took the setting of Provincial 
electoral seats out of politics, and placed it in the hands of an impartial 

Brother Campbell retired from public life a year ago, after nearly half 
a century of service to his fellowmen — 47 years to be exact — a record 
in Canada and among the longest parliamentary records in the history of 
the Commonwealth. 

Worshipful Brother Campbell always took his Masonic obligations 
and duties seriously and even when he was totally involved in the 
service of the public, always tried to accept any Masonic assignment when 
invited to do so by his brethren. He was a useful man to the Province 
and Freemasonry and embodies many of the Ideals of our Fraternity. 

"A man who, without courting applause, is loved by all noble 
minded men, respected by his superiors and revered by his 
subordinates; the man who never proclaimed what he has done, 
will do, can do, but where need is, will lay hold with dis- 


passionate courage, circumspect resolution, in defatigable exertion 
and a rare power of mind, and who will not cease until he has 
accomplished his work, but who then without pretension will 
retire into the multitude because he did the good act, not for 
himself, but for the cause of good." 

Our twelfth and last Masonic Brother was Dufferin Roblin, a Grandson 
of a former Premier Sir Rodmond P. Roblin. He was born 1917 in 
Winnipeg, was educated in local schools and the Universities of Manitoba 
and Chicago. During the second World War he served as a Wing 
Commander in the R.C.A.F. He was elected in 1949 in a Winnipeg 
constituency to a seat in the Provincial House, and was chosen leader of 
his party in 1954. He became Premier in 1958, this post he held until 
1968 when he retired. During his term of office he was responsible for 
the completion of the Winnipeg floodway. He was a Past Master of 
Ionic Lodge No. 25, and now resides in Montreal. 

These twelve Brethren, with the exception of a short period in 1874, 
have consecutively led the various Provincial Governments for 96 years — 
a record that I doubt ever has been equalled anywhere; of the twelve 
only three survive, namely Brothers Garson, Campbell and Roblin. 

With the knowledge that Freemasonry was the first organization of 
any kind, even ahead of schools or churches, to be established in what is 
now the centre of Winnipeg, and the examples of the twelve Brethren 
representing so many others, all of whom have given of their ability, their 
energy and their devotion to the public interest; can there be any doubt 
that Freemasonry has influenced greatly Canadian life in our Province, 
up through the rigorous toils of the wilderness and the loneliness of the 
prairies, to the present high standard of living and high level of achieve- 
ment in the realms of culture, commerce and industry. 

Therefore, this morning, as we stand on the heights of our Provincial 
Centennial, basking in the reflected glory of "the blood, sweat and tears", 
and in the justifiable pride of our ancestors, let us as heirs of the past 
look forward to the future with confidence and with determination that 
our efforts will at least equal, if not surpass, all previous achievements. 

Grand Historian. 


,"♦■ "" ■—■" " ■ " "" " " ■ " "" "" "" " " " "■— " " " ■—•of 






No. 99 





- by - 

Ionic Lodge, No. 25, C.R.C. 

November 1970 

l^„._.._„._.._„__.._.._.._..__„_._„_.._. 1 _.._.._.._..__.._._.._.^ 


In Canadian Masonic Jurisdictions 

The mobility in Canadian society today takes many Masons from one 
province to another. When these brethren visit, or affiliate with, Lodges in 
their new home communities they may be surprised to find differences in the 
workings, and they may wonder what accounts for the diversity within one 
nation. To review ritualistic practice in Freemasonry throughout Canada and 
to discover the reasons for such differences as exist is the purpose of this 

Freemasonry in Canada owes its beginnings to many sources and, gen- 
erally speaking, followed the course of history from East to West. Many 
early Lodges, some of which are still extant, derived from Military Lodges, 
whose warrants were carried with Regiments of the British Army stationed 
in British North America. The Grand Lodges of England — Antient and 
Modern — and of Ireland issued such warrants. In the nineteenth century these 
Grand Lodges, the former two now together as the United Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land, granted civilian warrants, and they were joined in this practice by the 
Grand Lodge of Scotland. A few of these Lodges still hold to their original alle- 
giance : two in Quebec, one in Nova Scotia, and the District Grand Lodges 
of England and Scotland in Newfoundland. 

The American colonies had not yet become the United States of America 
when Masonry first came to Eastern Canada, and communication, notably of 
Nova Scotia, with the New England colonies was common. This influenced 
Masonry in what are now the Maritime Provinces and serves to explain why 
the American pattern in ritual prevailed there ; this had been set when Grand 
Lodges were establishd following Independence, a quarter-century before the 
Union of the rival Grand Lodges in England and the sittings of the Lodge of 
Reconciliation, which decided the content of the Craft ceremonies and ritual 
for English Freemasonry. 

Every Grand Lodge has had to face a decision about uniformity in ritual, 
although, in the attitude of the United Grand Lodge of England, this tends to 
make a mountain out of a molehill. Brother Harry Carr, Secretary of 
Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research, London, has written in a recent Lodge 
summons : 

In a recent survey of Ritual 'workings' used by Lodges of Instruccicn, 
it was found that there were some eighteen 'named workings' in practice 
in the London area alone, and, in addition, no fewer than nine Lodges 
who claim to be using their 'own working', i.e., some twenty-seven 
different versions in London. There are many more in the Provinces, 
where every large centre seems to boast its own peculiar forms, e.g.. 
York, Bristol, Exeter, Oxford, Humber, etc. 

A survey of Freemasonry in Canada may not reveal this variety of "work- 
ings", but differences do exist, and these tend to add interest in Lodge visiting. 


Among the English "workings" the influence of one became dominant in 
Canada; this was the Emulation Ritual as demonstrated in the Emulation 
Lodge of Improvement, founded in 1823 to teach and maintain the standard of 
ceremonies said to be those of the Lodge of Reconciliation. For more than a 
century the Emulation Lodge disapproved of a printed ritual but, in 1969, 
reversed this policy and decided upon publication of the Emulation Ritual, 
with Rubrics. The United Grand Lodge of England has never recognized 
any printed ritual as official. 

In surveying the Canadian scene from East to West the intention is to 
relate the present "workings" to the backgrounds of the several Grand Lodges, 
to point to some differences in the non-esoteric work, and to ascertain that, 
notwihstanding some internal disturbances along the way, an essential har- 
mony has emerged in the nine Grand Lodges and two District Grand Lodges 
which represent Craft Masonry in Canada. 

These District Grand Lodges make for the first anomaly and suggest 
Newfoundland as a starting point. 


Newfoundland, heretofore, a self-governing Dominion, became a province 
of Canada in 1949, and its Craft Lodges continue, as before, to bear allegiance 
to the Grand Lodges of England or Scotland. District Grand Lodges of these 
Jurisdictions function in amity. The former numbers nineteen and the latter 
ten Lodges. 

"The First Masonic Lodges in Newfoundland", an Association paper by 
M. W. the late R. V. Harris, tells of Lodges in the period 1746 to 1832, by 
which date all had ceased to exist. The privately printed "Freemasonry in 
Newfoundland", by K. C. Skuce, O.B.E., P.M., records revival of the Craft 
in 1848 under dispensation from the Provincial Grand Master in Nova Scotia. 
Upon direct petition to the United Grand Lodge of England, St. John's Lodge. 
No. 579, was granted a Charter dated June 5, 1850. This Lodge continues in 
being. The District Grand Lodge was created in 1870 and celebrated its 
Centennial in 1970. Marking the occasion, an informative history, entitled 
God is Our Guide, has been written by Bro. James R. Thorns. 

The Grand Lodge of Scotland chartered Lodge Tasker, No. 454, in 
1866. To mark its Centennial, a well-illustrated history was prepared by 
Wor. Bro. B. R. Taylor. Thus English and Scottish Freemasonry have 
recorded their past. 

Lodges of the English Constitution adopted and use the Emulation 
Ritual, with two exceptions which practise the "Ancient York" working. 
Some variations and local modifications are in effect in the case of each 
working. Scottish Lodges had an early ritual known as the "Duncan", 
which was taught, as was the custom, by word of mouth; no cooy is 
available. Changes in working made more than fifty years ago brought 


the "Standard Ritual of Scottish Freemasonry" to the Scottish Lodges, 
and t\ is is in general use among them. 

John's Lodge carries on a tradition of saluting the Wardens, 
whi :revailed in all the English Lodges until 1905. At that time also, 
alt< i was made in the position of certain furniture of the Lodge, 

to tl ?sent arrangement. 


In 1733 Henry Price of Boston was appointed Provincial Grand 
Master of New England and "the dominions and territories thereunto 
belonging" ; his jurisdiction was extended in the following year to all of 
North America. Price thereupon established a Provincial Grand Lodge 
and "The First Lodge" (now St. John's Lodge) in Boston. 

Longley and Harris, in their A Short History of Freemaspnry in Nova 
Scotia, tell of Price's activity in furthering Freemasonry. In 1738 he ap- 
pointed Major Erasmus James Philipps as Provincial Grand Master of 
Nova Scotia, and the latter then founded what was "virtually a military 
lodge" at Annapolis Royal, where he was stationed with the garrison. 
Upon the founding of Halifax in 1749, Masons there desired a Lodge, 
and in due course Philipps granted a Warrant, which arrived in Halifax 
July 19, 1750 (now St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 1). In 1757 the recently 
formed "Antient" Grand Lodge chartered Lodges in Halifax and estab- 
lished a Provincial Grand Lodge. Thistle Lodge (now Keith No. 17) 
was chartered in 1827 by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, which later set 
up a Provincial Grand Lodge. The Scottish Lodges organized the Grand 
Lodge of Nova Scotia in 1866, which the English Lodges joined in 1869. 
One Lodge remained in allegiance to the United Grand Lodge of England. 

The 1870 Constitution provided that 

The work styled 'Ancient York Rite' is adopted by this Grand 
Lodge with permission to those lodges now working the English 
Lodge of Emulation work to continue that work so long as they 
shall desire to do so. 

At Grand Lodge in 1906 the "Ancient York" work was exemplified, and 
this Rite, "as practised in the State of New York", was adopted, with 
permission to two particular Lodges "working the ritual of the Grand 
Lodges of England and Canada" to continue to do so. This "Ancient 
York" ritual was printed in 1947 as "The Authorized Work", which har. 
been adopted by most of the Lodges. 


Prince Edward Island remained a self-governing colony until 1873, 
when it entered Confederation. Island Masons, included in the Nova 
Scotia jurisdiction, became detached when the Grand Lodge of Nova 
Scotia was formed in 1869, and, following a memorandum to the United 


Grand Lodge of England, Adam Murray was appointed District Grand 
Master in 1870. One Scottish Lodge continued in Charlottetown. After 
1873 the Island Lodges, having witnessed the formation of Grand Lodges 
in other Provinces, decided to follow the same course; the Grand Lodge 
of Prince Edward Island accordingly came into being in 1875. 

An early resolution of the new Grand Lodge adopted the working 
of the Grand Lodge of New Brunswick, which was based on hte Massa- 
chusetts ritual. This, however, was never implemented, and the Lodges 
continued to use a "cipher" ritual known as the "Webb Work", which 
was available from a New York publisher. One Lodge later used Lester's 
"Look to the East", which had practically the same wording spelled out 
in plain English, with the addition of some of the monitorial material. 
Actually the use of these printed aids was unofficial, and lip-service was 
given to the oral tradition of instruction. 

The desire for uniform practice, officially recognized, was expressed 
from time to time, and in 1950 the recently-printed Nova Scotia ritual 
was recommended by the Board of General Purposes and adopted by 
Grand Lodge. An understanding with the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia 
made this available. Early objection by some of the Lodges, however, 
led to reconsideration, and Grand Lodge finally decided in 1953 that the 
"Old Work" would be the official ritual, but provided that any Lodge 
wishing to use the Nova Scotia ritual might do so under dispensation 
from the Grand Master. Hence two versions of what is, in effect, the 
same working prevail. 


New Brunswick became a separate Colony in 1784 but remained 
Masonically under the jurisdiction of the Provincial Grand Lodge at 
Halifax, which was known as "The Worshipful Grand Lodge of the 
Most Ancient and Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons 
in the Province of Nova Scotia in North America and the Masonic 
Jurisdiction thereto belonging." (And they say that the present Ontario 
title is cumbersome !) 

There were Masons in Military Lodges with British regiments after 
the capture of Fort Beausejour, and Freemasonry was active also in the 
New England forces which participated in the occupation. These were 
transitory, however, and in 1783 the Loyalist Provincial Regiments on 
the Saint John River were disbanded. According to Dr. Thomas Walker. 
P.G.M., quoted from an article on New Brunswick Masonry, 

The history of Freemasonry in New Brunswick may be said to 
have commenced the 7th of November 1783, when Jared Betts wrote 
from St. Ann's, Nova Scoita, now Fredericton, N.B., ... to Joseph 
Peters, Secretary of Lodge No. 211, Halifax, to know if he could 
proceed under a warrant which he held (Irish) . . . The authority 
of this warrant was denied but a dispensation was actually issued 
from two warranted lodges, Nos. 155 and 211, then existing in 


Halifax. . . . New Brunswick was made a separate province in 1784 
and the first lodge instituted there, September 7th, 1784 was Hiram 
Lodge. 1 

The present Grand Lodge was formed in 1867 and has a ritual based 
on that used in Massachusetts. This is the so-called "Ancient York" work 
("American"), which varies from the workings in Nova Scotia and 
Prince Edward Island only in slight details. A fully written "Master" 
ritual is retained by Grand Lodge, and for many years no transcription 
was permitted, the ritual being memorized for passing by word of mouth. 
In 1944, however, "The Ceremonies of Craft Masonry from Standard 
Authority" was put in print, with the words abbreviated to one letter. 

The three Maritime Provinces' workings thus follow the American pat- 
tern. Lodge business is conducted in the Third Degree, and a section of 
this degree is dramatized. Labour is dispensed with or a call made to 
Refreshment before opening in one of the other degrees for some specific 
purpose. The Working Tools are not wholly identical with those in 
English practice, and Emblems include the Beehive, the Pot of Incense, 
the Anchor and Ark, the 47th Problem of Euclid, the Hour Glass and 
the Scythe. The Nova Scotia and New Brunswick rituals print the 
"Tyler's Oath", and that of New Brunswick details the preparation of 
candidates. They have separate Monitorial booklets, but Prince Edward 
Island uses the American "Sickel's" Monitor. Thus general uniformity 
exists in this area. 


Freemasonry was brought to Quebec by the military lodges in the British 
Regiments which participated in the Siege and Capture of the City of Quebec 
in 1759. Subsequently a Provincial Grand Lodge was established under the 
authority of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns). The full story has 
been told by R. W. Bro. A. J. B. Milborne in his book Freemasonry in the 
Province of Quebec. The first Provincial Grand Lodge lasted thirty-three 
years. In 1792 the Provincial Grand Lodge of Lower Canada was formed, 
and H.R.H. the Duke of Kent was appointed Provincial Grand Master 
by Warrant issued by the Grand Lodge of England (Ancients). It was 
an active body and Warrants were issued to constitute Lodges as far 
West as Detroit. In 1822, its jurisdiction was divided into two Provincial 
Grand Lodges, one for the District of Quebec and Three Rivers, the 
other for the District of Montreal and William Henry. These two grand 
bodies continued until 1855, when the Grand Lodge of Canada was 
formed. The present Grand Lodge of Quebec was established in 1869. 

In an educational Bulletin (1950), V. W. Bro. R. J. Meekren suggest- 
ed that Emulation working was introduced into Canada in 1825 by the 
Provincial Grand Lodge of Montreal and William Henry, through the 
instrumentality of the Provincial Grand Master, William McGillivary. 
The Ritual in use by Lodges under the Grand Lodge of Canada was 

1. Quoted from C.M.R.A. Paper # 32 (A. S. Robinson) 


adopted by the Grand Lodge of Quebec, and revised in 1874. It was 
revised again in 1878, particularly in the material of the Lectures. 

There are some exceptions in that certain Lodges use other than 
the official ritual, for specific reasons. Scottish Lodges joining the Grand 
Lodge of Quebec in 1881 were permitted to retain their Scottish working. 
Three Lodges in Montreal work in the French language, and one of 
these preserves some elements found in early French rituals. A few 
Lodges in the Eastern Townships close to the United States border 
use the "Ancient York" ritual, notably Golden Rule Lodge, No. 5, Stan- 
stead (Chartered 1813). Stanstead brethren were earlier members of 
Lively Stone Lodge, No. 22, Vermont Registry. 1 Moreover, John Barney, 
a Vermont Mason who had been in Boston to learn the Craft lectures 
of Thomas Smith Webb, visited Quebec Lodges in that area to propagate 
American working. 


In 1791 Upper Canada came into being, and a year later William 
Jarvis, Secretary of the Province, was appointed Provincial Grand Master 
of the new Provincial Grand Lodge (Ancients). The seat of government 
was at Newark, now Niagara-on-the-Lake, and the first Lodge warranted 
by Jarvis was Niagara, No. 2, which remains senior in the present roll 
of Lodges. Ancient St. John's Lodge, No. 3, warranted in 1795, followed 
and continues still as No. 3, at Kingston. 

With the growth in population and expansion of Upper Canada the 
numbers of Masons increased, and the Grand Lodge of Ireland became 
represented by a group of Lodges. There were periods of activity, quiet, 
and contention. Stemming from the Irish Lodges a rival Grand Lodge 
of Canada was formed in 1855, to confound the Provincial Grand Lodge 
of Canada West. The latter proclaimed itself in 1857 as the "Ancient 
Grand Lodge of Canada", but in 1858 the whole issue was resolved by 
union of the two bodies, with the Grand Master of the former as the 
first ruler of the "Grand Lodge of Canada". 1 

A ritual based on the Emulation working is standard in Ontario, and 
the Grand Secretary's information is that the question of Ritual is not 
known ever to have been an issue. Transcript of a ritual found in a 
surveyor's notebook is said to have been similar to the working of the 
three degrees exemplified by R. W. Bro. William Badgley, Provincial 
Grand Master of Montreal and William Henry, to the Provincial Grand 
Lodge of Canada West in June 1851. The first Grand Master, William 
Mercer Wilson, is said to have favored a diversity of workings. The 
only known exception, however, to uniformity of ritual in Ontario is 
found in two London Lodges with Irish antecedents, which have per- 
mission to practice the Irish working. 

1. A. J. B. Milborne. Freemasonry in the Province of Quebec, p. 220. 



The earliest Manitoba Lodges had their origin either in Ontario or 
Minnesota, the first warrant coming from the latter in 1863. Prince Rupert's 
Lodge, No. 240 (Canada) was formed in 1870, all the charter members being 
British soldiers of the Wolseley expedition at Fort Garry. The Grand Lodge 
of Manitoba dates from 1875, and its story is told in the history printed for 
the Golden Jubilee, Freemasonry in Manitoba, by "William Douglas, P.G.M., 
for a copy of which I am indebted to the Grand Secretary. 

Ritual in Manitoba was a source of much contention during the first 
decade of the Grand Lodge, and a major factor in a schism in 1878; this 
is outlined both by M. W. Bro. Douglas in his history and by Bro. D. 
M. Silverberg in Association Paper No. 96. The issue was between those 
who preferred the "The Canadian", as the Emulation ritual from Ontario 
came to be called, and those who favored the "Ancient York" (American) 
working. Agreement was reached finally in 1880, and both workings 
were approved. Of the three oldest Lodges, two began with the "Cana- 
dian" and one with the "Ancient York" working, and they still continue 
to do so. 

An interesting sidelight is given by M. W. Dwight L. Smith, of Indiana, 
in his Goodly Heritage, wherein he mentions the similarity in workings in 
Indiana, Vermont, Minnesota, and the "American Work" Lodges of Manitoba. 
He traces the influence of John Barney, which still lingers in certain Quebec 
Lodges, through mid-western States where, after leaving Vermont, he 
gave instruction in the Webb lectures. 1 

The Douglas history indicates that adherence to the English practice 
of transacting business in the E.A. degree by the Lodges under Canadian 
jurisdiction was a cause of divided opinion. In 1885 the Board of General 
Purposes ruled that all Lodges must conduct business in the M.M. degree, 
but Lodges may now decide to do so in the E.A. degree, should they so 
wish. Use of the M.M. degree for this purpose stems from a Masonic 
convention at Washington, D.C. in 1842, which recommended that "the 
practice of transacting Masonic business in Lodges below the degree of 
Master Mason . . . should be discontinued." 2 

Some Manitoba changes in practice are noted: 

1. Holding of Signs discarded in opening and closing ceremonies. 

2. Substitution in reference to the Flag in final E.A. Charge to "Let me 
remind you of the duties you owe to Queen and Country and the rights 
and privileges secured to us as Citizens of Canada." (not in Canadian 

3. Use of long form of W.T. in F.C. degree. (Ontario has long form). 

4. Amendment of the Penalties. 

1. Geo. J. Bennett, compiled for John Ross Robertson. "The Grand Lodge 
of Canada in Ontario". (Osborne Sheppard). 

1. Dwight L. Smith. Goodly Heritage. G. L. Indiana. 1968. Chapter 9. 

2. Ibid. 



The influence of the Grand Lodge of Canada (Ontario) continued to 
spread further westward to the area which became the Province of 
Saskatchewan in 1905. The oldest Lodge is Kinistino, which received its 
Warrant from the Grand Lodge of Canada in 1879, with the number 381. 
It joined the Grand Lodge of Manitoba in 1881 as No. 16, and in 1906, 
as the oldest Lodge in the new Province, it was requested to call a Con- 
vention to discuss the formation of a new Grand Lodge. That accom- 
plished, Kinistino became No. 1 on the roll. Association Paper No. 36, 
by M. W. Bro. R. A. Tate, tells of expansion in Lodges and members. 
There were twenty-nine Lodges at work in 1906, of which all but two 
used the "Canadian" ritual; these two held to the "Ancient York" (Amer- 
ican) working. Today there is said to be uniformity in ritual except for 
the two which continue to work "Ancient York". 


The Grand Lodge of Alberta was formed in the same year that 
Alberta became a Province, 1905. Association Paper No. 29, by M. W. 
Bro. Sam Harris, gives a brief history to 1955. There were eighteen 
Lodges at the outset, sixteen chartered and two under dispensation from 
the Grand Lodge of Manitoba. Of these, twelve are said to have used 
the "Ancient York" ritual and the others the "Canadian" working. The 
Grand Secretary's information is that the "Ancient York" came with 
Masons from Nova Scotia, and that the Grand Lodge Constitution was 
based on that of Manitoba, which permitted the Lodges a choice of the 
two workings. 

Examination of copies of the Rituals in use, which R. W. Bro. Rivers 
kindly sent to the writer, reveal interesting differences. "Canadian" Work, 
printed in 1945 was compared with "Ancient York" published in 1910 
and that used by Edmonton Lodge No. 7. Differing passages are dis- 
played in the V.S.L., and business is done in the M.M. degree. There is 
resemblance in the latter two to the working by the two Irish Lodges in 

To quote Bro. Harris, "There are two authorized "Rites" or "Work- 
ings" in Alberta, the Canadian Rite, about 60% and the York, or Amer- 
ican Rite, about 40%". 


The Grand Lodge of British Columbia was formed in 1871 by eight 
Lodges holding charters from the United Grand Lodge of England and 
five Lodges from the Grand Lodge of Scotland; these founder-Lodges 
were permitted to practise the workings which they had been using — 
the Emulation and the Scottish rituals. With expansion, other workings 
were introduced, and for many years there was considerable discussion 


about the variety of workings and, no doubt also, about the variations 
from correct ritual. 

"Cariboo Gold", the history of Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, (Paper No. 88. 
by V. W. Bro. J. T. Marshall), shows that in 1867 the Grand Lodge of 
Scotland granted a Warrant, No. 469. Most of the founder-members came 
from the U.S.A., and the Lodge leaned to American practice; the Scot- 
tish Grand Lodge was tolerant in the matter of ritual so long as the 
Ancient Landmarks were observed. 

In the 1950 Proceedings of Grand Lodge there is a lengthy report 
of a Special Committee on Rituals, and it lists four main types of ritual 
and ceremonial used in the jurisdiction: 

Canadian (Ontario) type 59 Lodges 

English type 11 Lodges 

New South Wales type 1 Lodge 

American type 58 Lodges 


The report is almost a treatise on rituals, and one of the points empha- 
sized is that 

Several Lodges doing American work make use of Lester's 'Look 
to the East' — a book of no standing in the U.S.A. and roundly 
condemned by some Freemasons. We have been unable to find out 
who Lester was, whether he was a Freemason at all, and what 
jurisdiction practises the work he prints. However, like all 'spur- 
ious' rituals, the book contains many genuine elements, especially 
those culled from Monitors. 

This is quoted in full because Lester was mentioned in P. E. I. A revised 
copy in the writer's possession shows that it was copyrighted in 1876 
and 1904 by Dick & Fitzgerald, again in 1918 and 1927, and published by 
the Behrens Publishing Company, Danbury, Connecticut. 

In 1955 the Grand Lodge authorized a Ritual entitled "The Canadian 
Working", and in 1962 a form of work called "The Ancient Ritual" was 
adopted for use by the Lodges practising the American Rite, its use 
being voluntary for Lodges existing before June 1, 1962. This ritual has 
some interesting features. There are ten appendices, covering details 
from alternate rituals which can be used in degree work; one details 
the various emblems of the M.M. degree, such as the Pot of Incense, 
the Beehive, the Anchor and Ark, and the Hourglass. There is also a 
list of words used in the Ritual, giving the correct phonetic pronunci- 


Review shows that at the beginnings of Freemasonry in what is now 
Canada the rituals came from the Irish or early English Lodges and, in 


some cases, via the American Colonies or States. In time, Emulation was 
introduced and, in the guise of "Canadian" spread across the country. 
The Ancient York work was practised in the Maritime Provinces, but 
it is also known in Quebec and West from Manitoba. Two Lodges in 
Ontario have the Irish working and three in Quebec the Scottish. Exclud- 
ing the Maritimes, which are Ancient York territory, the Emulation based 
Canadian working predominates, with the exceptions noted. 

As a result of undertaking the foregoing paper, the writer is now in 
possession of a number of rituals, histories, and other documents which 
have been of invaluable assistance in its preparation, and he takes this 
opportunity to thank the several Grand Secretaries, representatives of 
the Canadian Masonic Research Association, and others, for their co- 
operation. Recognition is made of material added by Brethren with 
personal acquaintance of Quebec and Maritime Provinces Masonry and 
of a contribution by Wor. Bro. George W. Baldwin of British Columbia, 
which came after the paper was written. This has been added as an 



In British Columbia, there are now four recognized rituals, known 
as English (or Emulation), American (or Antient), Canadian and 
Australian. Their adoption in this Province reflects the forces that went 
into the creation of this part of the country. 

The first lodge was Victoria Lodge, No. 1085, E.R., chartered by 
the United Grand Lodge of England, at Victoria, V.I., in 1860, and, of 
course, following the Emulation work. 

The next lodge as Union Lodge, No. 1201, E.R., formed at New 
Westminster, then the capital of the mainland colony of British Columbia 
in 1862. It began with the Emulation working, but in 1877, the lodge 
unanimously resolved "to adopt the 'Scotch work' ". By this was meant 
what has been more commonly and properly known as the American or 
Antient ritual. In some other provinces, it is erroneously called the 
"York rite." 

Many of the newcomers to the colonies of Vancouver's Island and 
British Columbia at this time came north from California. They found 
the Masonic working of the two English lodges strange and unfamiliar. 
Consequently, they decided to form a lodge of their own in Victoria, 
and drew up a petition to the Grand Lodge of Washington Territory. 
This brought an immediate reaction from Victoria Lodge, which passed 
a resolution to the effect that only a British Grand Lodge could issue 


a warrant for a masonic lodge in British territory. Naturally, they 
equated the word "British" with "English." 

The applicants were at a loss as to what to do, other than to with- 
draw their petition to the Grand Lodge of Washington Territory. At 
this point, Dr. Israel Wood Powell, a Canadian from Montreal, and a 
member of. a Scottish lodge there, recommended that the Americans 
apply to the Grand Lodge of Scotland for a warrant. At that time, the 
Grand Lodge of Scotland had not adopted a standard ritual, and any 
lodge could adopt any recognized form of ritual which its members 
preferred so long as it was not inconsistent with the principles of Free- 
masonry. Furthermore, a Scottish charter would be a charter from a 
British Grand Lodge, and thus the English brethren would have no 
basis of complaint. As a result of this advice, Vancouver Lodge, No. 421, 
S.C., was formed in Victoria, V.I., late in 1862. 

After the formation of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia in 
1871, the question of uniformity of ritual arose from time to time, but no 
one could agree upon which ritual the others would conform to, and 
nothing was ever done. 

Following the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the first 
lodges constituted by this Grand Lodge were formed at Kamloops and 
at Donald in 1886, and at Vancouver in 1888. Kamloops Lodge, No. 10, 
B.C.R., followed an Oxford ritual, but is now listed in all tables and 
reports as using the English work. Mountain Lodge, No. 11, B.C.R., at 
Donald, and Cascade Lodge, No. 12, B.C.R., at Vancouver, introduced 
the Canadian ritual, that is, a ritual from "Canada." This was the work 
that had been adopted about 1868 by the Grand Lodge of Canada. 

The final ritual brought in to British Columbia, came with the 
formation of Lodge Southern Cross, No. 44, B.C.R., in 1906. This work 
was in fact the ritual adopted in New South Wales when a Grand 
Lodge was formed there. At that time, a committee took what it 
thought was the best of the English, Scottish and Irish rituals then used 
there, and formed what has been termed "an impressive and erudite 

The founders of this lodge were principally Australians, many of 
whom had ended up in Vancouver after participating in the gold rush 
to the Klondyke. The reasons behind the granting of permission to 
them to use this ritual were in many respects similar to those which 
motivated the formation of the first American lodge, with a Scottish 
charter, in Victoria about 40 years earlier. 

In later years, committees of Grand Lodge have standardized both 
the Canadian and the American rituals, and made them voluntary for 
existing lodges, and compulsory for newly-formed lodges choosing either 
of these rituals. British Columbia Freemasons today generally accept 
their variety of rituals, and feel that the Craft in this Province is richer 
as a result. No mention is ever made now of one uniform ritual. 



George J. Bennett, compiled for John Ross Robertson, in A Concise History 
of Freemasonry in Canada. Hamilton. Osborne Sheppard. 1930. 

Canadian Masonic Research Association, Papers 29, 32, 36, 88, 93, 96. 

William Douglas. Freemasonry in Manitoba 1864-1925. Winnipeg. 1925. 

Herbert T. Leyland. Thomas Smith Webb. Ohio. R.A.M. 1965. 

Longley and Harris. A Short History of Freemasonry in Nova Scotia. Halifax. 

A. J. B. Milborne. Freemasonry in the Province of Quebec, 1759-1959. 

Grand Lodge Proceedings. 

Dwight L. Smith. Goodly Heritage. G.L. Indiana. 1968. 

Geo. W. Baldwin, P.M., Nechako Lodge, Prince George, B.C. 




| *._. f - 

l ] 

No. 100 













: Lecture by: 


Past Master of Menorah Lodge No. 167 

of The Grand Lodge of Manitoba 

Prepared for delivery at Manitoba Lodges during 1970 
1971 under the plan for the Annual "J. R. C. Evans 
[ i Memorial Lectures, and presented at the 49th Biennial 
j Meeting of the Canadian Masonic Research Association 

■j at Montreal on February 19th, 1971. 






«— - ■• K 

The Development of the Ritual 

Worshipful Master & Brethren, 

Most Worshipful Brother John R. C. Evans was Grand Master of 
the Grand Lodge of Manitoba in the year 1955. His name appears as 
such on my certificate. His sphere of influence was great, both as an 
educator and as a Mason. Having been the President of Brandon College 
for 31 years, he was known from coast to coast for his efforts and accom- 
plishments in the field of education. As a Mason, his influence, by 
example and teaching was felt not only in this jurisdiction but also in 
neighbouring jurisdictions, to the East, to the West, and to the South. 
It is not surprising therefore, that in 1966 Most Worshipful Brother 
Donnelly suggested to the Grand Lodge Resarch and Education com- 
mittee the setting up of the "J- R- C. Evans" Memorial Lecture series, 
after the pattern of the Prestonian Lectures in England, in commemora- 
tion of the valuable contributions of so great a Mason. By this series of 
lectures he will live not only in the hearts and minds of those who knew 
and loved him, but also in the minds of those Masons who have since 
been admitted into the Craft. 

This, in some measure, follows the Judaic traditions of "Kaddish", 
where sons of the deceased, annually, on the anniversary of the passing of 
the parent, offer up a memorial prayer to the Most High. In this way 
they are remembered and achieve a little of immortality of the soul. 

In keeping with the ideals and practices of Most Worshipful Brother 
Evans, I would like to present a little bit of Masonic education. It was 
his belief that the power of Freemasonry came from those Brethren who 
could appreciate the principles of the Craft and make it a part of them- 
selves. In order to appreciate it, we must know more about it. Tonight. 
I hope to take you back in time, to the days when our ritual was being 
developed and trace it through its development to the form in which we 
know it today. Many people believe that our Craft has its origin in King 
Solomon's Temple and that our whole Masonic ritual comes down to us 
from those days. The art of building dates back to a period long before 
Solomon, but Freemasonry as we know it today is a purely Anglo-Saxon 
product. It developed in Britain out of the building trades and fraternities 
whose history goes back some 600 years. Believe me, Brethren, tonight 
I will not attempt to trace this year by year. Of course there were Masons 
before that time, but in the year 1356, there was a dispute between the 
"Mason - Hewers", the men who cut the stone, and the "Mason Layers 
and Setters", the men who did the actual building. As a result, "12 of 
the most skillful men of the trade", came before the Mayor and Aldermen 
at Guildhall in London and obtained official permission for the adoption 
of a simple code of trade regulations. It is from this point in history that 
we have some record of Masonic evolution, expansion, and changes in 
ritual practice. 


The earliest evidence of ritual and ceremony is found in The Old 
Charges, about 130 versions of which have survived. The Old Charges 
were a list of rules and regulations for the government and behaviour 
for the individual workmen engaged on some Building Project. They 
dated from about 1390 through to the 18th century. Despite differences 
in detail, they all follow a broad pattern. 

The Charges required a Mason to love God and Holy Church, to be 
loyal to his King and his Master and fellows, and to be faithful to the 
Craft and its regulations. The obligation at this stage was a solemn 
promise; there were no secrets or penalties and there was very little in 
the way of ceremony. There were two points in the Old Charges which 
should be mentioned: (1) They were designed with a strong bias in 
favour of the "Lords", i.e. employers: (2) All evidence points to the fact 
that there was no more than one peremony, which was for the admission 
of fellows, men who had completed their apprenticeship and were now 
fully trained Craftsmen. 

The first recorded mention of an Operative Lodge is in the records 
of Aitchison's Haven Lodge in 1598 and in the records of the Lodge of 
Edinburgh, dated 1599. It is interesting to note that within the London 
Mason's Company, in 1620, there existed a select group called the "Accep- 
tion", whose function was to "make Masons", from which we derive 
"accepted Masons". The Acception had no powers of trade control. The 
records of the Lodge of Edinburgh provide us with a picture of the 
workings of an operative Lodge. 

In England, the absence of records or minutes makes the tracing 
of the development hypothetical. The "Lodges" of this period at the 
building site where Masons were employed for years on end, on long 
term undertakings, such as castles and cathedrals, became a place where 
they took their meals, rested, and settled disputes — a kind of club room. 
In the course of time these Lodges changed their characteristics and 
acquired a new dimension. Some of the Old Charges contained an injunc- 
tion that requires them to cherish an itinerant Mason, to give him shelter 
and work, if work was available, or failing that, to refresh him with money 
to the next Lodge. It seems that the club room had now become a hostel 
and labour bureau and perhaps a little more than that — by extending 
brotherly help . This shows that there was wide spread co-operation and 
a degree of permanency. 

This is the background. When there was only one ceremony, that 
for admission as a Fellow Craft, it was a very simple one. There was 
no need for secret modes of recognition. When apprentices began to 
appear in Lodge, a Two Grade system evolved; a practical need for 
"words and signs" arose. After serving three years, the apprentice was 
introduced into the Lodge and entered into the records, along with a very 
brief ceremony. The first records of such ceremonies dates back to 1598 
and 1599 onwards at Edinburgh. In other localities, the term of appren- 
ticeship varied, but in general it was seven years. After serving his 


apprenticeship the entered apprentice was required to serve another seven 
years before being made a Fellow Craft. From 1637 onwards, contem- 
porary writings show that the existence of "the Mason Word" was well 
known to the general non-Masonic public. Its purpose was sadly mis- 
understood. Masons in some places were believed to have been gifted 
with second sight, practicing witchcraft and in league with the Devil 
himself. It appears that many Masons did nothing to dispel or correct 
this impression, probably revelling in their special status. 

There exists a group of documents referred to as the Edinburgh 
Register House Group of Texts dated from 1696 which gives us a starting 
point from which we can observe the variations and expansion in ritual. 
The Text is divided into two parts: (1) Some Questions That Masons 
Put To Those Who Have Ye Word Before They Will Acknowledge 
Them. (2) The Form of Giving The Mason Word. The second portion 
is the earliest description of the actual procedure for two ceremonies, for 
entered apprentices and "Master Masons or Fellow Craft". The E.A. 
Candidate was required to kneel and "after a great many ceremonies to 
frighten him" he took up the Bible and repeated the oath as follows: 
"By God Himself and you shall answer to God when you stand nak'd 
before Him at the Great Day, you shall not reveal any part of what you 
shall hear or see at this time, whither by word nor write nor put it in 
wryte at any time not draw it with the point of a sword, or any other 
instrument upon the snow or sand, nor shall you speak of it but with 
an entered Mason, so help you God". 

Note that this is the earliest version of our "indite' mark, print, carve, 
engrave, etc." The obligation contained no penalty clause. That appeared 
at a later stage in the proceedings. 

The candidate was then "removed" out of the company with the 
youngest "Mason", who after a certain amount of horseplay, instructed 
him in the "due guard":, i.e. the signs, postures and "words of his entrie". 
which includde details of the penalty, with an appropriate sign. After 
this partial "entrusting", the candidate returned to the Lodge room, made 
a "ridiculous bow" and the sign, repeated "the words of entrie" and gave 
the sign again. "The Word" was whispered all around the Lodge, from 
man to man, "beginning at the youngest" until it reached the Master, 
who then gave the Word to the new E.A. This was the completion of 
the "entrusting", by a kind of rotational whisper. 

The senior grade, i.e. the F.C. or Master Ceremony began with the 
retirement of all E.A.'s from the Lodge room. The candidate on his 
knees, repeated the former oath and was taken out of the room by the 
youngest Master as in the former Degree. The signs and words are not 
mentioned but the posture is described in one of the test questions. "Five 
Points of Fellowship", with details, — "hand to hand, etc". 

The final portion of the ceremony is comprised of "Questions that 
Masons Use, etc". There are 15 questions and answers for the E.A., with 


two more for the "M.M. or F.C.". The heading indicates that they were 
test questions and one of them explicitly provides two answers, one of 
which was to be given if non-Masons were present. Some of the questions 
formed the educational or instructional portion of the ceremony. One of 
the questions — "Where was the first Lodge ?" brought the answer, 
"In the porch of Solomon's Temple". Here, we have the first and faintest 
hint of Masonic Symbolism. 

The Edinburgh Texts are evidence of Scottish practices only. The 
earliest evidence of non-Scottish practice began to appear in the next 
30 years, which was a period of accelerated changes. In the early 18th 
century we find a charge that embodies several phrases of the modern 
day obligation. The text also mentions penalties — "head cut off and ye 
body to be buried in ye sea mark". There are references to Hiram 
(without hint of a legend), Jacob's Ladder, the "length of your cable" 
and the meaning of the pillar names. This is all evidence of gradual 
expansion in ritual practice. 

Throughout the whole series of Texts from 1696 to the late 1700 ? s, 
despite very substantial changes and expansions there runs a thread of 
basic material, a kind of nucleus of ritual practice, that was common to 
England, Scotland and Ireland, It is extraordinary that such a degree of 
uniformity could have been achieved before the existence of a Grand 
Lodge and without the help of an overall authority. The only explana- 
tion that could be offered is the compulsory mobility of the Masons in 
search of employment. 

Up to around the year 1710 there is no evidence of more than two 
Degrees. From 162Q in the London "Acception" and from 1634 in the 
Lodge of Edinburgh, there is evidence of the admission of non-operatives; 
i.e. Honorary Members. This process accelerated rapidly towards the 
end of the 17th century. The Lodges began to acquire the character of 
social clubs with mildly benevolent aims, still practicing the traditional 
ceremonies which were modified in some instances for the admission of 
non-operatives. It was at the end of this era of transition that the first 
Grand Lodge was formed in 1717. Their initial objectives were very 
modest. It is doubtful that they had the idea of forming a Grand Lodge 
of England, as there were only three London Lodges and one West- 
minster Lodge involved in this union. The next stage of the evolution 
of the ritual was the advent of the Third Degree. It is not known where 
the idea started but the documentary evidence relating to the subject 
begins in 1711 — six years before the formation of the Grand Lodge. 
Therefore it is impossible to imagine that the Grand Lodge had anything 
to do with it. This appears in a unique text called the "Trinity College, 
Dublin Manuscript" — dated February, 1711. It is not the recorded pro- 
cedure of the Lodge, but resembles more the incomplete notes, from 
memory, of an account of Lodge procedure. This is the earliest known 
M.S. to record three classes of Masons, each with its own secrets. The 
earliest evidence of three degrees being worked comes from, surprisingly 


enough, not a Lodge, but from the minutes of a London Society of 
Gentlemen, who were lovers of music and architecture. The Society was 
founded in 1725 by eight Freemasons. One of their rules was "that no 
person be admitted a visitor unless he be a Freemason". From the minutes 
of one of their meetings, it is learned that they conferred the Third 
Degree on one, Charles Cotton, Esq. They heard from Grand Lodge 
about this, but they ignored the letter. The opening minutes of Lodge 
Greenock Kilwinning No. 12, dated December 27, 1728, almost 250 years 
ago specify three separate grades and three separate ceremonies with a 
separate fee for each. There were present, operatives and non-operatives, 
indicating that the ceremonies were the same for both. The Minutes 
quote that there were Master Masons present. Therefore, there must 
have been three degrees before this. We may never know where the 
three degree system started. Prichard, in "Masonry Dissected" published 
in 1730, presents his material in question and answer form. His exposure 
contained only one obligation and no mention of an oath for the F.C. or 
M.M. degree, but the E.A. oath included three lots of penalties. The F.C. 
degree was almost entirely new and dealt largely with the significance 
of the letter G (for geometry), which was a subject of major importance 
in the Old Charges. There were questions on the Winding Stairs and 
the Middle Chamber. The E.A. degree had a two-pillar theme and the 
F.C. degree only one. The new Fellow Craft received a Sign, Token and 
Word but there is no mention of the preparation of the candidate or of 
an obligation. It is possible that the candidate repeated his former oath, 
but there is no mention of it. 

The Third Degree had no obligation but contained a very detailed 
legend of "the Death of our Master Hiram". This legend was not new, 
nor was the theme or the ceremony new. It was simply the old Second 
Degree moved up into third place and somewhat expanded in the details 
of the Hiramic Legend. This had been achieved by the splitting of the 
original E.A. ceremony into two degrees, the E.A. and F.C. and the 
addition of new material (Middle Chamber, letter G. etc.) to the F.C. 
portion. The Hiramic Legend divides into two parts — the first can be 
summarized in three words — "faithful unto death". The sequel deals 
with the secrets lost with the untimely death of H.A. and the attempts 
to recover them or to provide a substitute. Although there was no 
evidence of any individual or organized body devising a new Second 
degree, this is exactly what happened. We do not know who was re- 
sponsible or why it happened. 

A little book that appeared in print in 1735 called "The Pocket Com 
panion", published in London by W. Smith, contains a reprint of Ander- 
son's 1723 Book of Constitutions. When this book was reprinted in Ire- 
land it was adopted by the Grand Lodge of Ireland for the use of the 
Brethren. I mention it here because it contains a passage that is familiar 
to all of us here. 

"The greatest Monarchs in all ages as well as of Asia, and Africa 
as of Europe, have been encouragers of the Royal Art; and many of them 


have presided as Grand Masters over the Masons in their respective 
territories, not thinking it any lessening to their Imperial Dignitaries to 
level themselves with their brethren in Masonry and to act as they did". 

From 1730 to 1760 there is no evidence of further development in 
Craft ritual. A great deal must have been happening because a new 
Grand Lodge had been formed in 1751 — the "Antients", who attached a 
great deal of importance to the Royal Arch, which began to appear in 

William Preston, who came to London in 1760, had a great influence 
on Masonic Ritual. By his own admission he did not introduce anything 
new; but rather, compiled and embellished the Charges and Lectures that 
were already being used. His influence is carried on in the work of the 
present day. 

The degrees of Craft Masonry all owe their origin to the operative 
grades, but the Installation Ceremony is purely speculative. The cere- 
mony as described in 1723, contains a great deal of our present wording. 
It wasn't until 1827, over 100 years later, that the Grand Master author- 
ized a standard version, which with a few expansions and re arrangements 
is the same ceremony as outlined by Preston. In 1813, there occurred 
the union of the two rival Grand Lodges, the Moderns and the Antients, 
after about three years of intensive work on combining the best features 
of the ritual of both workings. The basic pattern of our work today 
follows the ritual and procedure established at the union. 

The 150 or so years since that time has been a period of stabilization. 
Nevertheless, changes are taking place. One example is the change in our 
own wording in the obligation regarding the penalties, showing that 
Masonic Ritual is not an archaelogical fossil but a living thing that 
flourishes according to its environment and the needs of the times. At 
the time of the Union of the Grand Lodges a Lodge of Reconciliation 
was set up, consisting of 9 members of each Grand Lodge for the purpose 
of securing uniformity. Dr. Hemming, a member of this Lodge, seems 
to have been mainly responsible for the revising and rewording of the 
modern ritual. 

The "Charge After Initiation", a fine and impressive piece of ritual, 
is the oldest of all the Charges and Addresses, yet this is one that has 
changed least in the intervening 235 years since it was first published — 
and we do not know its author. It first appeared in print in Smith's 
"Pocket Companion" in 1735. 

The "Charge After Passing" and "The Charge After Raising" appear 
to be the work of William Preston, that great 18th century ritualist. The 
wording of these have been changed a little, probably by Dr. Hemming 
and the Lodge of Reconciliation. In Preston's "Illustrations of Masonry", 
published in 1772, we find the prayer used at the present day just after 
the candidate's entrance into the Lodge in the First Degree. We also 


find here the three questions which the candidate is asked by the Master 
just prior to being obligated. These have undergone very little change 
in the intervening years. 

The Charity Lecture is one of the most impressive in our ritual. It 
is one which we would expect to trace right back to the earliest days of 
the Craft. Such is not the case, however, and we find very few traces of this 
subject matter before the final settling of the ritual by the Lodge of 

Up to about the year 1800, we find the candidate after having taken 
his obligation and been entrusted with the secrets, was then taken out 
of the Lodge room and those things restored to him which he had been 
divested of before entering the Lodge. He was then placed in the North- 
West part of the Lodge to give thanks and in the North-East part of the 
Lodge to be invested with the apron, after which he was given the address 
on the apron. Also in this degree, we find the question and answer: 

M — Why were you deprived of all Metals ? 

A — That I should bring nothing offensive or defensive into the 

M — Give me the third reason, brother 

A — As I was poor and penniless when I was made a Mason, 

it informed that I should assist all poor and penniless brethren as far as 
lay in my power. 

The earliest publication which contains anything similar to our 
modern N.E. Angle Lecture is the second edition of "Browne's 
Master Key" published in 1802. This includes the simile of the 
Foundation stone as well as the claim on the candidate's charity. 
Browne does not lay claim to being the author of any of the portions of 
ritual in his book, so that the most we can say is that the lecture was 
just taking shape before the union of the two Grand Lodges in 1813 and 
that the address as we have it now is the work of the Lodge of Recon- 

I would like to present a picture of the Lodge at labour in the latter 
half of the 18th century. I have outlined, somewhat sketchily, a portion 
of the proceedings, but to obtain a more realistic setting, I cannot ignore 
the age-old custom of proposing toasts. 

Picture, if you will, for a few minutes, the atmosphere of an old 18th 
century tavern or inn, where Lodge meetings were usually held in those 
days, and the Brethren clad in the garb of that era. They all sat at a 
table, according to their degree or seniority, and wine or punch was 
placed before them. The J.W. sat in the South, and S.W. in the West 
and the Master in the East. The Lodge was opened, the Ancient Charges 
were read and they had the toast to the King and the Craft. 

The Lecture in the First Degree was comprised of six sections with 
a toast after each section accompanied by music and song. After repeat- 
ing the obligation, they drank a toast to "the heart that conceals and 


the tongue that never reveals". At the end of the E.A. Lecture, the 
Brethren sing a song, the last verse of which is — 

"then join hand in hand, together firm stand 
let's be merry and put a bright face on 
what mortal can boast, 
so noble a toast 
as a free and accepted Mason". 

Remember, Brethren, that by this time they have had, well, at least eight 
toasts with either wine or punch; there are six toasts to the E.A. Lecture 
and a toast to the King and Craft^ as previously mentioned, and a toast 
to the heart that conceals, etc., so by this time I would imagine that 
they were in rather good spirits. 

There is a note that accompanies this song, that says, "While this 
song is singing, they all stand round the table and all join in the chorus, 
jumping violently with their feet on the floor and shaking their hands up 
and down, linked together, keeping exact time with both". From this 
description and from observing some of the Brethren during the singing 
of Auld Lange Syne, it doesn't take too much stretch of the imagination 
to wonder if this is not the forerunner of the J.W.'s toast at the refresh- 
ment hour. The Brethren in those days, had an advantage over us in 
following the custom of multiple toasts. They didn't have to worry about 
breathalyzer tests; — and the horses probably knew their own way home. 
I would like to point out that our Brethren of the 18th century had the 
happy faculty of combining symbolism with practicality, as evidenced by 
their definition of the length of the Cable-Tow. The Cable-Tow of an 
E.A. is 15 inches, i.e. from the tip of the tongue to the centre of the 
heart, where Freemasonry lies. The Cable-Tow of F.C. is 3 miles in 
length, so that if a F.C. is that distance from his Lodge, he is not cul- 
pable on account of non-attendance — nor if he be sick or in prison. 

I would like to say a few words about the language of the ritual. 
The beauty of the language comes from its old fashioned style, so dif- 
ferent from our present day journalistic methods of expression, its 
unusual words and the beauty and aptness of its images and metaphors. 
The style is somewhat reminiscent of the Bible and of Shakespeare. It 
is essentially oratorical in character and to be really effective the Addres- 
ses and Lectures should be delivered deliberately and impressively, with 
special attention being paid to the rhythm of the sentence. The language 
of the ritual shows strongly the influence of John Milton and Samue! 
Johnson, especially Johnson. From this fact, it can be surmised that the 
ritual was written, probably in stages, during the middle and end of the 
18th and beginning of the 19th centuries, long before the days of radio 
and television and when oratory and personal communication were con- 
sidered an art. 

Samuel Johnson's claim to fame comes not from his writing, but 
from his oratory. Boswell, who wrote Johnson's biography, faithfully 


recorded his conversations and spoken opinions. One can easily imagine 
Samuel Johnson, this gross, fat man, with his pimply face, wheezing in 
his armchair in the "Cheese and Cheshire Inn" just off Fleet Street, 
rolling out to his circle of admirers, in his deep and sonorous voice, "Let 
Prudence direct you, Temperance chasten you, Fortitude support you. 
and Justice be the guide of all your actions". Today, we like to call a 
spade a spade, and not an agricultural implement. But in certain circum- 
stances, especially in public speaking, the use of longer words or several 
words, can be effective and add dignity and superiority to the sentence, 
eg. how much more impressive it is to say, "Let me beg of you to ob- 
serve", than to say, "Look here". To some, perhaps, the language of the 
ritual may seem old fashioned and cumbersome, but when delivered with 
dignity and deliberation, I believe it becomes ali*e and impressive. 

Dr. Hemming and his Brethren in the Lodge of Reconciliation did 
excellent work which, with very slight changes, has withstood the test 
of time. 

I have mentioned the formation of the original Grand Lodge in 1717, 
the rival Grand Lodge founded in 1751, calling themselves the "Antients", 
the union of the two Grand Lodges in 1813, and the formation of the 
Lodge of Reconciliation. One year after the Lodge of Reconciliation 
completed its work, Stability Lodge of Instruction was formed to teach 
the forms and ceremonies as laid down by the Lodge of Reconciliation, 
three members of which became members of Stability Lodge of Instruc- 
tion. It would seem at this point, that everything was progressing in 
fine order. However, in 1823, six years later, another Lodge of Instruc- 
tion was formed They also claimed to teach the forms and ritual laid 
down by the Lodge of Reconciliation. They called themselves the Emu- 
lation Lodge of Improvement. As no notes were allowed to be taken at 
the Lodge of Reconciliation, it is not surprising that differences appeared 
in their workings, but they agreed on essentials. The Emulation work is 
widely used in England and in overseas Lodges of the English Con- 
stitution. Even now, there are differences in the wording between the 
Grand Lodges of different Jurisdictions. 

The Lodges of Upper Canada (Ontario) were mostly under the Grand 
Lodge of England. They became a Provincial Grand Lodge in 1792 and 
a Sovereign Grand Lodge in 1857. Emulation work was apparently used 

Old Northern Light Lodge in the Red River Settlement in Manitoba, 
which obtained its Charter from the Grand Lodge of Minnesota in 1864 
had a brief existence. The first Lodge in Manitoba was Prince Rupert's 
Lodge No. 1 under dispensation of the Grand Lodge of Canada in Ontario 
in 1870. They naturally used their working. Similarly, Lisgar Lodge 
No. 2 followed the same pattern. Thus, the Canadian Work, which is 
basically Emulation Working came into Western Canada and spread 
throughout the Prairie Provinces as the Grand Lodge of Manitoba ex- 
panded. Therefore, we trace our work from the Lodge of Reconciliation 


in 1813 - 1816, through Emulation Lodge of Improvement in 1823, to 
Provincial Grand Lodge in Upper Canada under Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land, then by the Grand Lodge of Canada in Ontario, then to Prince 
Rupert's Lodge out through Western Canada. 

This, Brethren, brings us right up to our present day ritual. If i 
have in some small way contributed to your better understanding of our 
beloved Craft, I feel that I have made a very small contribution in the 
tradition of M.W. Brother J. R. C. Evans and this lecture has served 
its purpose. 

Thank you. 

REFERENCE: M.W. Bro. H. B. Donnelly, 

600 Years of Craft Ritual — Bro. H. Carr 
Bro. N. B. Spencer (N.Z.) 
Bro. Spencely Walker (N.Z.) 



II 11 M— H n— H _M^_ || W— ■ 

No. 101 



M.D., L.M., C.C. 


0. P. Thomas, P.D.D.C.M. 

September 1971 

• ■■■■ in ■— ———■ 

— — M ■■ m m ■■ ■■ ■ ■■ n— n^— m^— ■■! n n ** 


Edward Ainslie Braithwaite, 
M.D., L.M., C.C. 

When contemplating the history of Western Canada, one of the 
features that seem to stand out so definitely is the accomplishments that 
have been achieved as the result of the efforts and initiative of certain 
individuals. This brief history is based on the life of one of the out- 
standing pioneers of the West, particularly, Alberta, Dr. Edward Ainslie 


A little over three hundred years ago, King Charles II granted a 
charter to a group of men interested in the fur trade. The articles of 
incorporation were drawn up on April 18, 1670, and the charter was 
granted on May 2, 1670. It was entitled "An Incorporation of Prince 
Rupert, Duke of Albemarle, Earl of Craven .... into one body politique 
by the name of Governours and Adventurers trading into Hudson Baye." 
When this company was given its charter, in addition to getting the right 
to trade into this country, they agreed to endeavour to find the North- 
West Passage, and also to discover as much as possible the nature of the 
country which was included in the original Charter. One of the things 
that is noted, in the first eighty-four years of the Hudson Bay Company, 
there was only one man who struck out into the interior. Each year the 
Governor of the Company in the Bay received an annual instruction from 
London: "choose out from among our Servants such as are best quali- 
fied with Strength of Body and the Country Language, to travel and to 
penetrate the country . . . For their encouragement we shall plentifully 
reward them." It is doubtful whether any servant of the Company 
would have been encouraged to venture into this unknown land, unless a 
threat to their trading volume had not entered into the picture. The 
French had been sending traders and Couer de Bois out for many years, 
from New France. These hardy men had gone to the Indians and done 
their trading with them directly. The Hudson Bay Company, on the 
other hand, had established forts or "Factories", usually at the mouths 
of the rivers which emptied into Hudson Bay. They encouraged the Indians 
to bring their furs to them. Now, however, the opposition were going to 
the Indians and encouraging them to trade nearer their homes. This made 
great inroads in the volume of trade with the Hudson Bay Company. So, 
in an attempt to remedy the situation, and, at the same time, follow the 
instructions from the Head Office in London, Henry Kelsey set forth 
in 1690 to see what lay beyond the margin of the Hudson Bay, and to 
encourage the Indians there to come down to the Bay to trade. After 
travelling through the timber country in which there were many rivers 
and lakes, he came, at last, to look upon the seemingly limitless plain 
land dotted with innumerable shaggy animals, the Bison, or "Buffalo" of 
the vast prairie land which form a large part of the present Canada. 


Thus, as the result of this man's work the Great Prairie Land of Western 
Canada became known. 

After the second decade of the 18th century the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany was finding more of its trade threatened with the opposition of the 
French traders, who had followed in the footsteps of La Verendrye, in 
1731. Eventually they had built forts inland to get the trade from the 
Indians. During the period from 1754 to 1774 they had sent inland 
sixty expeditions. In 1754, Anthony Henday went across the prairies 
by way of the Carrot River as far as they could paddle, then across to 
near where is now Saskatoon, and on across the South Saskatchewan 
River, on towards the North Saskatchewan, then beside it to the Battle 
River, and thence along the Battle River to strike mostly west until 
some miles west of what is now Innisfail. Here he beheld the Shining 
Mountains, which we now call the Rocky Mountains. Before this he had 
been received by the Blood Indians, a branch of the Blackfoot Confede- 
racy, with whom the Hudson Bay Company traders wanted to do business. 
Here, he found that these Indians used horses for transportation and 
scorned the use of the canoe. When Henday tried to interest them in 
coming down to the Hudson Bay, by canoe, with their furs, they refused 
the suggestion. So, again, one man contributed much to the opening up 
of this country. As a result of the work of Kelsey, and also the intrusion 
of the "carpet-bagger" traders from the St. Lawrence River area; and, 
now, by the information Henday was able to give to the Company, trading 
posts were established in more and more areas of the West. Cumberland 
House was built by the Hudson Bay Company on the Saskatchewan 
River in 1774. There had been other smaller posts by the opposition 
traders. Individuals like Samuel Hearne spent a great deal of time and 
suffered many privations so that more could be known of this country, 
particularly the Arctic area. Alexander Mackenzie, after many trials and 
disappointments, showed how it was possible to get across the Rocky 
Mountains, and to the Pacific Coast by an inland route. Simon Fraser 
in following the river named after him, showed another route to the 
Pacific, and was the fore-runner of the great railway routes we have 
over this rugged terrain. Of course, even these results could not have 
been obtained if it had not been for the painstaking work of another 
individual who showed a short route to the Columbia River and the Paci- 
fic, but who above all made accurate and detailed maps of this vast 
country, David Thompson. From these works the fur trading companies 
established centres of trade and, later, of population throughout this 
seemingly boundless land. 

Another individual who had a tremendous influence on the economic 
condition of this unknown country was Lord Selkirk. When he saw the 
condition in which crofters had been placed, in his home land of 
Scotland, as a result of the Enclosures and the Industrial Revolution, he 
could visualize these industrious farmers on the plains of the West, 
seeding and reaping great harvests and being able to live their lives in 
the independent way that they had always desired. Against a great deal 


of criticism within his own Directors and that of the fur traders both 
with the Hudson Bay Company and the North West Trading Company 
he persevered and the Red River Colony came about. This, of course, 
opened new economic opportunities in the West, as well as causing a 
change in the conditions of life among these people. While these indivi- 
duals had led to the country becoming known and later, being settled, 
a great change took place in the way the population who had been here 
before lived. To add to the troubles, across the boundary to the South, 
a great expansion was taking place as the theory of Manifest Destiny 
was applied. The attitudes of traders and settlers below the 49th parallel 
and to the north of it were quite different. Whiskey traders made their 
way into the prairies of what is now Alberta. They caused considerable 
trouble to the traders who had been here for such a long time. They 
attempted to denude the prairies of the buffalo for their own benefit. At 
the same time, they supplied a great deal of liquor to the Indians and 
when they had tried to degrade them in this way, used this as an excuse 
to attempt to exterminate them. The attitude of many of these nefarious 
traders was that "the only good Indian is a dead one". From this 
attitude, the massacre near where Fort Walsh was afterward located took 
place. This was probably the main cause of the coming into being 
of the North West Mounted Police. When this Force was organized 
it was largely because of the excellent choice of leaders that they were not 
only able to establish law and order, but to make the Indians feel that they 
had someone who would help them in their troubles. Troubles, they had, 
of course, because of the influx of white people into the prairie country, 
with the resultant decimation of their main source of food, the buffalo, 
and the fur-bearing animals being pushed farther back when these new 
people started to farm the land. It is rather difficult to single out all 
the leaders who helped so much in this work, but men like Commissioner 
French, Assistant Commissioner J. F. Macleod, Inspector W. D. Jarvis 
are a few. It was into this country that Edward Ainslie Braithwaite 
came, from England, when a young man, and it was in this country that 
he remained and dedicated his life. 


Edward Ainslie Braithwaite was born in Alne, Yorkshire, into a 
somewhat typical clergyman's family of those Victorian days. One mem- 
ber of the family won fame as a military leader, another became a canon 
in the Anglican Church, another became a professional man — a well- 
known doctor in Western Canada — and — yes — there was a "black 
sheep" in the family who went to the United States when he grew up. 
Edward Ainslie Braithwaite was born on February 16, 1862. His father, 
Reverend William Braithwaite was an Anglican clergyman. His mother, 
Laura Elizabeth, nee Pipou, had been born in St. Helier, Island of 
Jersey, Channel Islands. When he was eleven years of age, his father 
died, in Yorkshire. His mother lived until 1916, when she died in Win- 
chester, Hants., England. His brother, Sir Walter Braithwaite pre- 
deceased him, after becoming a high ranking officer in the British Army. 


Edward was educated at King's College, Bruton, Sommerset, at 
Victoria College of Jersey and at the United Services College at West- 
ward Ho School in Bideford, Devonshire, where he shared a study with 
Rudyard Kipling. After this he went on into the study of medicine at 

King's College Hospital, London, England. For reasons of health he 
was not able to complete his work there. It was thought that he would 
be in better health in a drier climate. So we find him in the year 1884, 
coming to Canada, and enlisting in the North-West Mounted Police, in 
Winnipeg, with the regimental number 1025. He was sent to Head- 
quarters at Regina. Here, he was drilled as any other recruit, and, when 
his time came, he did the dishes the same as the rest. Breakages were 
not too frequent, though, as they were made of tin he used to remark. 
He was on fatigue duty, helping to rivet the bridge that connected 
Government House with the Barracks. 

In September, 1884, he was made an Acting Hospital Sergeant, and 
in December of this year he was confirmed in this rank. In March, 
1885, the Senior Sergeant told him he was sending him in Medical 
Charge of Commissioner A. G. Irvine's Column in the historical trek 
from Regina to Prince Albert, during the Riel Rebellion. Dr. Braithwaite 
recalled the event: 

"I was neither competent or qualified. Col. Irvine replied 'Then I 
must send another doctor'. There were only about twelve doctors 
in the N.W. Territories, and I knew the only man he could get was 
a man who never drew a sober breath if he could help it. I thought, 
'What a man to leave my comrades to,' so I said, 'If you will trust 
me, I will go out and do my best.' So I went. 

"On the journey up from Regina to Prince Albert I had twenty-two 
men snow blind and one frozen from the knees down. I placed 
his feet in a hose bucket full of water and covered him with a horse 
blanket in the sleigh. His legs were saved he lost all his toes 
on both feet. The snow-blinded men were treated with tea leaves. 
At Humboldt, there was only one house. I took my cripples to it. 
Just as I got there I heard a voice say, 'You can't go in there, that 
is for the Commissioner.' 

"I replied, 'This is for the Hospital.' 

"A voice called out, 'You are quite right Braithwaite, Carruthers 
(his man) pitch every tent.' " 

The next morning they were told that they had to cross at Clark's 
crossing, where half breeds had dug a lot of concealed rifle pits, and it 
would be very dangerous. They started out and as they went along 
courier after courier came to them telling them to go to Prince Albert, 
where there were about 3,000 people. He goes on, in his reminiscences: 

"After we had gone eight or ten miles we turned off and went to 
Prince Albert, where we were received by bonfires and cheers. 
We rested there one day. On the way up, we camped after dark, 
had breakfast, and waited for daylight to see we had not left any- 
thing. We lost one rifle on our way up." 


They left Prince Albert for Fort Carleton the next day, with about 
two hundred volunteers. Arriving at Carleton his sleigh nearly upset at 
the gates. Whilst standing there, a man came up and asked him if he 
was the hospital sergeant. When he replied that he was, he was 
directed to the guard room, where his improvised hospital was, over the 
main gate. It is interesting to note in J. P. Turner's "The North-West 
Mounted Police" he has this to say: 

"The wounded men, two of whom were beyond aid other than to 
make them as comfortable as possible, required immediate attention, 
and S/Sgt. E. A. Braithwaite improvised a hospital in an upper 
room above the main gate. Orders were given to pack as many 
stores as possible in the sleighs, the balance to be destroyed. Beds 
of hay were made in other sleighs for the wounded." 

A number of years ago, Dr. Braithwaite recalled that he had had to 
pull his instruments in a sleigh on the trip from Regina to Fort Carleton. 
He also had the following recollections of those days: 

"The men from Duck Lake (fight) had just arrived when we got 
there, eight wounded men. I never had my clothes off for three days 
and nights. On the third day it was decided to evacuate Carleton. 
Whilst getting ready, in taking the hay out of the mattresses, some 
got too near the stove and set the place on fire. In carrying Cor- 
poral Gilchrist out, I had the feet, Sgt. Major Dan the head and 
shoulders. Dan gave a warning shout and in pulling me out, jerked, 
and the leg came out of its setting. It was set again when we got 
to Prince Albert. 

"One man had been shot in the ribs and could not get out of bed. 
I told him, 'Get out or get burnt.' 

"When we got to Prince Albert, it was found to be a round 'trade' 
bullet that, luckily, had run round the rib." 

On the trip to Prince Albert they had quite a difficult journey, 
because of the transportation of the wounded and the hill leading to 
Prince Albert. They remained in this centre for about three weeks, 
when they were sent to Hudson's Bay Crossing to bring in some 
wounded. From here he went to Batoche at the time the last battle was 
being fought He arrived for about the last half hour of the fighting. 
After placing the wounded on a steamer to be taken to the Base Hospital, 
which was located where Saskatoon is now, he saw Riel, accompanied by 
an interpreter, and was told it was Riel's cook. After going back to 
Hudson's Bay Crossing and Fort Carleton, he was ordered back to 
Regina. On the way, near Touchwood, one of the horses went lame 
and they had to substitute an ox. At Qu'Appelle they got a replacement 
for the horse, and, once again, started for Regina. They noticed a large 
number of Indians, and thinking, at first, that they were going for horses, 
were not too happy when they found that they were not going for 
horses but were on the warpath. They had to go very cautiously. Upon 
his arrival at Regina he found there were about 500 there, instead of the 
19 he had left. Among his anecdotes of that time he told of a time 
when the men got "rambunctious" and he was continually having to repair 


their injuries after these fights in the barracks. He put one on charge 
and the man got three months in jail. When S/Sgt. Braithwaite was 
ordered to go to Wood Mountain and Lethbridge he found that his Head 
Teamster was the same person he had caused to be incarcerated. While 
he wondered at first what might happen, he found this man to be the 
most loyal assistant he could have had, and their friendship continued 
as long as they both lived. His remark following this is worth repeating: 

"This was the spirit of the N.W.M. Police. No matter how tough 
a man was, he was decent at heart." 

On his return to Regina he was sent to Maple Creek, as Doctor 
Haultain was off on his honeymoon. After three months he was returned 
to Regina where he was put in Medical Charge of the Flying Patrol (K 
Division). After a time at Lethbridge, in 1886, Dr. Mewburn arrived as 
the Coal Company Doctor. S/Sgt. Braithwaite had been serving in Leth- 
bridge at this time. K Division was transferred from Battleford to Fort 
Macleod and he was stationed there, during which time he was the 
victim of typhoid fever, when an epidemic struck the station. In 1887, he 
was transferred to Fort Saskatchewan, northeast of Edmonton. As far 
as Edmonton, they were a full Division: 

". . . to take part in the Queen's Jubilee. We camped below the 
Big House which was the Hudson Bay Factor's dwelling. On 
Sunday, we were marched to the English Church for Service 

"The next day was the Jubilee. I was appointed Officer Com- 
manding Orderly. My own trooper was taken from me and I got a 
horse that would not go in the ranks, when the firing started my 
'beautiful' steed bolted. After almost a half a mile I got him back. 
Major Griesbach called out to me, 

" 'Look out you will kill someone, (not me) with that horse.' 

"When they gave three cheers for the Queen he tried it again but I 
had him in hand. 

"He (Griesbach) started off, (to fire a 21 gun salute) and suddenly 
stopped to speak to some ladies. I shot past him like I was racing. 
Finally we arrived at the camp, the old Hudson's Bay Fort. The 
Veterinary Sergeant came up to ask me how I liked my mount. 
I answered him in the language of the day and said I would never 
ride him again. 

"No!' he said, 'I would not if I was you. He killed a man in 
Calgary.' " 

While stationed here the duties they were called upon to perform 
took place over a large territory. On one occasion they had to go to 
Grouard, on Lesser Slave Lake, about three hundred miles north west of 
Fort Saskatchewan, to bring in two prisoners. An Indian woman had 
become insane, and, according to Indian rules she had to be killed by 
her husband and son. They went by team to Athabasca, about a hundred 
miles. From here they were pulled in boats up the rivers to the Lesser 
Slave Lake. This lake is about 90 miles long, and is subject to very 
violent storms. One of these almost cost them their lives. In addition 
to this hazard, they were stranded one night on a sandbar, on their 
return. Thus, the difficulties of duty in this area can be seen. 


While he was stationed at Fort Saskatchewan he used to ride into 
Edmonton every other day, attending patients in an office that he had in 
the Queen's Hotel. While serving in the N.W.M.P. he continued his 
medical studies at the Manitoba Medical College, which was affiliated 
with the University of Manitoba. He was admitted to the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine, by the University of Manitoba, in 1890. 


Braithwaite took his discharge from the N.W.M.P. on May 6, 1892, 
with the rank of Staff Sergeant and came to live in Edmonton, where he 
went into practice as a Physician and Surgeon. He was appointed acting 
surgeon to attend to the personnel of the North West Mounted Police 
detachment at Edmonton. He was made the Health Officer of the Town 
of Edmonton, and, later, the City of Edmonton, in 1892. He was also a 
Coroner for the North West Territories at Edmonton, and, upon the 
formation of the Province of Alberta in 1905, he continued in this 
capacity, becoming the Chief Coroner and Medical nspector for the 
Province of Alberta, in 1932. He retired from this office a year before his 
death, in 1948. His record of nearly fifty-two years as a coroner is un- 
equalled in Canada. He presided at more than eight thousand inquests. 
The office of coroner and medical inspector has always been a highly 
responsible one, and, in the early days, with long trips in the most 
inclement of weather, as well as the dangers of poor roads and the possi- 
bility of becoming lost, a highly hazardous one. This can be realized 
more if you take into consideration the poor conditions for travel in the 
large area to the north of Edmonton. It is due in a large measure to the 
indefatigable work of Dr. Braithwaite that this important branch of 
medical supervision was established so soundly in the Province of Alberta. 

While he was a contract doctor with the N.W.M.P. from his retire- 
ment from active service, he was appointed full Honorary Surgeon in the 
Royal North West Mounted Police with all the rights of that Office, in 
September, 1911. He served with the N.W.M.P., the R.N.W.M.P. and 
the R.C.M.P. for almost forty-eight years, having been awarded the 
Long Service Medal in 1927. His association with the R.C.M.P. extended 
for a period of 65 years. 

In 1892 he entered into private practice in Edmonton. It is interesting 
to note that among the many patients that he had in this city, the first 
native-born (that is, born in Alberta) Grand Master of the Grand Lodge 
of Alberta, A.F. & A.M., first saw the light of day with the assistance of 
Dr. Braithwaite. When this boy grew up he was Master of Edmonton 
Lodge No. 7, G.R.A., and had the pleasure and honour of presenting Dr. 
Braithwaite with his 50-Year Jewel. In the early days, with Dr. Whitelaw, 
who later became the Health Officer for the City of Edmonton when 
he took over from Dr. Braithwaite, and Dr. Blais, who later became a 
Senator from Alberta, he used to go to St. Albert, where the first 
hospital was opened. There was no hospital in Edmonton, itself, for 
sometime. When the General Hospital was opened in Edmonton he had 


the first patient who was admitted to it. When the rush to the Klondike 
took place many started out from Edmonton to go there. As the result 
of this a railway was started to go from Edmonton to the Pacific by way 
of the Yukon. It was called the Edmonton, Yukon and Pacific. When 
they started to build it from Strathcona to Edmonton he was appointed 
Medical Officer. At the time that the Canadian Northern Railway built 
into Edmonton, in 1905, they decided to buy the E.Y. & P. so as to make 
a quicker route to Calgary for their passenger service. At the same 
time, they appointed Dr. Braithwaite as their Medical Officer in Edmonton 
and he continued in this work until about the time of the First Great 
War. He was made the first Commissioner of the St. John's Ambulance 
for the Province. While he had been a coroner for the N.W. Territories 
in 1896 and had been appointed coroner for the Province of Alberta, in 
1932 he was made Chief Coroner for the Province, as well as Medical 
Inspector of Hospitals. Because of his work in the medical field, and 
his interest in the Dominion Medical Council he was chosen to represent 
Alberta on this Council. He was active in the Canadian Medical Associa- 
tion, being the President for a term. He enlisted in the Canadian Army 
Medical Corps at the beginning of the First Great War but was injured 
shortly afterwards and resumed his practice in Edmonton. During this 
War period he made it a policy of his not to accept any fees from the 
family of any enlisted man who came to him for medical services, if this 
man was overseas. 

In 1892 Dr. Braithwaite married Jennie E. Anderson, daughter of 
an Edmonton old-timer, T. A. Anderson, on November 30th. Unfor- 
tunately she died in 1914. When the Royal Alexandria Hospital was 
opened in Edmonton as the City Hospital, many of the furnishings for 
one of the wards were made by Mrs. Braithwaite. He re-married on 
June 2, 1915, Ruth Somersall of Viking, Alberta. She survived him, and 
retired after his death to British Columbia. While his chief interest was 
Medicine, with the R.C.M.P. running a close second, he took a little 
interest in politics, being a Conservative, and he was very interested in 
the Anglican Church, particularly All Saints Cathedral. His work in this 
regard was seen in the activity he took in this Cathedral. In 1895 he 
helped lay the foundation of a cathedral on the very site of the church in 
which his funeral service was held. In Masonry he became one of the 
chief craftsmen, in several branches of the work. 

In tribute to his services in the R.N.W.M.P. and in Medicine he was 
awarded the King's Jubilee Medal in 1935. 


He had a long and distinguished career in Freemasonry. When he 
arrived in Edmonton the only Lodge was Edmonton Lodge No. 53, G.R.M. 
Freemasonry in Edmonton had had a rather hesitant beginning. Saskat- 
chewan Lodge No. 17 under the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, which took 
in all the area that is now Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, had 


been started before the Riel Rebellion. As the result of this Rebellion and 
the unsettled conditions around Edmonton they had had to surrender 
their Charter. When things became more settled, and a steady growth 
started to take place in Edmonton, another Lodge was formed and is in 
existence to the present time. This was Edmonton Lodge No. 53, G.R.M. 
In January, 1897, another Lodge was formed on the south bank of the 
North Saskatchewan River, in Stratchona, a town that had sprung up as 
the result of the Canadian Pacific Railway running trains into it. This 
Lodge was also under the Grand Lodge of Manitoba and with the 
assistance of the members of Edmonton Lodge No. 53 became Acacia 
Lodge No. 66 under the Grand Lodge of Manitoba. It was into Edmonton 
Lodge No. 53, G.R.M. that Edward Ainslie Braithwaite was initiated on 
May 19th, 1893, passed on July 7, 1893 and received his Third Degree on 
September 1, 1893. The interest that he showed in Freemasonry in those 
days abided with him as long as he lived. He was made Master of 
Edmonton Lodge No. 53, G.R.M. for the year 1898. In 1899 he was the 
Grand Steward of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba and was elected Grand 
Registrar in 1900. In 1901 he was elected Grand Senior Warden, Deputy 
Grand Master in 1902, and Grand Master in 1903. He affiliated with 
Northern Light Lodge No. 10 in Winnipeg, on November 15, 1906, from 
Edmonton Lodge No. 7, G.R.A. 

When the Grand Lodge of Alberta was formed in 1905, the year 
Alberta became a Province, he was the Senior Grand Master of the 
Grand Lodge of Alberta. He also took an active interest in Scottish Rite 
Freemasonry. He had become a member of the Scottish Rite in the 
Valley of Winnipeg previous to 1904. In 1904 he was a charter member, 
and the first Thrice Puissant Master of the Ledge of Perfection of the 
Valley of Edmonton. He was also a charter member of the Mizpah 
Chapter of the Rose Croix in 1907. In addition to this he was instru- 
mental in the formation of the Alberta Consistory and was the first 
Commander-in-Chief, in 1910. For his outstanding service to the Scottish 
Rite he was coroneted 33° Honourary Inspector-General at Winnipeg in 
1911. He was elected to Active Membership in the Supreme Council at 
Hamilton in 1918 and on October 25, 1917 was appointed Illustrious 
Deputy for the Province of Alberta. He held this office until 1945, when 
he retired because of ill health. At this time he was retired to Past 
Active Rank. When he passed away, in 1949, he was the oldest member 
of the Supreme Council for the Dominion of Canada. He was also a 
member of Al Azhar Temple of the A. A. O.N. M.S. 

The message Most Worshipful Brother Edward Ainslie Braith- 
waite gave to the Grand Lodge of Manitoba at the Grand Session in 
1904 is just as timely to-day as it was then: 

". . . We find with every rising sun fresh evidence of settlement and 
of growth; mercantile and financial interests are striving to keep pace 
with the heavy demand, and the material as well as the spiritual 
forces in our beloved West are taxed to the utmost of their endeavor. 
What shall Masonry do for the betterment of the West in this, its 


magnificent opportunity? Shall not the influence of the members of 
our Order be for the everlasting good till thousands rise with one 
accord to sing its praise? . . ." 


On December 7, 1949, M. Worshipful Brother Dr. Edward Ainslie 
Braithwaite passed to the Grand Lodge Above, after a long illness, and in 
spite of the kind ministrations of his beloved wife. The funeral service was 
held on Saturday, December 10, 1949, at All Saints Cathedral. The Very 
Reverend A. M. Trendell, Dean of Edmonton, officiated and interment 
followed in the family plot in the Edmonton Cemetery. There was a 
large attendance of his Masonic Brethren and a guard of honour was 
also formed by members of the R.C.M.P., as well as by members of the 
Masonic Order. Dean Trendell paid a special tribute to his memory, 
stating that "Doctor Braithwaite made a great and outstanding contribu- 
tion to the history of Western Canada." His widow survived him, and 
after living for sometime in Vancouver, is now in Winnipeg. 

When we look back over the life of this gentleman and Mason 
we are struck by the fact that he was truly the personification of brotherly 
love, relief and truth. In his duty he was meticulous, sympathetic and had 
a warm sense of humour. An incident comes to the mind of the writer 
as told by the late Medical Officer for the C.N.R. in Edmonton, Dr. 
Alexander. One Sunday afternoon a passenger train arrived in Edmonton 
during the day. On this train was a person who had been taken ill. 
One of the employees of the railway went to the Medical Officer's office 
to get some help. In this office was a list of the different Medical 
Officers who had held that position in Edmonton. The employee thought 
it was a list for emergency calls. At the top of the list was Dr. E. A. 
Braithwaite. He got the telephone number and called. He did not know 
that the doctor was over 85 years of age and had long since retired from 
that work. However, when he called, Dr. Braithwaite called a taxi and 
went to the station whene he ministered to the sick person. In the present 
way of carrying on the practice of medicine, when everyone is sent to 
the Emergency Ward, this example of attachment to duty is almost 
astonishing. Such was the way Dr. Braithwaite carried on his duties. 

In the field of law and order in the new West his life was exem- 
plary. Yet, there was always the feeling that the "velvet scabbard held 
a sword of steel." To-day, when we look at the vast organization of the 
Hospitals in Alberta, at the wonderful progress that has been made 
and is being made in Medicine, we can get a little glimpse of the problems 
he had to meet in helping to get these fields organized in such a vast 
country with so much change that came about in its settlement. It was 
the whole-hearted effort that he put into improving these things that his 
real worth is seen. There were times when he was quite well-off with 
worldly goods, but his habit of helping any one who could bring a 
plausible story cost him much of this. The encouragement he brought 
to the ill, and the sympathy to the sorrowing will never be forgotten by 
those who knew him well. 


While any movement that was for the good of his neighbours or 
the country as a whole would always demand his attention and assistance. 
Such you will find in the Order of St. John's Ambulance, the Canadian 
Medical Association, and, above all in Freemasonry, particularly in Western 
Canada. As Kelsey, the individualist brought a knowledge of the 
Prairies, Henday, a knowledge of the Mountains in the West, Hearne, a 
knowledge of the Arctic Regions, Mackenzie, Fraser and Thompson a 
knowledge of the routes by which the West were opened, Lord Selkirk a 
knowledge of the value of this land to our economy, so it is true that Dr. 
Braithwaite brought a knowledge of materialistic Medicine and spiritualistic 
Masonry to this West. He was an individual to whom the West, and 
particularly Alberta is indebted. We, of the present generation, and those 
who come after are the richer for Dr. Braithwaite's unselfish service. It 
can be truly said, with the Supreme Council: 

"He was a friend whose heart was good, 
Who walked with men and understood; 
His was the voice that spoke to cheer, 
And fell like music on the ear. 
His was a hand that asked no fee 
For friendliness or kindness done. 
And now that he has journeyed on, 
His is a fame that never ends; 
He leaves behind uncounted friends." 



No. 102 







Past President C.M.R.A. 

November, 1971 

? i 

; I 


-■■-—■■ n i4» 


The Masonic Premiers of Ontario 

In more than a century since Confederation, Ontario has hgd eighteen 
Premiers. The complete list is shown in Appendix I. Thirteen of these 
men are, or were known to have been, Freemasons. The five who were not 
are the first three, John Sandfield Macdonald, Edward Blake and Sir 
Oliver Mowat, the sixth, Sir James P. Whitney, and the seventeenth, 
John P. Robarts. The first Premier was a staunch Roman Catholic who 
had had many years on the Canadian political scene. 


The fourth Premier, Arthur Sturgis Hardy, was the first to become a 
Mason. A native of Brantford, he was born on December 14, 1837, at 
Mount Pleasant, a suburb of the City, the son of Russell and Juliette 
Hardy. His secondary education was obtained at Rockwood Academy 
near Guelph and on matriculation he read law at Brantford and Toronto. 
In 1865, he was called to the bar and was appointed a Queen's Counsel in 
1876. He set up a legal practice in Brantford and soon became solicitor 
for his home city. In 1875, he was named a Bencher of the Law Society 
of Upper Canada. For twenty-six years, from 1873 to 1899, he represented 
the County of Brant in the Ontario Legislature. Four years after his 
election, he was named Provincial Secretary in the cabinet of Sir Oliver 
Mowat. He moved to the office of Commissioner of Crown Lands in 
1889 and on the retirement of Mowat in 1896, he became Premier of the 
Province. He coupled this position with the portfolio of Attorney General. 
Under his Premiership the Board of Health for Ontario and the Bureau 
of Mines were established. He also created the Department of Fisheries 
and assured that the beds of lakes and streams would be kept government 
property. His government set aside the lands now known as Algonquin 
Park as a nature preserve for the people of Ontario. During his short 
term as Premier which ended on October 17, 1899, great improvements 
were made in municipal law. 

Ill health forced his retirement. He was then appointed Clerk of the 
Surrogate Court which position he retained until his death which occurred 
on June 13, 1901. 

In 1870, he married Mary, daughter of Hon. J. J. and Mrs. Morrison 
of Toronto and to them were born three sons and a daughter. 

Bro. Hardy was initiated on November 23, 1866, in Doric Lodge, No. 
121, Brantford, and retained his membership for the remainder of his life. 



Hardy was followed as Premier by George William Ross of Strathroy 
whose Premiership was the last of a long line of Liberal office holders. 
Ross was born near Nairn in Middlesex County, on September 18, 1841, 
the son of James Ross and Ellen McKinnon, who had migrated from 
the Scottish Highlands and were staunch Presbyterians. His education 
led him into the teaching field. After matriculation at Albert College, 
Belleville, he entered the Toronto Normal School, where he graduated 
with a first class teaching certificate. Shortly, he became Inspector of 
Model Schools for Lambton County. He then branched out into law, 
obtaining his L.L.B. in 1883 and was called to the bar in 1887. 

His first foray into politics was in the Federal House where he 
represented Middlesex from 1872 to 1883. In the latter year he switched 
to the provincial field where he immediately became Minister of Educa- 
tion in the Mowat government. On the retirement of Hardy in 1899, he 
became Premier. His overwhelming defeat in 1905 ended thirty-four 
years of Liberal rule in Ontario. After the defeat of his government, he 
remained two years as the leader of the opposition. He was then called to 
the Senate where he served as Liberal leader from 1910 until his death on 
March 7, 1914. 

George Ross was three times married, first to Christine Campbell, in 
1862, secondly in 1875 to Catherine Boston and in 1907 to Margaret Peel. 

Many honours came his way. In 1896, he was elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Society of Canada and in 1910 was knighted. Five universities 
conferred honorary L.L.D.'s upon him. They were: St. Andrew's in 1888, 
University of Toronto in 1894, Victoria in 1897, McMaster in 1902 and 
Queen's in 1903. 

As Minister of Education or as Premier, he brought about great 
changes. Among these were: the establishment of kindergartens as an 
imegral part of the school system, the admission of women to the univer- 
sities, extension of a provincial system of free libraries, establishment of 
the faculty of Medicine at the University of Toronto, establishment of a 
school of pedagogy, institution of a provincial museum, establishment of 
continuation school classes and the federation of several colleges into the 
University of Toronto. 

All historical records indicate that he was an outstanding public speaker 
and in addition was the author of numerous books. Among them the out- 
standing ones were: The Life and Times of Alexander Mackenzie (1892); 
The School System of Ontario (1896) ; Getting Inta Parliament and After 
(1913) and The Senate of Canada (1914). At various times he operated the 
following periodicals : The Strathroy Age, The Huron Expositor and The 
Ontario Teacher. 


Besides being a Presbyterian, he had strong feelings on the temperance 
question. In 1879, he became head of the Sons of Temperance for North 
America. Two years earlier, he founded the Temperance Colonization 
Company. In 1885, he was elected President of the Temperance and 
General Life Insurance Company. 

He was initiated in Beaver Lodge, No. 83, Strathroy, on August 5, 
1872 and retained his membership throughout the remainder of his life. 

At the time of his death in 1914, the Toronto Globe in an editorial 
had this to say: 

"The man was more than a common man. He had something besides 
his great gift of eloquence which all acknowledged. He must have been 
honest and honourable to be capable of holding friendships for a lifetime." 


The second Conservative Premier (following Sir James P. Whitney on 
October 2, 1914) was William Howard Hearst. He was born on a farm 
at Arran, Bruce County, on February 5, 1864, the son of William Hearst 
and Margaret McFadden, pioneers of that county. After matriculation at 
Collingwood Collegiate, he attended Osgoode Hall and was called to the 
bar in 1888. He then set up a law practice in Sault Ste. Marie in partner- 
ship with John McKay, who later became a judge. He became quite 
famous for his handling of both civil and criminal cases. In local affairs 
he became a trustee on the high school board and President of the Board 
of Trade. He was a faithful member of the Methodist Church and served 
on its several committees and where, too, he was Superintendent of the 
Sunday School for 25 years. W T hen he took up residence in Toronto, he 
joined Sherbourne Street Church where he once again became active in the 
local church affairs. 

In 1894, he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Ontario Legislature 
for Algoma. Four years later, he again became a candidate and was 
successful. He held this seat for eleven years. In 1911, he was appointed 
Minister of Land, Forests and Mines in the Whitney administration. 
After the death of Whitney in 1914, he stepped into the Premier's office. 

During the five years he was Premier, World War I was fought and 
he did much to further the war effort. For this he was knighted in 1917 
receiving the K.C.M.G. 

As an ardent temperance worker and advocate, he succeeded in passing 
the Ontario Temperance Act in an endeavour to aid the war effort. He 
arranged for votes for women in the Province and organized the Work- 
men's Compensation Board. His government gave support to cadet train- 
ing in secondary schools. 


On his retirement from politics in 1919, he again entered the legal 
profession, this time in Toronto in partnership with his son. In 1891, he 
married Isobel Jane Duncan to which union were born two sons and a 

Among his many honours, he was awarded an L.L.D. by the Univer- 
sity of Toronto in 1915 and the Town of Hearst in Northern Ontario 
was named in his honour. In 1920, he was appointed by the Imperial 
Government to the International Joint Waterways Commission where he 
gave good service for twenty years. His death took place in Toronto 
on September 29, 1941. 

Of all the Ontario Premiers, Bro. William Hearst had perhaps the 
most impressive Masonic record. He was initiated on March 12, 1889 in 
Keystone Lodge, No. 412, Sault Ste. Marie. Two years later in 1891, 
he was the Worshipful Master. The following year he was elected 
D.D.G.M. for Algoma District. While residing in Toronto, he became a 
charter member of Grey Lodge, No. 589, in 1921. He was also a mem- 
ber of Algonquin Chapter No. 102, of the Royal Arch. In his obituary in 
the Grand Lodge Proceeding (1942), it was said of him "He was a good 
citizen, an honourable man, and praise higher than that is difficult to 


War is always an unsettling affair and Ontario was not passed by in 
this regard. Farmers' organizations, the main group being the LTnited 
Farmers of Ontario, and labour groups became so well in favour that they 
led the polls in 1919 and were called upon to form a government. Ernest 
Charles Drury, who was Secretary of the U.F.O., was asked to be Premier. 
He did not hold a seat but was able to contest the County of Halton and 
was successful. 

Ernest Drury was born on a farm, at Crown Hill near Barrie on 
January 22. 1878, the son of Charles Drury and Marion Varley. His father 
had been a politician before him having been Minister of Agriculture 
in Mowat's government. After matriculation from Barrie Collegiate, 
Ernest entered Ontario Agricultural College and obtained his B.S.A. degree 
in 1910. His first move into the political field came in 1917 when he was 
an unsuccessful candidate for Member of Parliament. 

The four year government of his United Farmers of Ontario had a 
stormy existence due in large part to the inexperience of his cabinet and 
members. However, great accomplishments were recorded. Under his 
regime, the first Department of Welfare was set up; allowances for widows 
and children and standard adoption procedures were put into practice. 
A minimum wage scale was established for women. The Ontario Depart- 
ment of Highways was made a part of government. A Royal Commission 


was set up resulting in the establishment of the University of Western 
Ontario at London and the agricultural schools at Kemptville and Ridge- 
town were started. A generous grant was given by the government which 
speeded up the discovery of insulin by Dr. Banting and Charles Best. 

The famous "$100 coal scuttle scandal" helped to unseat him. In fact, 
the scuttle was one returned from storage by an aide and when it was 
polished up at no cost it became famous. It is said that government expen- 
ditures rose from $9,000,000 in 1919 to $35,000,000 in 1923. 

On retirement from politics, he returned to his farm at Crown Hill. 
In 1934, he was appointed Sheriff for Simcoe County (his father also had 
held this position) and coupled with this the office of Local Registrar of 
the Supreme Court for Simcoe County. He became quite an author of 
note, writing: Forts of Folly in 1931, All for a Beaver Hat in 1959, and his 
autobiography in 1961, called Premier Farmer, The Memoirs of E. C. Drury. 

Ernest Drury married Ella Partridge of Crown Hill and two sons 
and two daughters were born to the union. 

He was a faithful member of the United Church of Canada. He was 
forced to relinquish his public positions in 1960 because of ill health and 
he died on February 18, 1968. 

He was initiated on November 11, 1920, in Corinthian Lodge, No. 96, 
Barrie, and remained a member until his death. 


George Howard Ferguson was a cabinet minister in the Hearst 
government before the United Farmers Took over in 1919. When Hearst 
retired from the leadership of his party, Ferguson was elected to suc- 
ceed him. So after the election in 1923, he took over the Premiership 
from Drury, once more establishing a Conservative government. 

George Ferguson was born on June 18, 1870, at Kemptville, the son 
of Charles Frederick Ferguson and Elizabeth Wallace Bell. His father 
had represented North Leeds and Grenville in the House of Commons 
from 1873 to 1896. George was educated at the Kemptville schools, the 
University of Toronto where he graduated in 1891, and at Osgoode Hall, 
after which he was called to the bar in 1894. He was named a King's 
Counsel in 1908. He practised law in Kemptville before he became a 
full-time politician. 

Before entering politics as an M.L.A. for Grenville in 1905, he had 
spent six years in municipal affairs as a councillor and reeve of Kempt- 
ville. From 1914 to 1919 he was Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines. 
(The author remembers him well visiting the Gore Bay Continuation 
School in 1918 while he was electioneering. He was very perturbed when 
the students did not rise when he entered the room.) 


One of his first acts as Premier in 1923 was to investigate the Treasury 
Department of the Province. As a result, the former Minister, Hon. Peter 
Smith, and his deputy were jailed for irregularities. He demanded that the 
English language, only, be used in the schools of Ontario. As he found 
that the Ontario Temperance Act could not be enforced, he brought in an 
amendment liberalizing the liquor traffic. Legislation for the Education 
Department set up township school areas. 

He was honoured with the degree of L.L.D. and D.C.L. He was 
named a member of the Board of Governors of the University of Toronto 
and became the Chancellor of the University of Western Ontario. He 
belonged to the Anglican Church, and besides being a member of the 
Masonic Order, he was a member of the I.O.O.F., the I.O.F., and the 
L.O.L. In business he became President of the Crown Life Insurance 
Company and was a Director of the Toronto and General Trusts Com- 
pany, the Brazilian Traction, Light, Heat and Power Company, the West- 
ern Insurance Company and the British American Insurance Company. 

He married Ella Cumming of Burlington, Quebec, in 1896. He 
passed away in Toronto on February 21, 1946, and was buried from St. 
Paul's Anglican Church with Canon H. J. Cody presiding. 

On October 2, 1895, he was initiated in Mount Zion Lodge, No. 28, 
Kemptville and remained a member during his lifetime. 

* * * 


Ontario's tenth Premier, George Stewart Henry, was a native of the 
Toronto area, having been born in King Township on July 16, 1871, the 
son of William Henry and Louise Stewart. He was educated at Toronto 
schools and Upper Canada College. He attended Ontario Agricultural 
College, Guelph, and graduated with the degree of B.S.A. He then en- 
tered the University of Toronto graduating with a B.A. in 1896 and a 
L.L.B. in 1897. He had an impressive record in civic matters in York 
Township and the County of York. He was on the township council for 
many years and served as Reeve from 1907 to 1910. He was on the 
York County Council from 1903 to 1909, the latter year as Warden of the 
County. In 1913, he was elected to represent East York in the Ontario 
Legislature and was re-elected until 1937. In 1923, he was appointed 
Minister of Public Works and Highways under the Ferguson govern- 
ment. On the retirement of Ferguson in 1930, he became Premier. For a 
short time in 1934, he carried to portfolio of Education in addition to that 
of the Premier. His government was defeated by the Liberals under 
M. F. Hepburn in 1934 but he remained as leader of the opposition for 
three years more. 

He married Anna Keitha Pickett, the daughter of the Rev. T. W. 
Pickett. Two sons and a daughter were born. 


In 1931, he was honoured by the University of Toronto when he had 
the degree of L.L.D. conferred upon him. 

Bro. Henry was initiated in York Lodge, No. 156, Toronto, on May 
20, 1904. He became Worshipful Master for 1914, and was appointed a 
Grand Steward in 1925. He became a charter member of Cathedral Lodge, 
No. 643, Toronto. He also became a charter member of John Ross 
Robertson Lodge, No. 545, Toronto, Todmorden Lodge, No. 647 and 
Scarborough Lodge, No. 653, of Toronto and Scarborough. In 1954, he 
was presented with the Jubilee Medal. He was a Royal Arch Mason, 
being a member of York Chapter, No. 62, Toronto. 

His death occurred on September 2, 1958. 


The great depression was at its height in 1934 when Michael Frede- 
rick Hepburn became Ontario's eleventh Premier ending eleven years 
of Conservative rule. 

Michael Hepburn was born at St. Thomas on August 12, 1896, the 
son of William Hepburn and Margaret Fulton. He chose banking as a 
career and took a position in the St. Thomas Branch of the Canadian 
Bank of Commerce. He left that position to serve in the Royal Air 
Force in World War I, but an automobile accident led to his discharge in 
1918. He then became engaged in dairying and onion farming near 
St. Thomas. He became interested in the United Farmers of Ontario and 
was their Secretary from 1919 to 1923, (the period when E. C. Drury was 
Premier). He entered Canadian politics in 1926 when he was elected as 
a Liberal in West Elgin. In 1934, he contested the leadership of his party 
in Ontario and was successful. At the following election, his party was 
successful at the polls and he became Premier, at age 37, the youngest 
Premier to date. For eight years, until 1942, he held this position. As 
Premier he made great changes to attempt to bring about prosperity in the 
Province. He did away with Chorley Park as the residence of the Lieute- 
nant Governor. He cancelled Quebec power contracts. He opposed the 
C.I.O. Unions in Ontario, even going so far as to send in troops to 
Oshawa to break up a strike there. During his term of office he conti- 
nually feuded with the Liberal Prime Minister of Canada, W. L. Mackenzie 
King. When he gave up the Premiership he returned to his farm, as he 
said, "to listen to the grass grow." His death occurred on January 5, 

He married Eva Maxine Burton, was a member of the United Church 
of Canada, the Knights of Pythias and the Loyal Order of the Moose as 
well as being a Freemason. 

On April 21, 1927, he was initiated in St. David's Lodge, No. 302, 
St. Thomas and retained his membership throughout his life. 



With the sudden retirement of Michael Hepburn from the Premiership 
on October 21, 1942, he was succeeded by his Attorney General, Gordon 
Daniel Conant. This was just a caretaker position as he relinquished it in 
seven months time, on May 18, 1943. 

Gordon Conant was a native of Oshawa having been born there on 
January 11, 1885, the son of Thomas Conant, of U.E. Loyalist descent, 
and Margaret Gifford. After graduation from Oshawa schools, he attended 
University of Toronto, graduating in 1905 with a B.A. degree. He read 
law with Hartley Dewart to obtain his L.L.B. and was called to the bar 
in 1912. He was appointed a King's Counsel in 1933. For three years, 
1934 to 1937, he was Crown Attorney for Ontario County. 

Gordon Conant was always civic minded. For twenty seven years 
beginning in 1907 he was secretary of the South Ontario Liberal Associa- 
tion. He entered the local political scene early in his career, first as 
Reeve of Oshawa, 1914-1915, and Mayor 1916-1917. He was an active 
Rotarian, serving his club as President for the year 1929-1930. He was a 
member of the United Church. 

He married Verna R. Smith, daughter of the Hon. E. D. Smith and 
Mrs. Smith of Winona. To the union were born two sons. 

In 1937, he successfully contested the provincial seat for Ontario 
South. He was immediately made Attorney General which portfolio he 
held continuously until he stepped up to the Premiership. On his resig- 
nation seven months later, he was appointed Master of the Supreme Court 
of Ontario. His death occurred on January 2, 1953, and he was interred 
in the Oshawa Mausoleum. 

Apparently he took very little interest in the Masonic Order although 
he became a member of Cedar Lodge, No. 270, Oshawa, on June 25, 1912. 
He ceased being a member on June 23, 1936, the only Masonic Premier not 
a member at the time of his death. 


On October 30, 1942, the Ontario Liberals held a leadership convention 
and Harry C. Nixon was the successful candidate. He did not take over 
the reins of government until the following May 18, thereby becoming the 
Province's thirteenth Premier. Unfortunately this was of short duration, 
barely three months, because at the ensuing election the Conservative 
party won the majority of seats. The Liberal government resigned on 
August 17, 1943, making it the shortest tenure in the history of the 

Harry Corwin Nixon was born near St. George on April 1, 1891, the 
son of Henry Robert Nixon and Margaret Gage, successful farmers of 


the district. After completing school at St. George and Brantford, he 
entered Ontario Agricultural College at Guelph and in due course gra- 
duated with a B.S.A. degree. He then returned to help operate his home 
farm which had been in the family for almost a century. On October 
28, 1914, he married Alice A. Jackson, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William 
Jackson of Guelph. To the couple were born four children. Jackson C. 
became a pilot in World War 2 and lost his life while on a bombing 
mission over Germany. Robert Fletcher became a secondary school 
teacher but after teaching for a few years he too, returned to his home 
farm and to follow in his father's footsteps in the political field where 
he became leader of the Liberal party. He became a Mason in 1955, 
joining St. George Lodge, No. 243, St. George. The daughters are 
Margaret, wife of D. Farell, and Kathryn, who became Mrs. R. B. Forbes. 
The family have been faithful members of the United Church of Canada. 

Harry Nixon entered politics in the provincial field in 1919 when he 
won election as a member of the United Farmers of Ontario. Under 
Premier Drury, he became Provincial Secretary and Registrar. He lost 
these positions in 1923 when this government was turned out of office. 
He held his seat, however, as he did continuously until his death, although 
he changed his party affiliation to Progressive and finally to Liberal. 

In 1934, under Premier Hepburn, he again became Provincial Secre- 
tary. Eight years later he temporarily resigned his post when he and 
the Premier differed on the policy toward Prime Minister W. L. Mackenzie 
King. Party stalwarts brought a temporary peace between the two men. 
However, it came to the surface again when D. G. Conant was named 
to succeed Hepburn as Premier. Nixon continued with the portfolio of 
Provincial Secretary. 

Harry Nixon was initiated in St. George Lodge, No. 243, St. George, 
on April 10, 1919, and he retained his membership until his death. 

On October 22, 1961, while driving home from morning service at 
St. George United Church, he suffered a heart attack and died before 
aid could be summoned. Although active in politics for 42 years, he could 
not be considered a gentleman farmer, insisting always in doing as much 
as possible of the farm work. At a testimonial dinner when he was aged 
70, and shortly before he died, he said, "I have no regrets. I have had 
a good life. I have made friends and have had a wonderful chance to be 
of service to the people of my constituency and Province." John Winter- 
meyer, who became leader of the party, said of him, "Mr. Nixon was a 
man among men. He combined the extraordinary qualities of loyalty, 
honesty and humility in a manner that won him the respect of everyone 
who knew him." 



An election in August 1943 turned out the Liberals and they were 
displaced by the Conservatives which were led by George Alexander 
Drew, who took office on August 17, 1943. He held office for five 
years, retiring on October 19. 1948 to become leader of the Federal 
Conservative Party. 

George Drew was born in Guelph on May 7, 1894, the son of John 
J. Drew and Annie I. S. Gibbs. He was a grandson of the late George A. 
Drew, M.P., a member of the first parliament after confederation and 
later senior judge of the County Court of Wellington. He received his 
secondary education at Upper Canada College and then entered the Uni- 
versity of Toronto and Osgoode Hall. He read law with C. L. Dunbar, 
K.C., of Guelph, and was called to the bar in 1920. He then set upi law 
practice in Guelph, where he was active until 1926 when he was 
appointed Assistant Master of the Supreme Court of Ontario. In 1929, 
he became Master of this court. For three years, 1931-1934, he was 
Chairman of the Ontario Securities Commission. 

During his residence in Guelph he took an active part in civic affairs, 
becoming alderman for the city 1922-1924 and mayor in 1925, the youngest 
such in Canada. 

He was twice married, first to Florenza d'Arneiro Johnson, daughter 
of Edward Johnson of musical fame, and Mrs. Johnson, and secondly to 
Mrs. George McCullough, widow of the publisher of The Globe. A son 
and daughter were born to the first marriage. 

During his active days, he received honorary L.L.D. degrees from 
University of Toronto, and Queen's, Western Ontario, Ottawa and Water- 
loo Universities. When the University of Guelph was established, he 
became its Chancellor. 

Early in World War I, George Drew enlisted in the 16th Battery of 
the Canadian Artillery. Later he commanded the 64th Battery. He was 
severely wounded. At the close of the war he held the rank of major and 
later was promoted to lieutenant colonel. Between wars he became 
famous as a writer on military topics. He was the author of : Canada's Fighting 
Airmen, The Truth About the War, Canada's Part in the Great War, Sales- 
men of Death, Tell Britain and The Truth About War Debts. 

In 1938, he contested the position of leader of the Conservative Party 
and was successful, but it was not until 1939 that he gained a seat in the 
Legislature, becoming M.L.A. for Simcoe East in a by-election. At the 
next election in 1943, he ran in High Park, Toronto, and in August became 
Premier. He held the Education portfolio as well. 

As Premier of Ontario, his government was responsible for much 
legislation. His pride in the British Commonwealth was in large part 
responsible for bringing to the Province over 25,000 British immigrants. 


In order to do this he re-opened Ontario House in London, which had 
been closed under the Hepburn administration. Municipal grants were 
increased and old age pensions received large grants. More money 
was set aside for health services and an eight-hour day was established 
by law in industry. One controversial change was the introduction of 
cocktail bars in hotels. 

On October 19, 1948, he resigned the Premiership to assume the 
leadership of the federal Conservative Party which he won on October 2 
of that year. After eight years in this position, he was appointed in 1957 
as High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, where he served well for 
five years. 

On March 26, 1923, he became a member of Waverley Lodge, No. 
361, Guelph. 


The fifteenth Premiership might be termed a caretaker regime. 
Thomas Laird Kennedy took over from George Drew on October 19, 
1948, and he held the position only until a leadership convention could be 
called at which time Leslie Frost took over the reins of government. 

Thomas Kennedy was born on August 15, 1878, on a farm at Dixie, 
just west of Toronto, the son of Robert Kennedy and Mary Elgie. After 
graduating from Parkdale Collegiate, Toronto, he entered Osgoode Hall 
to study law, but illness with tuberculosis interfered and put an end to this 
course of action. While at college he played rugby football. In one 
game he had a jaw fractured which in after years gave him a craggy look 
for which he became famous. 

At age 21, he was nominated as a joke for the position of school 
trustee and won. Thus began a long and faithful life of public service, 
which took in the school board, the municipal and county councils, the 
Ontario legislature and finally to the Premiership. Throughout it all, he 
still retained his interest in farming, where he specialized in apple grow- 
ing. In 1908, he served one term as Vice-President of the Good Roads 
Association of Ontario. 

He married Minnie Patterson to which union four daughters were 
born. One of these, Mrs. Eric R. Chudleigh, and her husband were killed 
at Hotel Brittania, near Huntsville, when the roof of a curling rink col- 
lapsed on them. 

He became a soldier in World War I becoming a colonel in the 
Governor General's Body Guard. 

He was first elected to the Ontario Legislature for Peel County in 
1919 and was re-elected nine times. He became Minister of Agriculture 


on two occasions, first from 1930 to 1934 under George Henry, and then 
from 1943 to 1948 under George Drew. He kept that portfolio when he 
advanced to the Premiership. He retired from politics on August 15, 
1958, on his 80th birthday and was succeeded in the riding of Peel by 
William Davis, the eighteenth Premier. 

As he was the last male member of his family, he was the last to farm 
the family estate which an ancestor had purchased in 1816 for £16. When 
he finally gave up the farm it was subdivided into suburban building lots. 

He received an Honorary L.L.D. degree from the University of 
Toronto. The death occurred of "Old Man Ontario", by which title 
he was affectionately called, on February 13, 1959. At the time of his 
death it was said that in his long political career he had never slandered 
any man. 

On September 12, 1905, he became a member of River Park Lodge, 
No. 356, Streetsville, and remained a member for the remainder of his life. 


Leslie Miscampbell Frost, successful in the leadership convention, 
took over the reins of government on May 4, 1949 and held the post 
continuously until another leadership convention took place and he was 
succeeded on November 8, 1961 by John P. Robarts. 

Leslie Frost was born on September 20, 1895, at Orillia, the son of 
William Sword Frost and Margaret Jane Barker, who had migrated from 
Glasgow in 1867. He graduated from Orillia schools and after attendance 
at University of Toronto and Osgoode Hall he was called to the bar in 
1921. In 1933 he was appointed a King's Counsel. 

It is interesting to note that Leslie's brother, Cecil, and he were 
very close together all through life. They attended college together both 
graduating as lawyers. Then they set up practice in Lindsay. They 
married daughters of the former M.L.A. John Carew and Mrs. Carew. 
They enlisted together in World War I in the Simcoe Foresters, a part 
of the 157th Battalion. Both were wounded, Leslie at Neuville, Vitasse, 
near Arras in March 1918, after which he was invalided home and retired 
with the rank of captain. The two brothers continued their legal practice 
in Lindsay, to which Leslie returned after retiring from politics. Cecil 
died in 1947. 

Leslie Frost first entered politics in 1937 when he was elected as a 
Conservative to represent Victoria County. In succeeding years he sur- 
vived seven elections and as Premier never lost a by-election. In 1943, 
he was named to the portfolio of Provincial Treasurer and Minister of 
Mines. The following year he became the first President of the Provin- 
cial Mines Ministers Association. When he became Premier, he retained 


the Treasury portfolio. He was Premier during the period of rapid 
expansion in the Province and is credited with making great strides in 

On his retirement from political life, he took a very active part in 
business life. He became a director of Canada Life Assurance Company, 
the Victoria-Grey Trust Company and the Bank of Montreal. He was 
elected a vice-president of Massey-Ferguson Company and became a 
member of the Board of Governors of the University of Toronto. 

The University of Western Ontario honoured him by granting him a 
D.C.L. degree. Seven other universities conferred honorary L.L.D. degrees 
upon him. They are: University of Toronto, Queen's, McMaster, Assump- 
tion, Laurentian, the Royal Military College and the University of Ottawa. 

He has been a Rotarian and a member of Cambridge United Church, 
Lindsay. He has long been an ardent curler. 

Of all our Masonic Premiers, Leslie Frost has been one of the most 
ardent members of the organization. On January 15, 1926, he became a 
member of Faithful Brethren Lodge, No. 77, Lindsay. He progressed 
through the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite attaining his 32° at Moore 
Sovereign Consistory at Hamilton. He has since been coronated an Hon- 
orary 33° Scottish Rite Mason. 


The eighteenth Premier and the thirteenth to belong to the Masonic 
Order is William Grenville Davis. On March 1, 1971, he succeeded John 
P. Robarts. He was born on July 30, 1929, at Brampton, the son of 
Albert Grenville Davis and Vera Heweston. On graduation from 
Brampton Collegiate he entered University of Toronto where he graduated 
with a Bachelor of Arts degree. He then studied law at Osgoode Hall 
and was called to -the bar in 1955. He then began the practice of law in 
Brampton. In 1959 he was elected to the Ontario Legislature for Peel 
County succeeding Tom Kennedy, long-time member and Premier. Before 
taking a cabinet post, he served in 1960-1963 on the Select Committee of 
the Ontario Legislature to study administrative and executive problems of 
the Legislature. He was also Vice-Chairman of the Ontario Hydro 
Commission. In 1962, he became Minister of Education, which portfolio 
he held until he assumed the Premiership in 1971. Coupled with this he 
also became Minister of University Affairs. He was awarded an Hono- 
rary L.L.D. degree from the following universities: Waterloo Lutheran, 
Western Ontario, Toronto, and McMaster. In 1966, he was presented 
with the Greer Memorial Award for outstanding service to Ontario edu- 
cation and in 1967 he received the Award of Merit of the Phi Kappa Delta 
Society of the University of Toronto. 


He was twice married, first to Helen MacPhee of Windsor and 
secondly to Kathleen Louise McKay of Illinois. There are five children. 
He is a member of the United Church, is a Kiwanian and a curler. 

He is an author of note having to his credit the following books : Education 
in Ontario (1965) ; The Government of Ontario and the Universities (1966) ; 
Building an Educational Society 1816-1966 (1966) ; Education in our Times 

William Davis is a member of Flower City Lodge, No. 689, Brampton, 
having joined on April 13, 1961. 


Appendix I 


Administration Administration 

Name Pol. Party Commenced Concluded 

1. John Sandfield Macdonald Lib. July 16, 1867 Dec. 19, 1871 

2. Edward Blake Lib. Dec. 20, 1871 Oct. 25, 1872 

3. Sir Oliver Mowat Lib. Oct. 25, 1872 July 9, 1896 

4. Arthur Sturgis Hardy Lib. July 25, 1896 Oct. 17, 1899 

5. Sir George William Ross Lib. Oct. 21, 1899 Feb. 7, 1905 

6. Sir James P. Whitney Con. Feb. 7, 1905 Sept. 25, 1914 

7. Sir William H. Hearst Con. Oct. 2, 1914 Nov. 14, 1919 

8. Ernest Charles Drury U.F.O. Nov. 14, 1919 July 16, 1923 

9. George Howard Ferguson Con. July 16, 1923 Dec. 15, 1930 

10. George Stewart Henry Con. Dec. 15, 1930 July 10, 1934 

11. Michael Frederick Hepburn Lib. July 10, 1934 Oct. 21, 1942 

12. Gordon Daniel Conant Lib. Oct. 21, 1942 May 18, 1943 

13. Harry Corwin Nixon Lib. May 18, 1943 Aug. 17, 1943 

14. George Alexander Drew P. Con. Aug. 17, 1943 Oct. 19, 1948 

15. Thomas Laird Kennedy P. Con. Oct. 19, 1948 May 4, 1949 

16. Leslie Miscampbell Frost P. Con. May 4, 1949 Nov. 8, 1961 

17. John P. Robarts P. Con. Nov 8, 1961 Mar. 1, 1971 

18. William Grenville Davis P. Con. Mar. 1, 1971 

Proceedings of Grand Lodge, G.R.C. 

Who's Who in Canada, 1943-44, 1936-37, 1952-53, 1960-61. 
Encyclopedia Canadiana 

Morgan — Canadian Men and Women of the Time 
The Freemason 

Macmillan's Dictionary of Canadian Biography 
Maclean's Magazine 
The Globe and Mail Microfilm of Old Papers 


» n m ■ ■>— m^m t<i> 

- : 

No. 103 


I 1813-1869 





February, 1972 

■ ■■»! ■ ill— 

I ■ ■■ ■ 







J No. 4, Q.R., A.F. & A.M. 

Stanstead, Quebec 


One of the aims of the Canadian Masonic Research Association is "to 
reproduce or print Masonic documents of historical importance", and it is 
believed that an early history of Golden Rule Lodge — now No. 5, G.R.Q. — 
merits re-printing. This was contained in a small book by Elisha Gustin, P.M., 
which has been long out-of-print. It was entitled History and By-Laws of 
Golden Rule Lodge, No. 4, Q.R., A.F. and A.M., Stanstead, P.Q., Canada, 
and the title-page shows Publication in Washington, by J. S. Tomlinson, 1874. 

Elisha Gustin was an early member of Golden Rule Lodge, became 
Worshipful Master in 1821, and remained an influential and honored 
figure in the Lodge for many years, until his death in 1868. His narrative 
tells of the beginnings and life of the Lodge until 1829, when difficulties 
overcame it. Highlights of the revival and activity to 1869 were added to 
the story, and, because Gustin's History remains such a rare and treasured 
document, it will hopefully be of wide interest. 


History of Golden Rule Lodge No. 4, Q.R., 





'Be still, sad heart! and cease repining, 
Behind the clouds is the sun still shining, 
Thy fate is the common fate of all — 
Into each life some rain must fall, 
Some days must be dark and dreary." 

About the beginning of the Nineteenth Century the ever attractive 
and expansive Genius of Speculative Free Masonry, became generally 
diffused through the United States of America, especially in the Northern 
and Eastern States, where it had been had previously but little known 
beyond the cities and principal towns. 

At this period, Lodges were opened in most of the country villages 
of any considerable notoriety, extending even to the northern frontier, 
where the extensive forests, hitherto known mostly as the savages' hunting 
grounds, had but partially yielded to the muscular arm of the sturdy 
axeman, before this divinely-inspired institution, this meek-eyed handmaid 
of Christianity and benevolent daughter of Charity, with her mysterious 
graces and peculiar benefits, attracted the attention of the early settlers 
of these northern wilds. 

In the year of our Lord 1803, "Lively Stone Lodge, No. 22," was 
organized and opened at the hall of Samuel Pomeroy, at Derby Line, 
Vermont, where many of the leading and influential men of Derby, 
Vermont, and Stanstead, Lower Canada, met fraternally, and held social 
and friendly intercourse. The Charter members were Timothy Hinman, 
Esq., W.M.; Luther Newcomb, S.W.; Rufus Stewart, J.W.; Ebenezer 
Gould, Eliphalet Bangs, Elijah Strong, Nehemiah Wright, Timothy Rose, 
Levi Aldrich, Charles Kilbourn, and Libbens Chase. The Festival of 
St. John the Baptist was annually celebrated in a manner highly creditable 
to the Lodge, producing, in the minds of the people generally, a favorable 
opinion of the institution. 

Notwithstanding the general harmony which prevailed among the 
Brethren, although residing under different governments, yet the Canadian 
members were occasionally subjected to some petty annoyances from the 


service of legal processes for old debts contracted previous to their coming 
into that country. A remedy for this difficulty was subsequently attemp- 
ted. Their hall was destroyed by fire, by which the Lodge sustained a 
serious loss. From this destitute situation a superb and stately building 
(so esteemed at that time) was erected by Johial Bordman, Esq., situated 
directly on the boundary line, with a spacious hall, one half in Canada, 
and the other half in Vermont, with ingress and egress on each side of the 

This arrangement rendered it safe and convenient for the Brethren 
on both sides of the Line to meet upon the Level and part upon the 
Square, unmolested by the impertinent interposition of public functionaries, 
imperiously demanding something of a mineral or metallic kind, to be 
laid up as a memorial that he had then and there cancelled some long- 
standing, old account. 

Under this happy and convenient arrangement, the business of the 
Lodge proceeded harmoniously, with a good degree of unanimity and 
fraternal feeling, subject, however, to occasional interruptions arising 
from unsubdued passions, uncircumscribed desires, and unmasonic prac- 
tices, of some imperfect craftsmen. This state of apparent tranquility 
was once more disturbed by an unforeseen occurrence. The clashing 
interests of the United States and Great Britain involved their subjects 
in a ruinous war, declared at Washington on the 18th of June, 1812, which 
materially changed the general order of things, especially on the frontier, 
and even the Brethren of the Mystic Tie, the members of Lively Stone 
Lodge particularly, were thereby seriously affected. 

Everything like friendly intercourse between persons residing on oppo- 
site sides of the Line was viewed suspiciously by the zealous loyalist and 
the hot-headed patriot, insomuch that the Masons residing in Canada 
deemed it expedient to separate and withdraw their membership from the 
Lodge; but, deeply impressed with the importance of Masonry, and view- 
ing it equally if not more essential in time of war than in the tranquil 
scenes of by-gone days, they at once resolved upon having a Lodge of 
their own, and accordingly a Charter was obtained from the "Grand 
Lodge of the Most Honorable Fraternity of United Ancient Free Masons 
of England in Lower Canada, situated in Quebec," authorizing the peti- 
tioners " to hold Masonic communications at Stanstead on every Tuesday 
next preceding the full moon, and to confer degrees for the benefit of 

The Lodge was constituted and the officers installed by the Hon. 
Wm. Howe, D.D.G.M., from Vermont, on the 18th day of January, 1814, 

by the name of Golden Rule Lodge No. 19; Phineas Hubbard, Esq.. 
1814 W.M.; Ezra Ball, Esq., S.W.; Capt. Timothy Rose, J.W.; Oliver 

Nash, Sec'y; James Wesson, Treas'r; these, along with Nathan 
Wesson, Ichabod Smith, Alexander Kilbourn, James Bangs, Theodore S. 
Bangs, Moses Montague, Silas Taylor, Elias Lee, David Curtis, Levi 
Aldrich, Dr. Isaac Witcher, Daniel Holmes, Frederick Holmes, Israel 


Wood, Daniel Mansur, James Peasley, and Heman Bangs, were the 
petitioners for the Charter, and constituted the first original officers and 
members of Golden Rule Lodge, No. 19. 

Worshipful Brother Hubbard was eminently endowed with all the pre- 
requisites for filling the Oriental Chair with graceful ease and manly dig- 
nity. He seemed richly to participate in all the social, moral, and Masonic 
virtues; presiding with a kind of parental and masterly skill over the 
concerns of the Lodge, vigilantly guarding its interests, enforcing its 
precepts, and performing its rituals in that impressive manner that often 
reminds us of the wisdom and skill of our First Most Excellent Grand 

This was a time of war, the whole country in commotion, every 
prospect uncertain, business fluctuating, and no permanency to any 
pursuit whatever. Many, on both sides of the Line, were engaged in 
smuggling, this being a lucrative, but at the same time most hazardous, 
employment. Shots were occasionally exchanged; some slightly, others 
severely, wounded; and one man from Stanstead instantly killed while 
driving a drove of cattle into Canada. Another had his knee shattered by a 
musket-ball so that he lost his leg; but this, instead of discouraging or 
intimidating, served rather to enrage, and render the parties more desperate 
and determined, and, being highly incensed at the customs officers, who so 
often shared in the rich spoils of the frontier war, being fraught with 
vengeance, gathered together and equipped for battle. 

Golden Rule Lodge being apprised of their intentions, twice interposed, 
and twice, through Masonic influence, were armed mobs prevailed upon 
to disperse and abandon the sanguinary enterprise. Thus Golden Rule 
and Lively Stone Lodges, by a reciprocal interchange of kind and friendly 
acts, preserved a good degree of order and harmony among the frontier 
inhabitants of Derby and Stanstead. 

In times of war, the standard of morality is always materially lowered, 
and many acts pass unheeded which, in brighter days, would not be 
tolerated. Many were induced to solicit the privileges of Masonry, more 
from mercenary motives than from any desire of moral or mental improve- 
ment, or a wish of becoming more useful to their fellow creatures; and, 
notwithstanding character was always scrutinized, and some rejected, yet 
the flattering recommendations of some particular friends too often over- 
came well-founded objections; consequently many gained admission who 
had never learned the first requisite preparation. This good-natured kind 
of yielding, or rather compromise of principle, may be regarded as the 
first fundamental error in the management of the Lodge. This year, St. John 
the Baptist's Day was celebrated. Worshipful Brother Hubbard delivering 
the oration, and the Rev. Mr. Leland preached the sermon. 

In 1815 Ezra Ball, Esq., presided as Worshipful Master, Captain 
1815 Timothy Rose, S.W.; Selah Pomroy, J.W.; Elias Lee, S.D.; Theo- 
dore S. Bangs, J.D.; James Wesson, Treasurer; Nathan Wesson, 
Secretary; and Levi Aldrich, Tiler. 


Worshipful Brother Ball had passed the meridian of life, was a man of 
sterling integrity, good abilities, moderate speech, and slow decision; 
candid and deliberate in his proceedings; a man of reading, well informed 
on general subjects, and, compared with Masters generally of that day, 
was considered well-skilled in the knowledge of the Craft. The affairs 
of the Lodge were conducted with regularity, yet its financial interests 
did not receive that portion of time and attention which their importance 
demanded; neither were the principles and tenets of the Order so forcibly 
inculcated as under the administration of his distinguisher predecessor. 

This year, the Lodge invested a considerable sum in the building of a 
hall in the tavern of Bro. Adam Noyes. On the 24th of February Brother 
Captain Israel Wood was buried with Masonic honors, it being the first 
funeral held by the Lodge. 

The 24th of June this year was celebrated by the two Lodges; there 
were present one hundred and ten Master Masons, with their wives and 
sweethearts; the company dined at Judge Strong's. 

For the year 1816 Selah Pomroy, Esq., was elected W. Master; 

1816 Oliver Nash, S.W.; Elias Lee, J.W.; Theodore S. Bangs, S.D.; 
Elisha Gustin, J.D.; Nathan Wesson, Secretary; James Wesson, 

Treasurer; Levi Aldrich, Tiler. 

W. Brother Pomroy reluctantly consented to assume the Oriental 
Chair; he possessed a commanding aspect and a dignified appearance. 
He exercised considerable influence at that time, both in and outside of 
the Lodge, and was of good moral deportment and unimpeachable veracity. 
The Lodge considered itself fortunate in having him, at this time, for 
their Master, as he was extensively known as a sober, temperate man, 
prompt in decision, and firm to his purpose. This year, like the former 
one, passed without anything occurring to disturb the harmoney of the 
Lodge. St. John's Day was, as usual, celebrated, Bro. the Hon. Wm. 
Howe delivering the oration, and the Brethren dining at the tavern of 
Bro. Adam Noyes. 

The year 1817 opened with Oliver Nash, as W. Master; Dr. Isaac 

1817 Whitcher, S.W.; Elias Lee, J.W.; Theodore S. Bangs, S.D.; 
Israel Wood, J.D.; Nathaniel Wesson, Sec'y; James Wesson, 

Treasurer; Levi Aldrich, Tiler. 

The W. Master, like his predecessor, was a sober man, of regular 
habits and correct principles; he was ever at his station, ready to do what 
seemed proper to be done. 

During this year a Brother was under trial for unmasonic conduct. 
The contest was long and tedious, in which much feeling and excitement 
was manifested, and which well-nigh prostrated in the breasts of the 
parties all the high and elevated principles of the Order, and greatly 
disturbed the unanimity and fraternal esteem among the members 


On the 29th of December, Old Lively Stone Lodge No. 22, was moved 
to Derby Center. 

The year rolled round, and 1818 came in with Elias Lee, W.M.; 

1818 Theodore S. Bangs, S.W. ; Elisha Gustin, J.W.; the Secretary and 
Treasurer unchanged. 

Worshipful Bro. Lee was a zealous Mason, always attentive to the 
interests and reputation of the Lodge, and punctual in his attendance at 
the communications. 

In the winter of 1817-'18, Bros. Lee, Pomroy, Bangs, and a few 
others, being together in Montreal, had the Mark Master's Degree con- 
ferred on them. On the 6th day of May, 1818, they organized a Mark 
Lodge in connection with Golden Rule Lodge, the Charter for which was 
indefinite and "unlimited," authorizing the members "to hold meetings 
and confer degrees for the benefit of Masonry." The principal officers 
of the Mark Lodge were Nehemiah Wright, Esq., of Derby, R.W. 
Master; Phineas Hubbard, Esq., W. Senior Warden; and Ezra Ball, Esq., 
W. Junior Warden. This soon became a flourishing body, comprising 
most of the distinguished members of Golden Rule and Lively Stone 

This year, the annual reports and regular settlements with the 
Secretary and Treasurer, were neglected, and the records failed to show 
the exact proceedings, or the true state of the funds. This was the 
second great fundamental error in the management of the Lodge. 

The year 1819 opened with Captain Timothy Rose in the East; 

1819 Theodore S. Bangs, S.W.; Elisha Gustin, J.W.; N. Wesson, 
Secretary; James Wesson, Treasurer; Dr. Willard Mack, S.D.; 

Israel Wood, J.D.; and Levi Aldrich, Tiler. 

W. Bro. Rose was a man of wealth and influence, of good presence, 
large and corpulent, mild expression, and rather taciturn; of liberal 
sentiments, and exemplary morals. He had declined the Chair when it 
came his turn in 1816, on acount of his want of fluency; and the necessary 
knowledge of the mystic lore; at this time, however, he felt desirous of the 
promotion, and, as he had ever been a zealous friend and promoter of the 
Orjier, it was thought due to his rank and station to elevate him to the 
Chair, where he presided with honor to himself and satisfaction to the 
brethren. He urged punctual attendance, and enforced it by a vote that 
each delinquent should, at the next subsequent meeting, forward a reason- 
able excuse, or be immersed in a penalty of twenty-five cents. 

In 1820 Dr. Silas C. McClary was elected W. Master; Elisha 

1820 Gustin, S.W.; Stephen Hazeltine, J.W.; Willard Mack, Secretary; 
James Wesson, Treasurer; and Levi Aldrich, Tiler. 

W. Bro. McClary was a young physician hailing from New Haven, 
Connecticut. His friendly familiarity and suavitive manner, united with his 
attachment to Free Masonry, procured him confidence and esteem. He 


affiliated with the Lodge soon after locating in the place, in 1817, and had 
acquired a better knowledge of the lectures, and a more competent skill 
in the rituals, than any other one in the Lodge, and most of the members 
entertained high hopes and fond anticipations of some distinguished 
beneficial results of his filling the Oriental Chair, but these sanguine 
expectations were doomed to disappointment; either from pecuniary em- 
barrassment, or influenced by more brilliant prospects in distant lands, 
his sojourning here was very brief. The sun had scarcely attained the 
meridian of his annual circle, e'er the Master was missing, the Craft in 
confusion, no designs on the Tressle Board, and no one to call from labor 
to refreshment; like the luminous blaze of a transient meteor, he had 
disappeared, leaving no trace behind. 

The officers for the year 1821, were Elisha Gustin, W.M.; Stephen 
1821 Hazeltine, S.W.; Nathan Wesson, J.W.; Willard Mack, Secretary; 
James Wesson, Treasurer; Levi Aldrich, Tiler. 

In the month of April, the Lodge was fortunately visited by the 
celebrated Lecturing Master, John Barney, who came for the purpose 
of organizing Royal Arch Chapters in Canada, having ascertained that 
the Charters issued by the Grand Lodge at Quebec were unlimited, au- 
thorizing them "to make Masons, and confer the degrees for the benefit 
of Masonry." Availing themselves of this peculiar, long-sought privilege, 
our new Worshipful Master and Secretary entered at once upon the 
study of the work and lectures, sparing neither time nor pains, till they 
had acquired a thorough knowledge of the first three degrees in Masonry. 

A special Lodge was called, at which Bro. Barney exhibited speci- 
mens of his skill in the work. The members, highly elated with this 
exemplification of Masonic science, and desiring still further light, voted 
in favor of organizing a Royal Arch Chapter, and employed Bro. Barney 
to remain and continue his labors and instructions, till a number were 
exalted, and sufficiently instructed to manage the business of the Chapter. 

Bro. Barney accordingly commenced a course of lectures for which 
he was paid $3 per day, the lecture to be free to all Masons who would 
attend, commencing as early, and continuing as late, as the brethren would 
attend. On the 22d of April, Barney, in conjunction with Companions 
Foss, from Broome, L.C., Fletcher, from Lyndon, Vt., Stone, from Troy, 
Vt., Hon. Wm. Howe, of Derby, Vt., Dr. F. W. Adams, Dr. M. F. Colby, 

from Stanstead, L.C., Wm. Verbeck, and Ward, from Derby, Vt., 

convened and opened a Royal Arch Chapter in Amsden's Hall, (since 
converted into a Roman Catholic Church.) At this meeting Oliver Nash, 
Elisha Gustin, and Isaac Stone were exalted. While the Companions were 
partaking of the much-needed refreshments after their labors were closed, 
the landlady, having gained admission to the hall, and dressing herself in 
such paraphernalia as suited her fancy, presented herself for recognition as 
a dignitary of the Chapter. This event subsequently led to a well-organized 
but unsuccessful attempt of the ladies to gain possession of the mysteries 
of the Order, and which resulted in more appropriate rooms being provided 
for the use of the fraternity. 


The Chapter was called St. John's Chapter, and the Officers were 
Hon. Wm. Howe, M.E.H.P.; Ichabod Smith, E.K.; Wilder Pierce, E.S.; 
VVm. Verbeck, C.H.; Dr. F. W. Adams, P.S.; Dr. M. F. Colby, R.A.C.; 
Stephen Hazeltine, G.M. 1st V.; Marcus Child, G.M. 2d V.; Wm. Arms, 
G.M. 3d V. 

On the 8th of May, Companions Fish and Gustin were admitted to 
the Council of Royal and Select Masters. 

Judge Howe, the first High Priest of the Chapter, was a man of 
irreproachable character; possessing talent and influence; an accom- 
plished gentleman, whose graceful ease and native modesty endeared him 
to all; under his administration the Chapter was prosperous, and soon 
became popular with the fraternity. 

The Blue Lodge, at this time, was doing but a small amount of 
work; the Mystic Temple exhibited marks of decay; some projecting ex- 
crescences or rough corners needed to be broken off by the moral 
application of the Gavel. Some prominent members had contracted the 
habit of intemperance, and, the reformatory measures adopted by the 
Lodge proving of no effect, they were expelled. The people, with few 
exceptions, indulged freely in spirituous liquors. Intemperance prevailed 
everywhere; each neighborhood had its distillery. Potato whisky was the 
staple commodity, and during the winter numerous teams were constantly 
employed conveying it to Montreal market. It flowed through all depart- 
ments of society; in all assemblies, whether for business or conviviality, 
liquor was indispensable. The social visit, or friendly call, without a dis- 
play of glasses and decanters, would have been considered uncourteous 
indeed; and even the solemn funeral obsequies were deemed incomplete, 
until the decanter yielded its genial influence among the mourning relatives 
and disconsolate survivors. 

In such a diseased state of society, will it be thought wonderful, or 
even incredible, that this bane of social order, and of all that is noble in 
man, should, under the specious name of refreshment, invade the sanctuary 
of the Lodge? 

It was argued that it was then a conceded point by all the wise 
and learned, from the physician to the divine, that wine was one of the 
creature comforts, bestowed by the beneficent Author on his offspring 
man, which, temperately used, contributed much to health, to social 
enjoyment, and to physical force; that man, especially in his decline, 
needed some kind of stimulant; that since alcoholic beverages haa become 
fashionable and general among the refined and polite of every nation, 
it was far more commendable for Masons to drink in retirement and 
among gentlemen, than to mingle with the heterogeneous mass of bar- 
room tipplers. 

This kind of spirit-drinking refreshment may be considered the third 
fundamental error in the management of the Lodge. 


More to be regretted, and still more painful to record, was the case 

of Past Master , who, admired, esteemed, and venerated by all, 

unfortunately and unawares, stumbled over the first of the four Cardinal 
Virtues. Conforming to the customs of the times, his good nature 
yielding to the repeated solicitations and importunities of friendly associ- 
ates, he had sipped the magic draught, been cheered by the exhilarating 
influence of the sparkling wine-cup, till he not only loved, but actually 
deemed it an essential. 

The Brethren, alarmed for his honor and safety, held repeated consul- 
tations to determine and adopt measures for effecting his reformation; but 
such was the awe and veneration in which he was held, that there was but 
few who possessed sufficient fortitude to even whisper good counsel in his 
ear, or warn him of the approaching danger, and those few proved un- 
successful. It is related that some warm and zealous friends, unwilling 
to relax in their efforts while there remained any probability of benefitting 

him, solicited the friendly aid and gentle admonition of Past Master , 

of Lively Stone Lodge, thinking probably that the intimate friendship 
subsisting between the two Past Masters would secure at least a favorable 
hearing, and might, possibly, be productive of a salutary reformation; but 
alas for the sequel ! He came and was cordially received; being seated in 
a room by themselves, the subject was introduced; the facts were all 
admitted, and regrets expressed that they were facts; but the subject being 
rather humiliating, and becoming unpleasant, both feeling somewhat 
embarrassed, the decanter and glasses were introduced just to cheer the 
desponding spirits and show that the admonition had been favorably 
received and no umbrage taken. Each drained his glass, and then dis- 
coursed more freely on the great cardinal virtue, Temperance, and, when 
conversation flagged, they drank again, and changed the subject; the 
facetious story and approving laugh were duly reciprocated — 

"Time flew merrily, 
Glasses passed cheerily." 

until supper was announced, when oh! the treacherous whiskey, they could 
neither of them rise and walk to the table. 

In truth, our Worshipful Brother had fallen beyond reclaiming; his 
self-respect and manly dignity forsook him; he seemed degraded in his 
own estimation, and that amiable, distinguished, and exemplary man was 
now regarded as a strong and lofty pillar broken down, and its towering 
capital, with all its ornamental display, laid prostrate in the dust; yet he 
lived to witness the dawning of the new era, when alcoholic beverages 
were found to be no longer essential; he saw custom changed, and the 
time arrive when, to refuse the proffered glass, was no disparagement to 
the character of a gentleman. Under favorable influences he changed his 
views and habits, and closed his days a sober, virtuous, and christian gentleman. 

In 1822 the officers of last year were re-elected in both Lodge and 

Chapter. There was little or nothing doing in either body; the meetings 

were uninteresting, and the attendance of the members small. An 


1822 apathy pervaded the Craftsmen, and ? general gloom seemed to 
hang over the institution like a pall, which seemed to speak in 

unmistakable terms that darker days were coming. 

For the year 1823, Bro. Stephen Hazeltine was elected W.M.; James 

1823 C. Peasley, S.W.; , J.W.; and Marcus Child, Secre- 

Worshipful Bro. Hazeltine was in the meridian of life; he was emi- 
nently distinguished for uniformity of character, for correct principles 
and moral rectitude. His candid, deliberate, and impartial investigations 
gave him a place in committees on most of the important and difficult 
discussions, and he early acquired the reputation of belonging to the 
"Temperate Lodge." He possessed a peculiar skill in dispensing justice in 
that pathetic, friendly manner, which rendered it acceptable to both 
parties, without offending either. He was a man of thought and reflection, 
modest and unassuming, and, like the bee, industrious and frugal, subsisting 
upon the fruits of his own labor; attentive to his own business, living in 
peace with all men, and seeking advantage of no one. He was temperate 
in all things, even to language, seldom using a superfluous word or 
overstrained expression. 

The members in both Lodge and Chapter were remiss in their 
attendance; the treasury was said to be exhausted, and good old Golden 
Rule reduced to embarrassed circumstances. The members residing at 
Georgeville proposed, if the Lodge would move to that village, they would 
give the use of a hall gratuitously, so long as they chose to occupy it. 
This change would enable the Lodge to claim the amount invested in the 
present hall, and probably the change of location might be productive 
of some further additions to the membership, and probably the very exis- 
tence of old No. 19 thereby be perpetuated. After discussing and duly 
considering the proposition, it was accepted with apparent satisfaction. 

During this year, a kind of rivalry, which had for some time existed 
between the cities of Quebec and Montreal, resulted in severing the 
Masonic connection heretofore existing, and the organization of a new 
Provincial Grand Lodge for the District of Montreal and William Henry, 
by which Golden Rule was required to be represented in that body on 
the 27th of December, returning their Warrant and Jewels. Brother 
James C. Peasley was elected a committee to go to Montreal with the 
Charter and Jewels, with instructions not to request a renewal of the 
Warrant, "as the burthen of the claims of the Grand Lodge at Montreal 
were too grievous to be complied with; we being unable to meet all such 
demands, are consequently compelled to relinquish our Warrant and deny 
ourselves the pleasure of meeting in Brotherly Love and Friendship on 
our regular communications." 

Brother Peasley performed this mission with a promptitude which 
characterizes a sanguine Mason, and which no one of a less daring or 
intrepid spirit would ever have accomplished. 


On his way to Montreal he encountered a severe snow-storm, which, 
in the French settlements, completely blocked the roads. Here he was 
obliged to leave his sleigh and tread through drifted snowbanks for miles 
in succession, and with his only arm leading his horse and carrying his 
valise; yet, firm to his purpose, he persevered, and at length, cold and 
weary, reached the frigid banks of the St. Lawrence, there to learn there 
was no crossing. Nothing daunted at this unexpected interruption of his 
designs, he pushed forward for Caughnowaga, where he crossed the river 
in a small boat amid fields of ice, even at the hazard of life, and arrived 
in Montreal in season to attend the Grand Lodge. 

Brother Peasley laid before the Grand Lodge the Warrant, Jewels, 
and his letter of instructions; upon which the Grand Master informed him 
that it was not the intention of the Grand Lodge to charge any fees for 
the new Warrant, but simply an exchange of the old Warrant for the 
new one, agreeably to instructions received from the Grand Lodge of 
England, but that the new Warrant would confine the Lodge to the 
working of the first three degrees only, as he had no power to grant 
Warrants for Chapters; but he had no objection to their continuing to 
work the Chapter degrees as usual on the Master's Charter, but he would 
not recommend their so doing. He said the Jewels and funds belonged to 
the Lodge, on which the Grand Lodge had no claim. 

Brother Peasley accordingly took the new Warrant, subject to the 
approval of the Lodge, and, on his return, a meeting was called through 
the columns of the "British Colonist" for 13th January, 1824. At this 
meeting the action of Bro. Peasley was approved, and a vote passed to 
renew the Charter; and the vote to move the Lodge to Georgeville was 

The Chapter still continued to meet in the old hall at Stanstead, and 
the following were the officers for 1823.: 

Dr. F. W. Adams, H.P.; Wilder Pierce, K.; Ichabod Smith, S.; 
Dea.; Wm. Verbeck, C.H.; F. Haskell, P.S.; M. Child, R.A.C.; Wm. Arms, 
G.M. 1st V.; M. T. Cushing, G.M. 2d V.; S. Hazeltine, G.M. 3d V.; 
Heman Bangs, Treasurer; Wm. Howe, Secretary; and N. Wesson, Tiler. 

The first authentic record now in the possession of the Lodge is 
1824 dated at Georgeville, L.C., March 9th, 1824, where we find Golden 
Rule Lodge, No. 6, P.R., and No. 785, E.R.. working under the 
new Warrant, with the following officers: 

Elisha Gustin, W.M.; James C. Peasley, S.W.; Chauncy Bullock, 
J.W.; Joel H. Ives, Joshua Copp, Adam Noyes, and Eliphalet Bodwell, Jr. 

The Brethren, like bees in a new hive, immediately set to work with 
active designs for the improvement of the Lodge, and increasing its use- 
fulness. They revised the By-Laws, appointed a committee of seven to 
attend to the wants of the poor and unfortunate; and, at the June com- 
munication, a committee of three was appointed to examine the funds, 


settle with the former Secretary and Treasurer, obtain the money invested 
in the old hall, and receive the books and papers from the last Secretary. 

Subsequently the committee met at Stanstead and repaired to the office 
of the last Secretary and asked for the books and papers of the Lodge. 
He refused to give them up, or to furnish any extracts from them, giving, 
as his reason, "that he had been directed to retain them in his own safe 
keeping," and informed them "he had now no further time to devote to 
Masonry, that he had recently had a renovation of mind which absorbed 
all his unoccupied time." He then proceeded to enunciate the different 
societies which he served as secretary, recapitulating the multifarious 
duties devolving on him in his peculiar relations with select committees; 
his farm to oversee; his store to attend; reserved hours for reading, 
devotional exercises, -&c, not forgetting, in his excess of piety, to add 
that he was also agent for fifteen thousand acres of wild land. 

The committee met with no better success on visiting the owner of 
the Masonic Hall; they therefore reported "no success," and were dis- 


A meeting of the Lodge was called at the old hall, in order to effect 
a settlement with the disaffected members, but, after a lengthy and 
excited debate, the owner of the hall carried a vote endorsing the action 
of himself and the secretary. By this action the Lodge lost about $1,500, 
and its record books and archives, and it was the concluding effort on the 
part of the Lodge to gain possession of her lawful property. 

It was now well-understood why the record books had been withheld, 
and for the first time the Lodge was convinced of the existence of an 
antagonism in their own body sufficient to effect its downfall. Some who 
had formerly, professed a warm attachment to Masonry, seemed weary 
of its requirements, and were now already exhibiting marks of "anti-ism," 
while others, in view of its declining popularity, assumed a cold, indifferent 
position. Even the true and genuine craftsmen who steadfastly adhered 
to the institution, now wore a dejected mien, on which was depicted 
evident marks of chagrin and disappointment. 

The Lodge stood like the beautiful Virgin, weeping over a broken 
pillar; no book of records open before her; deprived of her funds; aban- 
doned and forsaken by her friends and members, who, like so many sur- 
rounding icebergs, were chilling and paralyzing the little vitality she still 

Under these unfavorable auspices, our little band of Golden Rule 
adherents continued to meet and pursue their Masonic labors, trusting in 
the arm of the Omnipotent Jehovah for support, mindful of the old 
Masonic maxim, "that time, patience, and perseverance accomplish all 
things;" thinking, perhaps, that by their own united endeavors, accom- 
panied by a Divine blessing, the Lodge might be sustained, and the spirit 
of Masonry become more generally diffused, and be finally transmitted, 


unimpaired, to succeeding generations, when their children's children, 
while participating in the festivities of this social Order, shall rise up 
and call them blessed. 

During this year the Lodge was asked to recommend the petition of 
Bros. Dr. John Weston, W.M.; Chester Hovey, S.W.; Wm. Emery, J.W.; 
Moses Coburn, Treas.; Ebenezer Hovey, Sect.; James Moore, S.D.; and 
John Hovey, J.D., for a new lodge at the village of Charleston, Hatley. 
The petition was recommended, and the Lodge was established by the 
name of "Rural Mark Lodge," with the above officers. 

In 1825, the officers of Golden Rule Lodge were, Elisha Gustin, W.M.; 

1825 J. C. Peasley, S.W.; C. Bullock, J.W.; J, H. Ives, Secretary; J. Copp, 
Treasurer; Sebre Mack, S.D.; E. Wood, J.D. The officers of the 

Chapter, which still continued to meet, were re-elected. 

For 1826, the old officers were re-elected. Peace and harmony 

1826 characterized their deliberations; and, being all of one mind, they 
seemed to vie with each other in laudable efforts to raise the moral 

standard of Masonic practice to its original excellent position. 

The officers for 1827 were, James C. Peasley, W.M.; Sebre Mack, 

1827 S.W.; Franklin Mack, J.W.; C. Bullock, Secretary; J. Copp, Treas- 
urer; C. Gardner, S.D.; Andrew Bodwell, J.D.; and E. Wood, Tiler. 

Worshipful Bro. Peasley was a man of sterling integrity, of quick 
perception and prompt decision. His strong, energetic mind, enabled 
him to vanquish opposition, and rise to distinction, under circumstances 
which would have paralyzed ordinary capacities. Having lost his right 
arm, his exquisite sensations while enduring the keen anguish of ampu- 
tation, threw him into the lock-jaw, in consequence of which they ex- 
tracted his front teeth as the only means of introducing food. As 
Worshipful Master, he endeavored, by a constant exercise of his genius, 
to render the Lodge meetings, interesting and instructive. Every laudable 
exertion was made by the officers and members to make the Lodge useful 
and prosperous, but their limited resources, and the increasing hardness 
of the times, were sensibly felt. 

The year 1828 came in with Elisha Gustin, W.M.; Franklin Mack, 

1828 S..W.; Cephas Gardner, J.W.; Andrew Bodwell, S.D.; O. Peasley. 
J.D.; E. Wood, Tiler; Joshua Copp, Treasurer; and Chauncy 

Bullock, Secretary. 

This was the last election of officers, although it continued more than 
a year subsequent; but, owing to severe weather and impassable roads at 
the time of the annual election, the Lodge did not meet. 

The Lodge proceedings this year exhibited no new marks of pros- 
perity. Public opinion, which generally gives tone and character to all 
associations, seemed passive or quite indifferent, resembling that deep, 
settled calm which precedes a violent storm. The political horizon was 
assuming a threatening aspect, and exhibited that general disaffection 


which seemed to portend some turbulent commotion, and which soon after 
burst over the country in the anti-Masonic whirlwind which swept all 
opposition before it. 

The year 1829 came in; the annual election of officers failing, as 
before stated, the Lodge did not meet until the 3d of March, when 
the Lodge was opened in due form, and the proceedings of the last 
1829 meeting confirmed. Past Master Peasley addressed the Lodge on 
the expediency of returning the Charter; others followed and at the 
end of a lengthy and sorrowful debate, it was voted to return the Charter 
until more congenial times. A committee of one was appointed to attend 
the Grand Lodge, return the Warrant, pay up the dues, and explain the 
causes producing this alternative. The remaining funds, after all debts 
were paid, were divided between the libraries of Georgeville and Marlow, 
and Bros. Gustin, Peasley, and Copp were to take charge of the Jewels and 
furniture of the Lodge. These arrangements being amicably adjusted, 
the valedictory was pronounced, the Lodge closed, and the Brethren dis- 
persed for eighteen long years. 

We have now narrated the principal and most important occurrences 
which exercised the minds and taxed the wisdom of the officers and 
members of Golden Rule Lodge during a term of fifteen years; em- 
bracing a period in which changes occurred so frequently, and the tran- 
sition from one position to another, often directly the opposite, was so 
sudden, that it rendered it difficult, if not impossible, to give permanency 
or stability to anything of a religious, moral, or even political character. 

The decline of Masonry in this place may, therefore, be attributed in 
part to the downward tendency and retrograde movement of society in 
general, which was soon after more fully demonstrated by the great and 
memorable anti-Masonic excitement which, in the form of a political 
engine, succeeded in closing nearly all the Lodges in the Northern States; 
at once hurling from office every Mason who would not openly renounce 
the Order; excommunicating them from the church, silencing ministers 
of the gospel, and, with fanatic zeal, pursuing the Craft even into their 
private and domestic circles with unrelenting persecution, "ruining their 
fortunes and blasting their fame." 

In the month of November, 1846, a number of gentlemen who had 
been detained by an unusually severe snow storm, while attending the 
winter show of the Agricultural Society of Stanstead County, met by 
accident at the tavern kept by Mr. West, at Derby Line, Vermont. 

The weather being stormy, the company were forced to stop all night, 
and, to counteract the inclemency of the night, the hearth was piled with 
well-dried fagots. The "social pipe and flowing bowl" were introduced; 
story, song, and jest followed each other in quick succession, and 

"All went merry as a marriage bell." 


During the latter part of the evening, the subject of Free Masonry 
was introduced — 

"And those who knew each other not, 

Their hands together steal, 

Each thinks of some long hallowed spot, 

And all like brothers feel." 

Each in turn deplored the extinction of the old Golden Rule Lodge at 
Stanstead, and the consequent dispersion of the Craft. Many of the 
members of the old Lodge had withdrawn from the institution during the 
anti-Masonic troubles, because the ban of proscription hung over the 
Order; others had left the country, and more had departed to that far 
distant country, whence no traveler returns; was it possible, then, to 
revive the old Lodge, or were there Masons enough in the country to 
establish a new one, were the questions asked by each. 

It was, after much discussion, determined that an attempt should be 
made to revive the Lodge, and a committee was appointed to call upon 
Brother Elisha Gustin, and such other Masons as could be found, and ask 
their co-operation in the undertaking. 

On the first of December, Brothers Elisha Gustin, Joseph Wooley, 
Joseph Brown, and Samuel Reed, visited Provost Lodge, at Dunham, 
C.E., to ascertain what steps it was necessary to take to revive the Lodge. 

After several meetings had been held, a petition was forwarded to 
the Provincial Grand Lodge of Montreal and William Henry, signed by 
twenty-two brethren, and on the 13th of April, 1847, the petitioners were 
called together, and the Officers installed by Brother Dr. Joseph Breadon, 
acting as proxy for the Hon. Peter McGill, the Provincial Grand Master. 

Thus was old Golden Rule Lodge, now No. 517, E.R., and No. 8 P.R., 
once more in active operation, under the old warrant granted in 1824 by 
His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, which was supposed to have been 
destroyed at the burning of the Grand Lodge room in Montreal, a few 
years before. The Jewels and furniture having remained at Georgeville, 
were now restored to the Lodge; the Jewel of the W. Master had been 
taken to Burlington, Iowa, by Past Master Peasley, when he removed 
to that State, and had been used by him in a Lodge there; but on Brother 
Peasley's death, in 1842, his son returned it, and it was found with the 
set when the Lodge resumed work. 

The Officers of the Lodge for 1847 were — Elisha Gustin, W.M.; 

1847 Samuel Reed, S.W.; Stephen Hazeltine, J.W.; Nathaniel Bachelder, 

Treasurer; Franklin Mack, Secretary; Wm. Verbeck, S.D.; Asa 

Gaylord, J.D.; Wm. R. Andros and Joseph Brown, Stewards; Joseph 

Wooley, I.G.; and Stephen Reed, Tiler. 

Worshipful Brother Gustin was one of the few remaining members 
of the old Lodge, having been initiated in the very first year of its 
existence, and was the last Master who presided over the Lodge at the 
time the Charter was surrendered in 1829. He was one of the early 
settlers of the town, and one of the eldest magistrates in the townships. 

As Worshipful Master, he was unwearied in his efforts to promul- 
gate the principles of the Order, illustrating by his conduct, while out of 
the Lodge, the lessons of morality and brotherly love he taught in it. 

Not satisfied in watching with unremitted attention over the welfare 
of the Lodge, he anxiously endeavored to promote the felicity of its 
members. Blessed with a complacency of disposition and equanimity of 
temper which peculiarly endeared him to his friends, he commanded respect 
even from his enemies. His doors were at all times open to the needy 


and destitute, none going away empty-handed, and the members of the 
Mystic Tie were ever greeted with that strong grip of friendship which 
gave token that the heart prompted the words of welcome which fell 
from his lips. The youngest novitiate, as well as the more skilled crafts- 
men, found him ready at all times to impart that Masonic information 
which his extensive reading, deep research, and retentive memory, had 
enabled him to acquire through a long life of study. Such was the esteem 
in which he was held by his brethren, that they elected him to fill the 
Oriental Chair for fourteen years, and during eight years he presided over the 

At this first Communication, there were two petitions received, giving 
assurance of future prosperity; and the brethren departed to their homes 
rejoicing that the happy period in the history of the Lodge was now 
reached, when, in the language of the poet, its members could reverently 
unite and say— 

"Now let us thank the Eternal Power; convinced 
That Heaven but tries our virtue by affliction, 
That oft the cloud which wraps the present hour, 
Serves but to brighten all our future days." 

1855 — This year the Lodge assisted in the formation of the M.W. 
Grand Lodge of Canada, and became No. 8. 

1856 — September 22d. — The Lodge was honored with a visit from 
Col. W. M. Wilson, M.W. Grand Master, and A. Bernard, Rt. W. Dept'y 
Gr. Master, the first official visit ever received by the Lodge of an officer 
or member of the Grand Lodge under which it was held. 

1858 — June 24th. — The first meeting of the Lodge held on the top of 
"Owl's Head" Mountain, and Alexander Murray initiated "above the 
clouds," to commemorate which, an inscription is cut in the rocks "in 
the Lodge room" on the mountain. 

June 30th. — The Lodge laid the corner-stone of Christ Church, the 
Rev. Joseph Scott, Deputy Grand Master, officiating. 

September . — Old St. John's Royal Arch Chapter revived. The name 
afterwards changed to Golden Rule Chapter, No. 9. The number of the 
Lodge was changed in July of this year to No. 12. 

1860 — June 26th. — The Lodge laid corner-stone of the Masonic Hall, 
Right W. Brother H. L. Robinson, D.D.G.M., officiating. 

1864 — February — .The Lodge celebrated its semi-centennial anni- 
versary; also the fiftieth anniversary of the membership of its W. Master, 
Elisha Gustin. 

1867. — Sussex Encampment and Priory constituted. 

1869. — Golden Rule Chapter, No. 9, moved to Sherbrooke. In October 
of this year, the Lodge assisted in the formation of the M.W. Grand 
Lodge of Quebec, and became No. 4. Thus has the Lodge been, at dif- 
ferent dates of its history, No. 19, C.R.; Nos. 785 and 517, E.R.; Nos. 6 
and 8, P.R.; Nos. 8, and 12, C.R.; and No. 4, Q.R. 



In the course of revising its Constitution, in 1969, the Grand Lodge 
of Quebec faced an anomaly whereby the constituency of Golden Rule 
Lodge, No. 5, Stanstead, extended across the International boundary 
line into neighboring Vermont. This peculiar condition dated from 1803, 
when Livery Stone Lodge, No. 22, G.L.Vt., in Derby Line, Vermont, com- 
prised members from adjacent Stanstead, without regard to the boundary 
When the War of 1812 intruded its ugly head, the harmonious practice 
was interrupted temporarily, and Golden Rule Lodge, No. 19 was char- 
tered December 27, 1813, by the Provincial Grand Lodge of Lower 
Canada. From that time onward — the War over — , with mutual tole- 
rance the existence of a boundary line had no bearing on the acceptance 
of applications for initiation in Golden Rule Lodge, and the membership 
included Vermont residents. 

Recognizing the situation in 1969, the Grand Masters of Quebec and 
Vermont (M.W. Bro. G. Egerton Brown and M.W. Bro. Alex M. Hunts- 
man) decided to legalize the practice so long extant, and they set up 
committees to devise a formula. The outcome was a Special Communi- 
cation of the Grand Lodge of Quebec, held in historic Haskel Opera 
House (located on the boundary line), Stanstead, on Alay 8, 1971. A 
delegation from the Grand Lodge of Vermont was received, and M.W. 
Bro. Frank M. Brownell, P.G.M. (Vermont) presented to the Grand 
Master a Dispensation reading as follows: 

"WHEREAS, at the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of 
Vermont on June 10, 1970, the Grand Master, in his address, recom- 
mended to Grand Lodge that a Committee be appointed to investigate 
the circumstances and conditions relative to the action taken by he 
Grand Lodge of Quebec at the Annual Communication in 1970 con- 
cerning extra territorial jurisdiction over petitioners resident in 
Vermont near Golden Rule Lodge No. 5 in Stanstead, Quebec. 

"AND WHEREAS, pursuant to that recommendation, the incoming 
Grand Master appointed the Committee on Jurisprudence and M.W. 
Bro. Fred C. Laite to review and consider the problem. 

"The historical background of this situation affords a glorious and 
unique example of the universality of Freemasonry in action between 
two adjoining sovereign grand jurisdictions without regard for 
artificial geographical boundary lines. 

"From the introduction of Freemasonry in 1803 in the general area 
of Rock Island, Stanstead, and Derby Line, when Lively Stone 
Lodge No. 22 was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Vermont to hold 
their communications astride the international boundary, uniting the 
State of Vermont and the Province of Quebec, peace, harmony and 
concord having reigned. 

"During the past one hundred and sixty-seven years there has been 
no problem of jurisdiction for Lively Stone Lodge No. 22 and its 
successor, Golden Rule Lodge No. 5, as reception of petitioners 
resident in the State of Vermont within a radius equidistant to the 
nearest Lodge in Vermont has had the sanction of the Grand Lodge 
of Vermont and its constituent Lodges. This happy condition was a 
leavening influence during the unsettling days of 1812-1815. Also the 
cement of brotherly love that existed along the border for many years 
was a contributing factor in the early recognition of the Grand Lodge 


of Quebec, by the Grand Lodge of Vermont, as a sovereign entity. 

"After deep study and due consideration our Special Committee 

presented the following proposal: 

We recommend that the Grand Master cause a waiver of juris- 
diction to be issued through the Grand Secretary's Office to 
permit Golden Rule Lodge No. 5 of Stanstead, Quebec to re- 
ceive petitions from residents of Vermont who live within an 
area equidistant from Golden Rule Lodge No. 5 and the nearest 
Vermont Lodge, provided always that this procedure has the 

approval and approbation of the Grand Lodge of Quebec; and 
that such waiver be effective until rescinded by action of the 
Grand Lodge of Vermont and/or the Grand Lodge of Quebec. 
Fraternally submitted, Frank M. Brownell; Floyd M. Lawton; 
Robert W. Eastman; Fred C. Laite — Committee. 

"NOW KNOW YE, that having taken the matter into consideration, 
WE DO, by These Presents and by Virtue of the Power in us 
Vested, hereby concur in the recommendation of our esteemed com- 
mittee and do hereby grant a waiver of jurisdiction to permit Golden 
Rule Lodge Number 5, of Stanstead, Quebec, on the roll of the 
Grand Lodge of Quebec, to receive petitions from residents of Ver- 
mont who live within an area equidistant from Golden Rule Lodge 
No. 5 and the nearest Vermont Lodge; provided always that this 
action has the approval and approbation of the Grand Lodge of 
Quebec; and that such waiver be effective until rescinded by action 
of the Grand Lodge of Vermont, the Grand Lodge of Quebec, or by 
both such Grand Lodges, and for so doing, this our DISPENSATION 
shall be full and sufficient authority.'* 

M. W. Bro. J. McL. Marshall (Quebec) read the Dispensation issued 
by the Grand Master, which reads as follows: 

"WHEREAS, the Grand Lodge of Vermont has graciously seen fit 
to issue a Waiver of Jurisdiction for petitions of residents of an 
area in the State of Vermont closely adjoining the location of 
Golden Rule Lodge number 5 on the roll of this Grand Lodge and this 
proposal has received the careful scrutiny of a Special Committee of 
the Grand Lodge of Quebec, consisting of M.W. Bro. J. McL. Mar- 
shall; R.W. Bro. G. M. Barrie; V.W. Bro. G. D. McKay; and V.W. 
Bro. O. H. Barrett. This Committee has recommended that the 
Grand Lodge of Quebec take complementary action thus providing 
Golden Rule Lodge full authority to receive petitions from residents 
in the prescribed area of the State of Vermont. 

"NOW THEREFORE KNOW YE, that having taken the matter 
into our consideration, WE DO, by These Presents, and by Virtue of 
the Power in us Vested hereby grant permission to Golden Rule 
Lodge No. 5 to receive petitions from residents in the State of 
Vermont, who live within an area equidistant from Golden Rule 
Lodge and the nearest Vermont Lodge, provided always that this 
practice continues to have the approval of the Grand Lodge of 
Vermont and that this permission will remain in effect until rescinded 
by the Grand Lodge of Vermont or the Grand Lodge of Quebec, or 
by both such Grand Lodges, and for so doing this our DISPENSA- 
TION— shall be full and sufficient authority." 

A copy of each Dispensation was given to the Worshipful Master 
of Golden Rule Lodge, and, after Grand Lodge had been closed in Ample 
Form, a Vesper Service was conducted by R.W. Bro. Rev. A. B. Lovelace, 
in the same location. 



No. 104 








Ionic Lodge No. 25 C.R.C. 

Read at the 51st Meeting of the Association held in 
Kingston, Ontario, May 10, 1972. 

»j»M ■ 

■ ■■— >■■—■■- 



Freemasonry at Kingston, Upper Canada: 


"Long before the French or English left the impress of their feet on 
our shores, the Indians called the place Cadaracacqui, the name applying 
to the district generally, including land, lake and river. Henry R. School- 
craft (1792-1864), an eminent American ethnographer and student of 
Indian Dialects, states that 'tarak' or 'darak' as written by the French 
in the Mohawk compound of Cadaraqui, and also incorporated into the 
word Ontario, denotes 'Rocks standing in the water' — the name being 
descriptive of the rocky nature of the shore line so prominent in the 
locality. It is interesting, therefore, to consider that this idea of 'rocks' 
has been perpetuated in our city's sobriquet — 'The Limestone City' — 
linking us with the now far distant past." 

So opens the first paragraph of "Kingston, a Century ago", written 
by Edwin E. Horsey and published by the Kingston Historical Society in 

The city of Kingston is indeed uniquely situated. Champlain, Fron- 
tenac, Lascelles, and many other notables of both French and English 
birth have figured prominently in its history. The earliest record of the 
coming of the white man to Kingston was in 1615, when it was visited by 
the French; in 1670 M. de Courcelles ascended the St. Lawrence River to 
Lake Ontario and obtained permission from his Master in France to erect 
a fort on the site. He was recalled, and it was left to his successor, Comte 
de Frontenac, to build it in 1673. D. D. Calvin thus describes it: — 

On July 12 they reached the head of the river and rounding Cedar 
Island saw the site that was to be historic. There was an alternative; 
might not some point on the Bay of Quinte serve better? But no. 
Here the Catarqui fell into the lake, and the St. Lawrence left it 
and here should be the fort. The historians of the old city love to 
linger over the scene, the summer day, the great flotilla, the Count 
(sic), (an artist in the use of pomp) and the gathering of Indians, 
and — while 'preliminary civilities'were being exchanged — the rapid 
felling of timber and the quick erection of a defensible fort. One 
or two shrewd questions were asked; the Iroquois, indeed the Indians 
generally, seem all along to have had business instincts, and by 
20 July Fort Frontenac was completed, and a few days later leaving 
behind him a good understanding well established and good hopes 
for the future, Frontenac went down the river. 1 

Reference to the attached map 2 will illustrate exactly the strategic 
position which Kingston held. It became known as Fort St. Louis, but 

1. Calvin & Glover. "A Corner of Empire", p. 21. 

2. Edgar. "Ten Years of Upper Canada in Peace and War (1805-15)." 


after a short time the name was changed to Fort Frontenac. Captured 
from the French during the "Seven Years' War" in 1758, it then fell into 
disuse. The location was so central that its settlement was inevitable. The 
first settlers were from disbanded regiments, and the first township was 
formed in 1784. It is not difficult to guess why it was called Kingston — 
with Queenston at the upper end of the Lake and the names borrowed 
from the Royal House here and there on the shore between, notably 
York, once Fort Toronto. Kingston is the hub for those passing from 
Quebec into Ontario and for citizens of the United States crossing the 
border into Canada. In 1826 England projected and built the Rideau 
Canal, which connected King's Town (Kingston) and By Town (Ottawa); 
the waterway was finished in 1832. 

In 1792 the government of Upper Canada was organized at Kingston, 
and here William Jarvis came when, as Secretary of the Province, he did 
his part in putting into motion the executive machinery which had been 
prepared for the newly-formed Province of Upper Canada by Governor 
Simcoe. At this time Kingston contained about fifty small wooden 
houses, and its population probably did not exceed three hundred. Shortly 
after, Simcoe chose Newark (Niagara-on-the-Lake) as his capital, and the 
first Legislature of the Province met in the Masonic Hall there on 
September 17, 1792. 

Kingston was selected as the capital city when in 1841 the Act of 
Union joined Upper and Lower Canadas under the names Canada East 
and Canada West. The honour lasted until 1844, when Montreal was 


The first Lodge to be warranted at Cataraqui (Kingston) was St. 
James' Lodge No. 14 P.G.L.Q. and 518 (M) E.R. on May 12, 1781. It 
was a military Lodge and is said to have held its meetings in the old 
French fort. Among its early members were officers of the King's 
Rangers, with Major James Rogers, Master, Captain John Walden Meyers, 
Senior Warden, and Lieut. William Buell, Junior Warden. No records 
of this Lodge have been found, and it appears to have lapsed in or prior 
to 1787. 3 A Copy of the original petition has been preserved. 4 


William Jarvis had been appointed "Provincial Grand Master of Upper 
Canada, and, with the Provincial Government at Newark, the first Grand 
Lodge meeting was held here, and it was the site of the first Lodges. 
However, when the government moved from Newark to York (Toronto) 
in 1800, Jarvis took up his administrative duties at the latter place and 
with this move began the neglect of the Order and the Lodges. 

3. Milborne. Freemasonry in the Province of Quebec, pp. 31-32. 

4. Robertson. History of Freemasonry in Canada. I, p. 264. 


The period between 1800 and 1817 produced little of note. Kingston 
and Niagara represented the geographic and other extremes of Masonic 
activity for the next twenty years. The bickerings between the Niagara 
brethren and the Jarvis Lodges continued, and the Niagara Lodges 
formed the Schismatic Grand Lodge which flourished through the 1812 
War. The dispute came to a head in 1803, when Brother Jermyn Patrick 
replaced Sylvester Tiffany as Provincial Grand Secretary. A Provincial 
Grand Lodge meeting was called in 1804 at York, but, out of twenty-one 
Lodges summoned, only eight attended. No further meetings were held 
until 1816. 

William Jarvis died in 1817, and shortly afterwards in that same year 
the first of the Grand Masonic Conventions was held in Kingston. 
Circulars were sent to' twenty-six Lodges to attend on 27th August. 
Outcome of the Conference was a letter sent to the United Grand Lodge 
of England. A second Convention was held Feb. 10, 1819, at which eleven 
Lodges were represented. The letter of the first one appears to have been 
unanswered, and a second petition was sent, together with a draft for 
£30, the accounting for this becoming ultimately an obstacle in obtaining 

Again there was no reply from the Mother Grand Lodge, and, at the 
third Convention also held at Kingston on January 1, 1820, a Brother 
J. B. Laughton volunteered to plead the cause of the Canadian Lodges in 
London, England. There was still no word from England, and on 
February 12, 1821 fourteen Lodges met, four of them having been war- 
ranted by the Convention itself. At this Convention Brother James 
Fitzgibbon was nominated for the office of Provincial Grand Master. 
Events were now beginning to happen quickly. Brother Laughton was 
still in England, and some glimmer of understanding of Canadian events 
led to the appointment of Simon McGillivray to investigate and tidy up 
the affairs in Upper Canada. 

McGillivray had been a Grand Warden of the United Grand Lodge, 
and for the purpose of his visit to Canada was vested with a Warrant as 
a Provincial Grand Master, and also as Grand Superintendent of the 
Royal Arch. Immediately on his arrival in July 1922 he set to work 
meeting with the heads of the Craft in Upper Canada. He was very per- 
sonable and soon had a grasp of the events leading to the chaos existing 
from 1800 to 1817. He pointed out that, while the Grand Lodge of 
England did not doubt the fitness of a Brother nominated for the office 
of Provincial Grand Master, the Grand Master could not appoint a 
Brother not registered in the books of Grand Lodge, and for that reason 
he had been given the rank with full authority to act. Brother McGillivray 
also convinced the Niagara brethren that their course of action, not being 
legal, had raised insurmountable obstacles. 

The Niagara brethren now being favourable to the Kingston Con- 
vention, a Provincial Grand Lodge under the authority of the United 


Grand Lodge of England was held at York in September 1822, at which 
fifteen Lodges were represented. Brother James Fitzgibbon was given a 
Patent as Deputy Provincial Grand Master. 5 

James Fitzgibbon had been an officer in the 49th Regiment and had 
fought at the Battle of Beaver's Dam in the 1812 War. He was made a 
Mason in Merchants' Lodge No.- 40, E.R. (A) at Quebec in 1803. 6 He 
resigned as Deputy P.G.M. in 1826, investing his successor while acting 
as the Provincial Grand Master at this particular meeting. 

Simon McGillivray continued to hold office as Provincial Grand Master 
although he was actually in Mexico, whence he returned to England in 
1835. An ineffectual attempt was made to revive Grand Lodge in 1832, and 
again in 1837. Indeed, in the latter year John Auldjo, a cousin of Brother 
McGillivray, was appointed as his Deputy, the particulars being set out 
in a letter of May 29, 1837. 7 The Museum of the United Grand Lodge 
of England has John Auldjo's Canadian Masonic jewel on exhibit, and it 
is said to have been well worn. He acted in his official capacity in Canada 
in 1838. 


The Morgan incident 8 had a paralysing effect on Freemasonry in 
North America. Few Lodges were able to conduct regular meetings after 
1834, but by 1840 civil affairs had settled enough to permit the Brethren 
to re-open their Lodges. In January of that year, St. Andrew's Lodge in 
Toronto was revived, and others were re-constituted in the subsequent 
years. In 1845 the first Communication of the Provincial Grand Lodge 
of Canada West met at Hamilton with R. W. Bro. Sir Allan Napier 
MacNab as Provincial Grand Master-elect. 

In 1848 the Provincial Grand Master went to St. Catherines to lay 
the foundation stone of the Town Hall and was presented with the trowel 
with which he had laid the stone. Singularly, this trowel found its way to 
Western Australia, as- the following extract shows: 

"On Friday, March 18th, IM&T'm the Council Chamber at St. Cathe- 
rines a unique service took place. R. W. Brother R. W. Treleaven, 
Deputy Grand Master, presented a silver trowel to the City of 
St. Catherines. The Mayor, himself a member of the Order, received 
it on behalf of the City." 9 

This was the trowel that had been presented to Sir Allan MacNab in 
1848. It had been picked up in an antique shop in Australia, and the 
engraving on the blade told the story. The Grand Secretary of Western 

5. Ibid. pp. 11-25. 

6. Milborne. Op Cit. p. 96. 

7. Robertson. Op Cit. II, p. 195. 

8. The "Morgan Incident" is outlined in C.M.R.A. Paper No. 45 (1958). 

9. Grand Lodge of Canada (in Ontario) Proceedings 1960. p. 14. 


Australia sent it to M. W. Bro. E. G. Dixon, Grand Secretary, Grand 
Lodge of Canada (in Ontario), who arranged for its return to the City of 
St. Catherines. 


Lodge No. 6 was constituted at Kingston, Upper Canada, on August 
7, 1794, when Grand Lodge was opened at Brother John Darley's Free- 
masons' Tavern, with Brother Christopher Danby presiding as Grand 
Master pro tern, and John Darley as acting Deputy Grand Master. The 
first officers of the Lodge were Richard Porter, W.M.; William McKay, 
S.W. ; and William Burrell, J.W. The By-laws containing twenty-six 
articles for the government of the Lodge were drawn up, some of which 
are unusual enough today to merit quotation; these were given as a pre- 
amble of the By-laws and have been copied in Appendix II. 

The Lodge Transactions record the meeting of 7th August 1794 as 
follows: 10 

"Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons opened at 
7 o'clock at Brother John Darley's Free Masons' Tavern. 


Christopher Danby, G.M. Pro tern 

John Darley, Dept. G.M Pro tern 

Richard Cartwright, S.G.W Pro tern 

John Walker, J.G.W. Pro tern 

J. C. Stewart Actg. Grand Sec'y 


William Barron No. 7 

Nathan Curtice St. John's 

Abraham Gates ... St. John's 

The Lodge proceeded to constitute Lodge No. 6 when the following 
Brethren were installed in due form according to ancient custom: 

Bro. Richard Porter Esq. - W.M. 

Bro. William McKay Esq _. S.W. 

Bro. William Burrell J.W. 

Bro. J. C. Stewart was appointed Secretary and Bro. Herschfeldt 

The Grand Lodge was then closed at 9 o'clock in due form and 
perfect harmony 

The War of 1812 with the United States of America apparently did 
not affect the Kingston Brethren unduly. An item in the Kingston 

10. Ancient St. John's Minute Book No. 1. 


Gazette, the only newspaper published in the Province during the war 
years, indicates social activity: 

"The brethren of Lodge No. 6 Ancient York Masons propose dining 
together at the Kingston Hotel on Monday the 28th instant. Any 
brother wishing to favour them with his company will please signify 
the same to Mr. Walker on or before the 25th Instant. By order 
of the W.M. 

Alex Oliphant Petrie, Sec'y, Kingston 17th Dec. 1812."* 1 

The Lodge was much involved in the events of the three Conventions 
which led to the reorganization of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Upper 
Canada, and the minutes refer to social functions of importance, and to the 
laying of foundation stones of public buildings and churches. The Lodges 
taking part in these ceremonies were St. John's No. 5, 12 Addington No. 13, 
and Leinster No. 283 I.C., about which more will be related later. 

Undisturbed by the Morgan incident, St. John's Lodge continued its 
regular meetings, and on April 5, 1827, Captain R. H. Bonnycastle, R.E., 
(Sir Henry Bonnycastle) was proposed for membership; the ballot was 
held and he was initiated at an emergency meeting on the 12th April. 
In December 1831 he was elected Worshipful Master, and was installed 
on St. John's Day. Meetings continued fairly regularly until the 6th 
February 1834, when work ceased due to the anti-Masonic feeling in the 
United States elections, caused by the Morgan affair, and it was "thought 
prudent by the W.M. and members to cease working until such times as 
the lodge might beneficially meet with advantage to the craft and the 
world at large." 13 

At the early meetings many items of furniture were presented to the 
Lodge, and these have been traced by Wor. Bro. W. H. Gummer, a Past 
Master of the Lodge. These have been listed separately in Appendix III. 

On February 15th, 1844, an application was received from a barrister, 
John Alexander Macdonald. Balloted on and elected on March 7th, he 
was initiated a week later. Brother Macdonald became one of the architects 
of Confederation, and the first Prime Minister, at which time he was 
knighted. He joined Frontenac Chapter in 1848, and his Chapter jewel 
may be seen in the Masonic Library in Toronto; he was elected and 
installed Knight Templar on January 14, 1854. In 1867 the United Grand 
Lodge of England honoured him with the rank of Past Senior Grand 
Warden and named him as its Representative near the Grand Lodge of 
Canada (in Ontario). 

11. Talman. "Early Freemasonry in Ontario". (C.M.R.A. No. 22 — 1954). 
p. 6. 

12. Ancient St. John's Lodge has held the following numbers: 1794 No. 
6 P.R.; 1814 No. 758 E.R.; 1822 No. 5 P.R.; 1832 No. 491 E.R.; 
1857 No. 3. 

13. Robertson. Op. Cit. II, p. 336. 


In December 1846 Sir Henry Bonnycastle was elected Worshipful 
Master for the fifth time but, being in poor health, he deputised the 
Senior Warden to act in his absence. In March of the following year the 
Senior Warden initiated a candidate, with the assistance of a Past 
Master. At a meeting in April, he conferred the Fellow Craft and Master 
Mason degrees; questions were soon asked about the propriety of the 
Senior Warden functioning thus in his capacity as deputy for an ailing 
Master. The matter was referred to Grand Lodge, but the Warden 
continued to do degree work until the death of the Worshipful Master in 
November. Here is a rare example of a Lodge working with the Worship- 
ful Master's authority delegated to the Senior Warden, who ruled the 
Lodge and conferred degrees. 

St. John's Lodge minutes for 1847 record the installation ceremony, 
notable as the first such reference. After reading by the Secretary of the 
summary of Ancient Charges to the Master-Elect, the installation cere- 
mony was conducted in a Lodge of Masters. In open lodge again, he 
was invested with the badge of office, whereupon the Warrant of Consti- 
tution and the Three Great Lights were presented separately to him. 
It had been customary to celebrate the Festival of St. John jointly with 
Leinster Lodge but in 1847 the latter declined to participate because it 
was considered improper to make a public display at a time when 
"distress and famine are abroad on the earth." 14 


On February 1, 1821 the Grand Lodge of Ireland issued a warrant to 
Irish brethren, under the name of Leinster Lodge No. 283. Relations with 
St. John's Lodge were subject to some mixed feelings, but the two 
joined in procession on May 17, 1824 to lay the foundation stone of the 
Midland District Court House and Gaol at Kingston, in which they were 
accompanied by Addington Lodge No. 13 from Ernestown. The ceremony 
was performed by Sir Peregrin Maitland, the Lieutenant-Governor. Some 
days later the three Lodges gathered together again in a foundation stone 
ceremony at the Masonic Temple in Bath. 

The Lodge Warrant and Book of Constitution were stolen in October 
1822, a circumstance which provoked a magistrate's court case. Lacking 
a. warrant, Leinster Lodge obtained a Provincial Dispensation in 1826. 15 
The missing warrant ultimately was found and came into the possession 
of John Ross Robertson in 1893, who returned it to the Grand Secretary 
of the Grand Lodge of Ireland. 16 

Leinster Lodge ceased working in 1829 but was revived in the 1840's, 
as indicated in the minutes of St. John's Lodge. There is evidence that the 

14. A reference to the Irish Potato Famine; 1846. 

15. Robertson. Op Cit. II, p. 691. 

16. Ibid. p. 699. 


two Lodges worked together with some harmony up to 1849, and that at 
one period they shared the use of the same Lodge Room. The following 
extracts from the St. John's minutes relate to the declining state of the 
Irish Lodge: 

April 4th, 1844. The following brethren (formerly members of the 
Leinster Lodge) having been fully proposed and seconded, were bal- 
lated for to become members, viz: 

Matthew Thomas Hunter In favour 

Thomas Douglas Harrington Unanimous 

Edward Kent Unanimous 

Thomas Rose _ Unanimous 

15th August 1844. Lodge closed in the 2nd degree and opened in 
the 3rd degree. Communications were laid before and read to the 
lodge from the Grand Lodge of Ireland addressed to Brothers 
Hunter, Paul and Carter calling upon them to show cause why 
suspension from the rights of Masonry as passed by Lodge 283 
should not be confirmed, the first two names for attending an 
illegal lodge and the latter for disobeying a summons. 

No action was taken in the matter. 

(Thomas Douglas Harington subsequently became very prominent 
in Canadian Masonry, and his career is outlined in a Paper read at a 
meeting of the Canadian Masonic Research Association (1950) by 
R. W. Bro. Lewis F. Riggs. 17 Bro. Harington affiliated with Lodges 
in Montreal and Quebec, and became a charter member of Harrington 
Lodge No. 49, named in his honour; he was apointed Provincial Grand 
Master of the District Grand Lodge of Quebec and Three Rivers in 
1852. In 1860 he was elected Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of 

At a Lodge of Emergency on November 20, 1845, a letter offering the 
right hand of fellowship from Leinster Lodge No. 283 was read in 
St. John's Lodge and ordered to be received. In that year, Brothers Paul 
and Steers, members of a delegation from Leinster Lodge approached 
St. John's Lodge to conclude arrangements for celebration of the festival 
of St. John. Leinster Lodge kindly offered St. John's the use of its Lodge 
Room until the latter could find suitable accommodation, and the two 
Lodges did meet in the same room from October 1846, and they exchanged 
copies of by laws. This fraternal feeling was sustained as they joined in 
the celebration of St. John's Day in December, under the banners of 
England and Ireland. 

In 1849 some brethren of Leinster Lodge broke open the Lodge 
chest contrary to order and took the Warrant and Jewels. They followed 
this act by electing and installing a Worshipful Master, and Senior and 
Junior Wardens, although there were legally elected officers at the time. 
Bro. M. T. Hunter, who had recently been elected a member of St. John's 
Lodge, was Secretary of the illegal group and was immediately suspended 

17. Riggs. "Thomas Douglas Harington". C.M.R.A. Paper No. 2 (1950). 


by St. John's, which tried to mediate between the Grand Lodge of 
Ireland and the two sets of Leinster officers. This is the last reference 
to Leinster Lodge as an active body. 

The following minute appears in the St. John's Lodge record of 
December 10th, 1849: 

8th. Furniture of Leinster Lodge 

Resolved that the Board recommend to the Lodge to enter into 
negotiation with owners of the property lately belonging to the 
Duke of Leinster Lodge for the purchase of Wardens' Chairs and 
the chart, which formerly belonged to this lodge; and also the 
Master's Chair, which we are informed are for sale. 

Officers of Ancient St. John's Lodge confirm that these Chairs still 
repose in the Masonic Temple, Kingston. 


For a short time there was a third Lodge, named "Concord", working 
in Kingston, of which little is known. There is no known record of its 
origin, and Brother John Beikle wrote thus of it in 1828, "Sometime 
before we had the pleasure of adding the Lodge of Concord to our num- 
bers, thus indicating an affiliation." 18 


Military matters have always been of interest and concern to Kingston, 
and its prosperity undoubtedly once depended on the British garrison 
stationed there in the years with which this paper deals. Fort Henry today 
has been restored and is a tourist attraction. Its origin was in 1812, when 
five fortified block houses were connected for picketing, 19 and the small 
garrison repelled the attack by Chauncey in November of that year. 
Construction of the first fort was begun in the following year by Captain 
B. Marlowe, R.E., and by November a substantial fort crowned the hill. 
Little more was done until 1832, when the Duke of Wellington decided that 
a new system of defences should be built, and this was undertaken by 
Lt. Col. Ross Wright and Major R. H. Bonnycastle, R.E. (Sir Henry). 
The fort was almost completed by 1836, and in 1837, during the MacKenzie 
rebellion, Bonnycastle was called upon to raise troops for defence, all the 
regular garrison having been sent to Lower Canada. 

British regiments were stationed in Kingston for many years from 
1815, and Appendix IV will show these as on the British Army list, with 
the numbers of the Masonic Lodges attached thereto. Dundas Faithful 
Lodge No. 466, in the 68th Regiment of Foot, is mentioned as working 
while in Kingston in 1822. 20 

18. Robertson. Op Cit. II, p. 331. 

19. "Soldiering at Fort Henry". 

20. Robertson. Op. Cit. II, p. 686. 


Apart from the period of the 1812 War, when regimental lodges 
could not meet because detachments were serving in various localities, 
military men were active in St. John's Lodge; the minutes record many 
applications from such. Also, Regimental Lodges carried on with regular 
meetings. In 1845 Bro. Blennerhasset, a Lieutenant in the 71st Regiment, 
asked to be admitted as a member, and at the January 1846 meeting a 
letter of thanks was sent to Major Denny for the use of the Regimental 
band. This regimental number may be an error, as the Fort Henry plaque 
shows that the 81st Loyal Regiment was at Kingston from 1846 to 1847. 
Two men from the 46th joined in November 1846, and reference is made 
in the December minutes to Bro. T. H. Albury, P.M., and to another 
Brother of H.M. 46th Regiment as joining members. There is no record 
of the 46th at Kingston; these may have been seconded personnel. 

The 20th Regiment arrived in December 1847, bringing with it 
Minden Lodge No. 63 I.C., which was in a flourishing condition. The 
Brethren promptly joined St. John's Lodge in the celebration of St. John's 
Day, and Minden Lodge held regular meetings while in Kingston. A 
highlight of this period was the celebration of the one hundredth anni- 
versary of Minden Lodge, in which the brethren of St. John's Lodge 
participated. An account of this event is given in the History of Minden Lodge 
No. 63 Held in the XXth Foot on the Register of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, 
with an Account of the Celebration of is Centenary 27th December 1848, by 
John Clarke, Sergeant-Major, 1st Bn. XXth Regiment and W.M. of 
Minden Lodge. The history was printed in Kingston by the Argus Office 
1849, and we are indebted to the Iowa Masonic Library at Cedar Rapids 
for a copy of this. In 1848 Lodge No. 63 had some differences of opinion 
with Ancient Frontenac Royal Arch Chapter; the correspondence is 
given in Appendix V. 

In the 1800's Masonic correspondence was already carried out over 
great distances. In April 1848 Bro. Dowse of the 14th Regiment wrote 
about the East Indies, where he was stationed, and sent his fraternal 
regards to the brethren. Bro. Dowse was at that time Worshipful Master 
of St. Andrew's-in-the-East Lodge, Poonah, East India, according to the 
minute. This Lodge was instituted in November 1844 under a Scottish 


Royal Arch Masonry came to Kingston soon after establishment of 
Lodge No. 6, and Right Worshipful Bro. William Jarvis, by virtue of a 
warrant having Royal Arch authority, instituted Ancient Frontenac 
Chapter on November 24, 1795. The three senior officers were High Priest, 
King and Scribe, Lodge and Chapter held property jointly, as evidenced in 
a St. John's minute: 

1st October 1801. Moved by Br. Wm. MacKay and Brother Stauber 
that in conjunction with the Royal Arch Chapter and Master's Lodge 


that twelve Wine Glasses and twelve J^pint tumblers be purchased 
for the use of the Body, and whatever number of either degree shall 
Breake Decanter, tumbler or glass shall pay or refund for the benefit 
of supporting of stock. 

It was also obligatory for Master Masons to ask permission of their 
Lodge to join the Royal Arch. At the March 1803 meeting the Master 
read a petition from Thomas Milton desiring the approbation of the 
Lodge to recommend him a member worthy to receive the Holy Royal 
Arch degree, which was signed by all members present. At the first 
meeting of the Kingston Convention, held in August 1817, a resolution 
from the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Upper Canada to appoint an 
officer, to be known as a Grand Visitor, was approved. The Craft and 
Capitular bodies combined to select a suitable brother. 21 

Information in a file of correspondence between the Grand Lodge of 
Ireland and Lodge No. 63, I.C. indicates Royal Arch involvement in a 
reorganization of the Craft in September 1842. A meeting planned for 
1843 failed to materialize. The exchange in Appendix V discloses the 
situation in 1848 and remains the last reference to the Chapter. 22 


Freemasonry is indebted to Dr. Charles Scadding for the first record 
of Knights Templar in Upper Canada, and he has also provided a copy 
of the first warrant issued to an Encampment in the Province. 23 "In the 
days of long ago, the Craft Lodges of England, Ireland and Scotland, by 
an unknown power in them vested, issued warrants for the conferring of 
not only Craft and Capitular but Templar degrees." 24 Thus stated John 
Ross Robertson. In 1800 a Templar warrant was issued under the authority 
of Craft Lodge No. 6, at Kingston, and this body is the parent of Templar 
degrees in Canada. 25 A copy of this warrant and commentary thereon are 
contained in Appendix VI. 


This paper has attempted to relate many of the aspects in the develop- 
ment of Freemasonry in Kingston, a key community midway between 
Montreal and Niagara. The years 1795 to 1800 saw Craft, Capitular and 
Templar Masonry established. The significance of military Lodges in 
pioneer days has been indicated. Highlights in the history of St. John's 
Lodge No. 6 — proudly continuing as Ancient St. John's, No. 3 — have 
been recounted to 1850. 

21. This office is the forerunner of the District Deputy Grand Master 
and his counterpart the District Grand Superintendent. 

22. Grand Lodge Library, Toronto. Correspondence. 

23. Scadding. I, p. 54. 

24. Robertson. History of Knights Templars in Canada, p. 30. 

25. Ibid. 



Calvin, D.D. History of Queen's University 

Calvin, D.D. and Glover, A.R. A Corner of Empire 

Grand Lodge of Canada 
(in Ontario) 

Harris, R.V. 

Hathaway, EJ. 
Grand Lodge of Ireland 
Lane, John 
Meredith, Alden 
Milborne, AJ.B. 
Robertson, John Ross 
Robertson, John Ross 
Talman, JJ. 

Taylor, J.E. 

Edgar, M. 

Proceedings 1960 and Correspondence 

"Hugh de Payens Preceptory" — C.M.R.A. 
No. 12 (1952) 

Jesse Ketchum and His Times 

Correspondence 1842 

Masonic Records 

Mary's Rosedale 

Freemasonry in the Province of Quebec 

History of Freemasonry in Canada, V's I & II 

History of Knight Templars in Canada 

"Early Freemasonry in Ontario" — C.M.R.A. 
No. 22 

"Freemasonry and the 1812 War" — A.Q.C. 

Ten Years of Upper Canada in Peace and War 

Scadding, Rev. Dr. Charles Collection, Vol. I 
Ancient St. John's Lodge Minute Books, No. I-V 

Kingston Historical Society "Kingston of a Century Ago" 

Riggs, Lewis F. 

Alyea, O.G. 


"Thomas Douglas Harington" 
No. 2 (1950) 

"Soldiering at Fort Henry" 

"Freemasonry in the Bay of Quinte District" 
C.M.R.A. No. 11 (1952) 



See Note 2. This Map, intended to serve as Appendix I has not been 
reproduced. It depicted the area in which the War of 1872 was largely 
fought, and locates the engagements of that conflict. 



Rules and Orders 

Which are to be punctually observed and kept by the Most Ancient and 
Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons according to the 
Old Constitutions granted by His Royal Highness Prince Edward at 
York in the year of our Lord Nine Hundred and Twenty and Six — 

In order to prevent all Feuds, Contraversies, illegal Arguments or 
Debates, which might in any sort disturb or make void the true Interest 
and Meaning of this our unanimous Conjunction, We, the Master, 
Wardens, Deacons and Secretary, together with the rest of the Members 
of our Lodge No. 6 (by and with the Approbation and Consent of the 
Grand Lodge) have thought proper to subscribe and establish the following 

No. 3: That the Master shall be chose by Ballot; The Wardens shall 
stand Candidates for the Chair on the stated Lodge night next before 
each St. John's Day: and the Candidates shall withdraw while every free 
+ Member gives his Vote in favour of Him which he deems most worthy; 
each free member having one Vote and the Master two Votes #. When 
done the Mastter shall order the Candidates before him and having 
carefully examined the Poll shall then audibly declare him (that hath the 
majority) duly elected. 

Then the Master Elect shall nominate one for the Senior Warden's 
Chair, at which time the present Master and Brethren shall nominate one 
in opposition, to be balloted for in like manner and so on in the chlice 
of all the inferior Officers; and that no person shall be put in such 
Election, but such as are deemed to be able and worthy of Performance. 

+ Vide Rule 13. 

# That is, when the number of Votes happens to be equal; in such case 
the Master has two Votes; otherwise he has but a single Vote. 

No. 6: That all the Members of this Lodge shall dine together upon (or near) 
every St. John's Day; that each Member shall pay 5/ on the Lodge night 
(next) before such Feast Day, towards defraying the Charges of the 
Festival; that the Wardens shall be appointed Stewarts to transact all 


matters relating to the Feast. That the new Master and all Officers shall 
be immediately installed after Dinner, at which time all and every of the 
Accounts belonging to the Feast, and Lodge affairs in general, shall be 
properly settled and Delivered to the new Officers, and that all Visitors 
who dine at such Feast shall pay ten shillings, Sojourners always at the 
Discretion of the Majority. 

(Note: this custom is still followed today. W.H.G.) 

No. 8: That no Visitor + shall be admitted after Lodge Hours; viz. Nine 
in Winter and Ten in Summer, nor at any time without the Consent of 
the Presiding Officer; and if admitted into the Lodge Room he shall 
perform a certain Ceremony in the Master's Presence before he sits 
down; nor shall any Brother (that is not a Member of a Lodge) visit a 
Second Time, Sojourners excepted. 

+ Visitors' Contributions to the Reckoning left at the Discretion of the 

No. 13: All Fines, Dues, etc., shall be paid on the Third (stated) Lodge 
Night next after they become due; otherwise the person so indebted shall 
not have a Vote on St. John's Day; he shall be excluded, except some 
cause apear which may excite Lenity. 




In Possession 
Year Article 1972 

Nov. 3, 1825 Brother A. J. Ferns, Provin. Jun. Grand Deacon 

for the latest edition of the Freemasons 
Monitor, printed in London 1821 _ _... No 

Aug. 6, 1829 Br. G. Colls Surgeon of the R.N. for a magni- 

ficient painting given to the Lodge. Resolved 
that an inscription shall be attached to the 
painting in gold letters, expressive of the date 
and receipt and the name of the individual who 

conferred this favour on this Lodge. Yes 

Same meeting — an antique and valuable 
present of a snuff box for the comfort of the 

Feb. 1, 1844 Brother Hatch gave candlesticks for the three 

lights and a ballot box Yes 

Mar. 7, 1844 Brother Brownrigg J.W. presented Junior 

Warden and Inner Guard's jewels. Brother 
Cartwright gave Senior Warden and Treasurer 
jewels. W.M. gave a jewel for the tyler. 
Brother Brownrigg gave a gratitious and un- 
expected present of a new edition of Preston. .. Yes 

April 11, 1844 Bro. T. D. Harington gave an engraved plate 

for Masonic certificates accompanied by a 
parchment proof No 

May 2, 1844 Brother Shaw presented a perfect Ashlar 

May 9, 1844 Brother Joseph Scobell gave two gilded 

pillars . (my note — for the wardens) Yes 

May 10, 1844 Bros, Harington, Ross & Kent for a very 

handsome donation of a casket containing a 
silved square and Compass. _ _ Yes 

May 14, 1844 T. D. Harington a very handsome copy of 

the Holy Scriptures ._ Yes 

May 23, 1844 Brother A. L. Ballfour gave a Tressle Board. 

Brothers Gunn and Henderson a silver trowel 
and case _ — Yes 

June 6, 1844 Brother Kent gave 120 white and black balls No 

Jan. 2, 1845 Mrs. Hallowell gave a Banner to the Lodge Up to 1922 

Jan. 16, 1845 Valuable and elegantly bound books from the 

Estate of Bro. John Salomon Cartwright. Not sure 

April 10, 1845 Rough and Perfect Ashlars given by Br. 

Otting. .._ .._ Yes 

Oct. 23, 1845 Bro. John Shaw gave aH S Yes 

Dec. 10, 1850 Purchase of Master's Chair, also the Wardens' 

Chairs and Chart from Leinster Lodge No. 283. Yes 





9th Regiment 
15th do. 







































Lodge att. 

The Royal Regiment of — 1812-1870 
The Corps of Royal — 1812-1870 

Royal Norfolk 1856-1857 

East Yorks 1827-1828 (#245 I.C. 

1833-1834 (erased 1801 
The Lancashire Regiment 1848-1850 #63 I.C. 

Royal Welsh Fusiliers . 1842 1843 

South Wales Borderers .... 1835-1837 

The Border Regiment ...... 1840-1841 (#340 (A) 

(erased 1832 
Royal Hampshire 1817-1818 


Oxford & Bucks L.I. 1841-1842 

The Dorset 1853 #669 (E) 

Northamptonshire 1815 #332 (A) 

erased 1832 

K.R.R. 1823-1824 


York & Lanes. 1839-1840 

Royal Berkshire 1831-1833 

Durham Light Infantry .... 1822-1823 #348 (A) 

East Surrey 1815-1817 #7 Gibraltar) 

1819-1821 "Impossible 

to trace") 
Highland Light Infantry .... 1828-1829 

1838 #895 I.C. 

Black Watch 1838 

Duke of Wellington Regt. 1818-1819 (#248 (A) 

1821-1822 (erased 1828 
Queen's Own Cameron .... 1829-1831 #191 (A) 

Loyal Regiment 1846-1847 

South Lanes. 1844-1846 #138 I.C. 

Royal Ulster Rifles 1838 #83 I.C. 

King's Shropshire L.I. 1838 #298 (A) 

Argyle & Sutherland 1838 

Rifle Brigade 1847-1849 (#842 E.R. 

1850-1852 ( 

Disbanded in 1817 1813 

Canadian Fencibles 1814 

(disbanded 1816) 
Regiment de Wattville ...... 1813 

(disbanded 1816) 
10th Royal Veteran Bn. .... 1812 

(disbanded 1817) 
Royal Can. Rifle Regt. .... 1854-1856 

(disbanded 1870) 1857-1862 

dates of postings taken from plaque reproduced in 
"Soldiering at Fort Henry") 


(Units and 


August 4, 1848 

Dear Sir and Brother, 

Grounded on a special report of the Board of General Purposes of 
this Chapter. 

As the first principal thereof I deem it my duty to enter on behalf 
of said Chapter a "protest" against the conferring upon Brethren Civilians, 
residents of this City, any of the higher degrees of Masonry usually given 
under Chapter Warrants by the Chapter attached to the Minden, a Military 
Lodge in H.M. XX Regt. Foot stationed here. 

I consider the conferring those degrees upon Brethren Civilians, in a 
Military Chapter when there is a Chapter (Civilian) working in this City, 
without first notifying such last named Chapter "at least" a great depar- 
ture from Masonic Courtesy. 

I further consider that such conduct is a serious transgression of the 
strict Masonic rules of the Constitution, and that until further informed 
by competent authority it will be my bounden duty not to acknowledge as 
companions and Brethren (Civilians) so exalted. I shall also take im- 
mediate steps to notify the Chapters in Canada of the conduct of the 
Chapter attached to Minden Lodge in the matter. I shall also communi- 
cate the name of those brethren (Civilians) so having received the Degrees 
that proper action may be taken thereon. 

Further I have felt it my duty to reprimand those companion members 
of this Chapter who were present when the. "Mark Degree" was con- 
ferred on certain Brethren (Civilians). 

I beg to remain, Dear Sir and Brother, 

Fraternally yours, 

(Signed) Thos J. Angel 
Antient Frontenac Royal Arch Chapter Kingston C.W. 

To Bro. F. Oliver 

W. M. Minden Lodge 

& 1st Principal of the Chapter 

thereof attached. 

(The reply was a masterpiece of diplomacy and rebuttal!) 



Minden Chapter Room 

8th August 1848 
To Bro. T. J. Angel 

Dear Sir and Brother, 

Had your communication of the 4th instant been couched in terms 
more consonant with a Masonic spirit of chanty towards those whom you 
may have considered as erring Brethren, we should have been most 
willing to have discussed the subject in dispute with you, and if convinced 
that we had acted contrary to the usages of Masonry, we would cheerfully 
have made any reparation in our power, but the style of your letter betrays 
such a spirit of unkindness as bars all discussion, and more especially as 
we cannot recognize your right to censure. What we have done will be 
fully stated in our communication to the Grand Lodge; by its award we 
will stand or fall, and of the results, whatever it may be we will not fail to 
acquaint you — in the meantime — for the reasons already set forth we 
decline all further correspondence on the subject. 

I beg to remain, Dear Sir and Brother 

Fraternally yours 

(signed) F. Oliver 

W.M. Lodge No. 63, 1st Principal of 
the R.A.C. attached to Minden Lodge. 

(Note by J.E.T.) The foregoing letters are from enclosures sent by V.W. 
Bro. Phillip Crossle, Librarian of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, Dublin, 
July 11th, 1934 to Bro. N.WJ. Haydon, then Grand Lodge Librarian of 
the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario. They were found 
and forwarded to me in 1961). 


'In the name of the Undivided Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Ghost 
We, the Grand Master, etc, etc., etc., etc., of the Royal and Exalted, 
Religious and Military H.D.R.M. (Grand Elected Masonic Knights 
Templars K.D.O.S.H. of St. John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes, 
etc., and under sanction of Lodge No. 6. held in Kingston, in Upper 
Canada, etc., We, in an encampment of Knight Templar have unani- 
mously counselled and agreed to appoint our Well-beloved Sir 
Knight Christopher Danby, as Captain-General, and our well-beloved 
Sir Knight Joseph Cheneque, First Captain, and our well-beloved 
Sir Knight Companion Burk, Second Captain, etc. and in virtue of 
this second warrant you are to hold Encampments and exalt Royal 
Arch Masons to the Degree of Knight Templar; provided they be 


found worthy to go through the amazing trials attending the same. 
Given under our hands and seal, this 31st October in the year of our 
Lord, 1800 (signed) 

Frederick Hirschfeldt Grand Master 

John Darley Generalissimo 

Francis Wycott Captain General 

William MacKay First Captain 

Thomas Sparham Junior Second Captain 

John McGill Recorder pro-tem." 

Along with the Warrant to the Niagara fraters is a list of the mem- 
bers of the Kingston Encampment, dated November 2, 1800, reading as 
follows: — 

"In the name of the Undivided Trinity 

A list of the Encampment held at Kingston every quarter of a year; 
Kingston 2nd November 1800. 

Frederick Hirschfeldt, Master, Kingston 
John Darley, Generalissimo, Kingston 
F. Wycott, Capt. General, Kingston 
Wm. MacKay, 1st Capt., Kingston 
Thomas Sparham, 2nd Capt., Kingston 

Sir Thomas Richardson, Baycanty 

Sir James Beyman, Kingston 

Sir John McGill, Queen's Rangers 

Sir Alexander MacNabb, Queen's Rangers — had a regimental 

Sir Edward Gachan, Mariner, Kingston 
Sir John Sise, Mariner 

Sir M. B. Hay R.C.V., removed to Montreal Oct 31 1800 
Sir Joseph Senegin, R.C.V. removed to Fort George 30th Sept. 
Wm. MacKay, Recorder General." 

(Comment by J.E.T.: This warrant is unique in style, written on plain 
foolscap paper, in hand none too cultured, without seal or ribbon. It 
would seem probable that the warrant was given to Hirschfeldt and 
others, all residents of Kingston, by Danby, Cheneque and Burk to enable 
them to establish the Knight Templar Order in the Niagara, where all 
three lived and where they were active Craftsmen; from which it is 
evident that between 1792 and 1798 there was on organized Knight 
Templar Encampment at Kingston closely associated with the Lodge and 
Royal Arch Chapter there. The question naturally arises, where and under 
what authority did these members of this Kingston Encampment receive 
their degrees? The answer undoubtedly is, from the military lodges in the 
various British regiments stationed at Niagara and Kingston.) 


-■■ — »■ — ■■ — ■• — ••— ■■— •■ — ■■ — ■■_.■■ 

No. 105 











• I 






P.M., P.Z., P.T.I. M., Preceptor K.T. 

32° A. & A.S.R. 

December, 1972 

I • -•—•• — ■■ ■ n ■ -it n ii ri m n u ■■ n n m i j i I 

*f*"" " " *" "* * * ** — ■■ ■■ - — — — — — - -, r lT m „ ,, „ ,, 1 , 


The Cryptic Rite of Freemasonry 

in Canada 

The name 'Cryptic Rite' of Freemasonry refers in particular to two 
Degrees, those of 'Royal Master' and 'Select Master'. In most jurisdictions 
a third Degree has been added as an appendant or honourary Degree, 
called the "Super Excellent Master". In the Canadian Jurisdictions the 
Royal Ark Mariner's Council is also allied with and is under the admin- 
istration of the Grand Councils of the Royal and Select Masters. 

The Early History of the Degrees 

The early history of the Degrees is the subject of some disagreement. 
However, the records indicate that they were brought to this continent 
from Europe as detached Degrees by Inspectors General of the Rite of 
Perfection, and that they were worked from time to time in the United 
States as 'courtesy Degrees' as early as 1783. Eventually, however, Grand 
Councils of Select Masters and of Royal Masters were established in 
various places and the Supreme Council of the A.A.S.R. relinquished any 
claim to them. 

The Degrees were also among those controlled by the 'Early Grand 
Rite of Scotland' during the early 1800's. 

Introduction of the Degrees Into Lower Canada 

The first appearance of the Degrees into British North America 
seems to have been in 1820, when John Barney, a Masonic Lecturer from 
Charlotte, Vermont visited several Lodges in the Eastern Townships of 
Lower Canada. He was invited and paid to lecture on the Craft Work 
and at the same time to organize Chapters of The Holy Royal Arch 
Degree, the Mark Degree and on other Degrees, including the Royal 
Master and the Select Master Degrees. While he was in the area he 
conferred the Cryptic Degrees on several Masons and assisted them in 
forming Councils of Select Masters. He formed a Council of Select Masters 
at St. Armand, Lower Canada under the Warrant and in the Lodge Room 
of Prevost Lodge No. 9 (P.G.L. L.C.) 

A short time afterwards, on May 8th, 1821 he assisted in the forming 
of a Council at Golden Rule Lodge No. 19 (P.G.L. L.C). The records 
show that the Council conferred the Degrees in 1823 and 1824. No 
further records of either Council are known. It is likely that the 'Morgan 
incident' of 1826 caused the collapse of the Cryptic Rite Degrees at that 
time, just as it brought Lodges into dormancy for a few years on both 
sides of the border. 


By way of explanation, the above Lodges held Warrants from the 
'Antient' Grand of England, under which it was permissible to confer 
such Degrees. 

The Cryptic Rite in New Brunswick Before 1900 

The next record of the Cryptic Rite in the Provinces north of the 
border is found in a St. John, N.B. newspaper of the year 1828. The 
following advertisement appeared: 

"A quarterly meeting of the Council of Royal and Select Masters 
will be held at the Masonic Hall, on Thursday evening next, at 
seven o'clock". 

There is no record of any activity previous to this announcement, but it 
is known the Samuel Kidder, a Masonic Lecturer from the United States 
had the Degrees and travelled through New Brunswick at the invitation 
of several Lodges, in the year 1826, organizing Chapters of the Royal 
Arch, and, we may presume, Councils of the Cryptic Rite. This Council 
seems to have been short lived because there exists no records of its 
activity except the announcement mentioned above. 

1866: Nothing further is known of the Degrees in Canada until they were 
conferred upon the Hon. Robert Marshall of St. John, N.B. by a Council 
of Select Master in Baltimore, Maryland in 1866, with the object of 
establishing the Rite in New Brunswick. 

1867: Robert Marshall was granted a Warrant by the Grand Council of 
Maine, dated May 18, 1867, authorizing him to establish three Councils of 
Royal and Select Masters, namely: 

St. John's Council St. John, N.B. — No. 1, 

New Brunswick Council — St. John, N.B. — No. 2, 

Carleton Council West St. John — No. 3. 

Immediately after they were consecrated a convention was held in the 
Masonic Hall, St. John, N.B. on August 14, 1867, for the purpose of 
forming a Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters for New Brunswick. 

This convention was chaired by Illustrious Companion J. V. Ellis, 
with 111. Comp. D. R. Munroe as Recorder. Most Illustrious Companion 
Gordon R. Garden from the Grand Council of Maine was present. After 
the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters was declared duly and 
properly formed, the following officers were elected and duly installed and 
invested, by Most 111. Companion Garden; 

Robert Marshall — Most Puissant Grand Master, 
John V. Ellis — Deputy Puissant Grand Master, 
James Gordon Forbes — Puissant Grand Master. 
Donald L. Munro — Right Puissant Grand Recorder. 


Most Illustrious Companion Gordon R. Garden was elected Grand Repre- 
sentative of the Grand Council of New Brunswick to the Grand Council 
of Maine. 

Hon. Robert Marshall served two years — 1867 and 1868. 
He was followed by Dr. J. C. Hatheway, M.D. who served in 1869 and 
1870, with John D. Short as Deputy Grand Master and Donald R. Munro 
as Grand Recorder. During the year a third Council was Warranted — 
Chebucto No. 4 at Halifax, N.S. and Most Excellent Companion T. D. 
Harington, Grand First Principal of the Grand Chapter of Canada was 
appointed as Grand Inspector General for Ontario and Quebec with 
authority to confer the Cryptic Degrees so that new Councils could be 
established in those Provinces. As a result of his activities a number of 
Companions in the town of Orillia, Ontario, submitted a petition asking 
for a warrant to establish a Council in that place. This was granted 
them on November 22, 1870. The Council was named 'Shekinah Council 
No. 5'. 

1871: This was followed by a petition for a Warrant for a Council in 
Toronto, Ontario, dated November 24, 1870, for 'Adoniram Council No. 6'. 
In 1871, three more Warrants were granted, i.e. to Moncton Council No. 8 
at Moncton, N.B., Zabud Council No. 9 at Bradford, Ont. and to Harington 
Council No. 7 at Gait, Ont., all dated April 8, 1871. 

Almost immediately, the four Ontario Councils established a Grand 
Council for Ontario, on August 8, 1871. The Grand Council for New 
Brunswick granted the new Council exclusive jurisdiction for Ontario 
but not for Quebec. 

1872 - 1892: No records were printed of the Assemblies of the Grand 
Council of N.B. for the years 1872 to 1892. This lapse was, without doubt, 
caused by a general business depression in the Atlantic Provinces, and 
by the great fire in St. John during 1877. All but the Carleton Council 
became inactive. However, the Grand Council, under D. R. Munro, the 
Most Puissant Grand Master, held sufficient meetings to keep the Grand 
Council alive. 

1892: On January 5th, 1892, the Hon. Robert Marshall called a Special 
Assembly at St. John to revive the Rite and to elect and install new 
officers. John V. Ellis was installed as Most Puissant Grand Master and 
the Hon. Robert Marshall as Grand Recorder. Some of the Councils 
were revived and began again to hold meetings. The Grand Council held 
Annual Assemblies until 1896, under the leadership of John V. Ellis in 
1892, 1893 and 1894 and William B. Wallace in 1895 and 1896. 

In 1895 seven Councils were working in the Atlantic Provinces, St. 
Stephen No. 10 and Kensington No. 11 in P.E.I, having been granted 


1897-1930: No records seem to have been printed for the years between 
1896 and 1928. 

Activity in Ontario Before 1900 

1870: At the Annual Assembly in St. John, N.B., T.D. Harington, then 
Most Excellent the Grand First Principal of the G